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A specified number of "public servants" was also to be tolerated. However, during his reign, the economic, cultural, and social position of the Jews in Berlin improved. During the Seven Years' War, many Jews became wealthy as purveyors to the army and the mint and the rights enjoyed by the Christian bankers were granted to a number of Jews.

In , the Jews in Berlin were granted permission to acquire 70 houses in place of While their role in the retail trade decreased in importance because of the many restrictions imposed, the number of Jewish manufacturers, bankers, and brokers increased. At the same time, the king compelled the Jews to supply a specified quantity of silver annually to the mint at a price below the current one , to pay large sums for new writs of protection , and, in return for various privileges and licenses, to purchase porcelain ware to the value of — thalers from the royal porcelain factory and sell it abroad.

As a concomitant of economic prosperity, there appeared the first signs of cultural adaptation. However, progress toward legally recognized civil equality was slow. After the new Exchange building was erected in Berlin in , a joint "corporation" of Christians and Jews was established in which the latter were in the majority and had equal rights. In —04, during the literary controversy over the Jewish question, the government took no action whatever on behalf of the Jews, but after the Prussian defeat by Napoleon the Municipal Act of Nov. The edict of March 11, , finally bestowed Prussian citizenship upon the Jews; all restrictions on their residence rights in the state, as well as the special taxes they had to pay, were now abolished.

The fierce controversies that had broken out in the Jewish community during the communal elections in resulted in governmental intervention in the administrative affairs of the community. Thus the decree of January 24 and the statute of Dec. The communal leaders parnasim , elected for three years, were empowered to impose fines two-thirds of which went to the state treasury and one-third to the communal charity fund and to excommunicate members with the consent of the local rabbi and government.

The "chief parnas " acted as mediator between the Jews and the state. In , complete anarchy in the conduct of communal affairs became evident; the parnasim were deposed and a fine was imposed on the community amounting to 10, thalers, later reduced to 6, In and in new statutes were promulgated regulating the organizational structure of the community. Apart from the chief parnasim , who were appointed by the king and functioned under the supervision of a Jewish commission, a communal committee of three, four, or five parnasim was set up which would coopt to itself two optimates tovim and two alternates ikkurim for handling particularly important matters.

To decide on matters of extreme importance larger committees were appointed of 15, 18, or 32 members. In a supervisory committee was created consisting of three members to supervise the fiscal aspect of communal administration. His successors include Jacob Joshua b. In the Revolution the Jews played an active role as fighters on the barricades and members of the civic guard, as orators and journalists, and the like. Despite the edict of Jews continued to be hampered by a number of restrictions, and formal civic equality was not attained until July Subsequently, Jews began to enter Berlin's political and social life in increasing numbers, and the Berlin municipality was for a long time a stronghold of liberalism and tolerance.

About one-fifth of Berlin's newspapers were owned by Jews. The Berliner Tageblatt and the Vossische Zeitung , whose publishers and editors were Jewish, were read abroad with particular attention, although it was known that they did not express the opinions of circles close to the government. Berlin Jews played a prominent part in literature, the theater, music, and art.

Their successes aroused fierce reaction among the more conservative elements and Berlin became a center of antisemitism. The Jewish population of Berlin numbered 3, in ; 11, in ; , in ; and , in Thus, within a century it had increased more than fiftyfold. The Jews in Berlin comprised 1. Despite the increasing instances of intermarriage, renunciation of Judaism, and conversion to Christianity, and the decline in the Jewish birthrate, the Jewish population of Berlin continued to grow through the arrival of Jews from provincial centers, especially from the province of Posen Poznan and from Eastern Europe.

Following the partitions of Poland -Lithuania, —95, the Berlin community became increasingly influenced by the steady stream of Eastern European Jews Ostjuden who first arrived from the Posen district. This influx made up for the losses to the Jewish communities through assimilation and apostasy. From the second half of the 19 th century the increasing colony of Russian, mainly Jewish, students exerted a powerful cultural influence in Berlin.

The organizational structure of the Jewish community was undermined after the emancipation of the Jews in The old regulations were abolished by the edict and no new regulations were instituted. For some time the community was not allowed to collect dues and faced disintegration. A statute issued in July permitted the renewal of normal communal life, and from then on the Berlin community was administered by a committee of seven members and three alternates and a council of 21 members and ten alternates.

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The first elections to the council took place in February , and the community's first constitution was ratified in August During this period, the community was thrown into a ferment as a result of the aspiration of David Friedlaender and others for extreme liturgical reforms. In the meanwhile, far-reaching changes had been introduced in education. In the community founded a school for girls. There were also several Jewish private schools in Berlin, such as that of H.

From to a teachers' seminary functioned under the direction of Zunz. Although a Conservative, he was not opposed to moderate reform. At first, divine worship was held both on Saturdays and Sundays and later only on Sundays. The Reform Congregation was unsuccessful in its attempt to secede from the official community, but the latter was obliged to give very substantial financial support to the Reform Congregation since many of its members were among the largest taxpayers. The Berlin community was again violently shaken when many of its members pressed for the introduction of an organ and modification of the liturgy in the New Synagogue.

Between and , eight large synagogues were erected by the Berlin community, among them that in the Fasanenstrasse which was one of the most magnificent synagogues in the world. In all, the community owned 16 synagogues, seven of them Orthodox and the remainder Liberal and Reformist. Thirty rabbis served in Berlin after Abraham Geiger 12 Orthodox and the remainder liberal. In addition, most religious groups which were supported by the community had their own rabbis.

Likewise, Jewish newspapers and periodicals were published in Berlin, including the communal organ, whose circulation reached 60, copies. The Berlin communal institutions and their activities in every field served as a model for Jewish communities throughout the world. The annual communal budget in the s was about 10,, marks as against 5,, marks in About 70, Jews in Berlin paid dues to the community.

For about 80 years the Liberals were predominant in the Berlin community. But Liberals and Orthodox worked together in full harmony in the central organizations in which, at least for a certain period, the Zionists also participated. The Berlin rabbi S. In the election, a coalition of the Juedische Volkspartei, the Conservatives, and the Mittelpartei won a majority.

For three years, the Zionist Georg Kareski headed the communal committee. However, in the elections of November , 24 Liberals were elected to the representative council, 14 from the Juedische Volkspartei, and three from among the small parties; seven Liberals, three Zionists, and one Conservative sat on the communal committee.

Max Naumann and his faction were the spearhead of the extremist anti-Zionist faction which rejected all cooperation with non-German Jews and demanded that the Zionists be deprived of their German citizenship and permitted to reside in Germany only as aliens. In , at the initiative of the Berlin community, the Preussischer Landesverband juedischer Gemeinden was founded, comprising communities, not including the Orthodox communities which formed their own association.

A great boon to the Berlin community was the government support which was granted for the first time during the inflation of late , without which it could not have survived. In later years, the government subsidy to the community was insufficient. The Kapp Putsch March had blatant anti-Jewish undertones.

Walter Rathenau, the German foreign minister, was assassinated by antisemitic nationalists on June 24, On the eve of the Jewish New Year Sept. At the time the Nazis came to power, Berlin's organized Jewish community numbered about , persons. In the preceding years as the Nazi movement was growing in influence, the rate of Jewish affiliation had increased. With Hitler's ascent to power on January 30, , street demonstrations were immediate and made Jews feel deeply uncomfortable. In the Nazi boycott April 1 affected Jewish shop owners; April 7 th legislation against non-Aryans led to dismissal of Jewish professionals and civil servants, including physicians and professors; while "aryanization" of Jewish firms and the dismissal of their Jewish employees was carried out by the exertion of steady economic pressure.

The response of the community was mixed. There was a wave of suicides but also an attempt by the community to respond to deteriorating conditions. Economic assistance was provided to those in need; new vocations were found for youth, legal counseling and housing advice was provided. Still the community did not formally encourage emigration. It thought of Germany as the land of its fathers and its children, a perspective that was to dramatically change. Eight new Jewish elementary schools were founded in During this early period, such incidents as the murder of a Jewish physician, Dr.

Philippsthal spring , and the suicide of Rudolf S. Mosse after mistreatment in prison fall , the first such instances of their kind, caused great consternation among the Jews. In these initial years, when the members of the Jewish community were being methodically deprived of their economic standing and civil rights , Jewish religious and cultural life in Berlin underwent a tremendous upsurge.

Jewish children, most of them excluded from the public schools, attended schools set up and maintained by the Jewish community or private schools. Jews were later forbidden to attend theaters and public places of entertainment. In the summer of yellow benches for the segregation of Jews were set up in parks and inscribed nur fuer Juden "only for Jews".

Signs inscribed Juden unerwuenscht "Jews not wanted" were displayed in public places. The economic condition of Jews in Berlin deteriorated rapidly.

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By welfare assistance was a significant responsibility of the community. Signs discriminating against Jews were removed for the duration of the Olympic Games held in Berlin summer Antisemitic propaganda was reduced only to return with a vengeance once the Games were over and the tourists had returned to their native lands.

Throughout this period from to , raids and arrests became frequent occurrences and were accelerated in Until November Jewish newspapers and books were published on an unprecedented scale. Notable among the newspapers was the Berliner juedisches Gemeindeblatt , a voluminous weekly published by the community.

From March 28, , the Jewish community was deprived of its status as a recognized public corporate body. The Berlin community was made a "private" organization, denied the right to collect dues from the community, and renamed the Juedische Kultusvereinigung Berlin "Jewish Religious Society". In June , mass arrests of Jews took place on the charge that they were "asocial," e. The " Bannmeile " was decreed, which restricted Jews to an area within a certain radius from their place of residence; banished them from most of the main thoroughfares, and the area in which government offices were located; and evicted Jews from their apartments, a step which had begun earlier, but was now accelerated.

Jewish newspapers had to cease publication. The only paper was the new Das juedische Narchrichtenblatt which was required to publish Gestapo directives to the Jews. Meetings of bodies of the Jewish community were no longer permitted, and the Jewish community's executive council had to conduct its affairs from then on without consulting any representative group.

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The remaining Jews were looked after by the Neue Reichsvereinigung, which took up its seat in the Berlin Jewish Hospital, which together with the Jewish cemetery were the two Jewish institutions that continued to function throughtout the war. And most importantly, with the easing of the visa rules in , [83] Ukraine is positioning itself as a prime tourist attraction, with Kiev, among the other large cities, looking to profit from new opportunities. Its sacred sites, which include the Kiev Pechersk Lavra the Monastery of the Caves and the Saint Sophia Cathedral are probably the most famous, attracted pilgrims for centuries and now recognized as a UNESCO World Heritage Site remain the primary religious centres as well as the major tourist attraction. Huge conglomerates with international reputations such as Rheinmetall-Borsig mechanical engineering , Siemens and AEG electrical industry , and Schering pharmaceuticals dominate the picture, complemented by a large segment of small and medium-sized and highly specialized businesses. TRACFed contains a wide array of data, including information on: The band successfully carried forward the themes and style of the first album, reaching number 28 on Billboard 's Top chart and scoring the group's biggest hit with "No More Words" number 23 on the Billboard Hot Business Source Complete This link opens in a new window.

Religious services, when resumed, were now restricted to three synagogues on Levetzow, Luetzow, and Kaiser Streets and a few small halls. The pace of Aryanization accelerated as did the rate of emigration. Most of Berlin's rabbis left Berlin before Kristallnacht: As the Germans arrived in his home, Baeck asked for half an hour, during which time he posted a letter to his daughter in England and with an unyielding sense of honor paid his gas and electric bills. After its incorporation into the Reichsvereinigung, the Berlin community maintained its autonomous function for some time.

After the outbreak of war, some 82, Jews were living in Berlin — about half having left between and The living conditions and situation of the Jews worsened. Emigration was still permitted and even encouraged, and existing organizations and institutions the Kulturbund, Jewish schools were able to continue functioning. However, Jews were drafted for forced labor at wages far below the prevailing rate and with no social benefits, but this at least provided them with a minimum income and delayed their deportation. Many were employed in armament industries, which also slowed their deportation.

In the spring of Stahl was removed from his post in the Reichsvereinigung by the Nazi authorities and replaced by Moritz Henschel, a former attorney. In September , a drastic turn for the worse came about. First the Judenstern "Jewish star," i.

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Two weeks later, on the Day of Atonement , in the middle of a sermon by Rabbi Leo Baeck , the president of the community was summoned to the Gestapo and told that the community would have to prepare for a partial evacuation from the city, that large apartments still occupied by Jews would have to be cleared, that many additional parts of the city would now be out of bounds to Jews, and that the Levetzowstrasse synagogue would be turned into a Sammellager "assembly camp" for 1, persons.

In due course more such assembly camps were added. Legal emigration was prohibited on October The last transport of legal emigrants left Berlin on October 18 for Lisbon. In the preceding months May—October , 1, emigrants had been permitted to leave. Between October 23 and the end of the year only 62 persons managed to leave, and in only nine Jews were permitted to go abroad. There were five major phases in the process of deportation, the destination of Berlin's Jews reflecting the changes in German policy from forced emigration to resettlement in the East and then to murder by gassing: Altogether there were 63 Osttransporte carrying some 35, victims to death camps in the east, and Alterstransporte , transporting some 15, mainly older persons to Theresienstadt.

For lists of transport numbers, dates, numbers of deportees and destinations, see bibliography, Sellenthin, 84— All through the deportations were kept up, although community employees and persons employed on forced labor were still excluded. Eventually, the deportations came to include groups of community employees, and from the fall of , only those Jewish laborers who were employed in vital war production were still safe from deportation. At the beginning of , the Gestapo persuaded the military administration to relinquish these workers, which resulted on February 27—28 in the socalled " Fabrikaktion " — marked by exceptional cruelty — in which all the workers were taken straight from the factories and deported from Berlin.

Those Jews arrested in this "action" who had gentile wives were taken to a special camp for onward deportation, but when their wives carried out violent street demonstrations, the Gestapo yielded and set their husbands free. Even at that late date, the Nazis were seemingly responsive to public opinion. The group was caught and hardly any of them survived.

The Germans imposed collective — and disproportionate — reprisal. Two hundred and fifty Jews — 50 for each German who had been killed in the attack — were shot, and another were sent to Sachsenhausen and perished there. The community offices were closed down on June 10, , and six days later the "full" Jews among the members of its executive council were deported to Theresienstadt. The remaining Jews were looked after by the Neue Reichsvereinigung, which took up its seat in the Berlin Jewish Hospital, which together with the Jewish cemetery were the two Jewish institutions that continued to function throughtout the war.

While the deportations went on, many Jews tried to stay on illegally, a very difficult undertaking, owing to the need for frequent change of hideouts and the lack of ration cards; many were caught and deported. The "illegals" were given temporary help on an organized basis, by groups of people who were of mixed parentage Mischlinge and as such were not liable for deportation themselves; there were also some Germans who at the risk of their lives put their apartments at the disposal of the Jews who were hiding out.

One group of Jewish youngsters and their instructor managed to hide in Grunewald for an extended period, spending their time in the study of Zionist subjects. No exact figure is available for the number of "illegal" Jews who survived in Berlin, and estimates vary from 2, to 5, Berlin became officially " judenrein " "clean of Jews" on June 16, On June 30, , there were in fact 6,, and on March 31, , 5, Jews, comprising 4, Jews who had non-Jewish spouses, " Geltungsjuden " persons of mixed parentage, professing Jewish religion , 46 Jews from non-enemy countries, and "full" Jews, most of whom were employed in the Jewish Hospital.

The Jewish cemetery had remained in use — several Torah Scrolls were hidden there during the years of the Nazi persecution in a concerted organized activity which encompassed over scrolls to be restituted after the war. Jewish Population of Berlin shows the decrease in the Jewish population of Berlin between and The statistics before refer to persons designated as members of the Jewish faith, whereas the later figures for the most part also include Jews "by race" as defined by the Nuremberg Laws:.

On July 15, , the Jewish community was officially reconstituted. Also active in the leadership of the community were Alfred Schoyer, a member of the Berlin Jewish Community Council before his deportation; Heinz Galinski, who had returned from Bergen-Belsen; and Julius Meyer, a survivor of Auschwitz.

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The Jews were dispersed throughout Berlin, a third of them living in the Soviet sector. Several synagogues were opened, the Jewish Hospital resumed its work although most of its patients and staff were not Jews , and three homes for the aged and a children's home were established.

There was no local rabbi or religious teachers, but American Jewish army chaplains volunteered their services. The general assumption at this time was that the Jews would not be able to reestablish themselves in Berlin or anywhere else in Germany and that the community's principal task was to help them to emigrate from the country. The community was thus defined as a "liquidation community" Liquidationsgemeinde.

It was a very arduous route, especially during the harsh winter months, and temporary shelter had to be provided in Berlin. A small camp was established in the Wittenau district of the French sector of the city in the autumn of with a capacity of ; at the beginning of a large camp was established at Schlachtensee in the American sector, which could hold 4, refugees, and a third camp was established in the summer of in the Tempelhof district of the American sector.

As a result the refugee population of Berlin became fairly stabilized. By the end of , there were 6, dps in the three Berlin camps. When the Soviet blockade of Berlin was lifted, the Occupation authorities decided to evacuate the dps, and between July 23 and Aug. By this time the Jewish community had reached a measure of consolidation, in spite of the difficult economic and political conditions in the city.

Although a few hundred members had emigrated overseas and mortality exceeded the birth rate, the total number of Jews had increased as a result of the influx of Jews returning from abroad. The welfare services extended by the community were greatly improved; the return of confiscated property, a process which was initiated at this time, also helped raise the standing of the community.

In , upon the initiative of Fabian, the community established its own weekly, Der Weg , later to be merged with the Jewish weekly appearing in Duesseldorf. Jewish organizations in the United States arranged for American rabbis to undertake several years' service in Berlin. In Galinski was elected as chairman of the community council. The growing tension between the Western and Soviet Occupation authorities also had its effect upon Berlin Jewry. In Nelhans was arrested by the Soviets on the charge of aiding Soviet military personnel to desert; he was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment and was not heard of subsequently.

Although the city administration was split in two, the Jewish community remained unified until the end of , when its own split became inevitable. In the following years, the situation of the Jews and the community in West Berlin was greatly improved as a result of the rising economic prosperity in West Germany which also affected West Berlin and the return of confiscated property and the indemnification of victims of Nazi persecution. The Berlin City Senate showed great concern for the rehabilitation of the community and its individual members; Joachim Lipschitz, the senator for internal affairs who was the son of a Jewish father and a Christian mother , in particular did his utmost to help the development of the community.

Four synagogues were operating in Berlin. In , the City of Berlin erected a large Jewish community center on Fasanenstrasse at the site on which one of Berlin's most magnificent synagogues had stood until A Jewish women's organization, a B'nai B'rith lodge, a Jewish students' organization, and a youth organization as well as several organizations dedicated to the fostering of interfaith relations were established.

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In the community had a membership of about 5, and by January this figure had risen to 5, The demographic composition of the community was marked by relatively high average age 4, were above the age of 41 , a low birthrate, and a great number of mixed marriages. In the number of Jews in the Soviet sector was 2,, while in it was estimated at according to figures given by the community's president, Max Schenk. Although there was officially no restriction on religious practice and the authorities supported the community the great synagogue on Rykestrasse was reconstructed , the prevailing anti-religious atmosphere of a communist state had a detrimental effect upon the community.

By the number of community members had fallen to After the German reunification of , the Jewish communities of former West and East Berlin merged in The community maintains six synagogues, an elementary school , and other educational institutions. Since the magnificent building of the former synagogue on Oranienburger Strasse has housed the Centrum Judaicum, which serves as a museum and a center of documentation and research. Jewish cultural institutions and initiatives are manifold and an integral part of Berlin's cultural life.

A Jewish museum was opened in and has since been among the museums drawing the largest numbers of visitors in Germany.

The number of community members has risen from 6, in to 11, in , with many coming from the former Soviet Union. The first Hebrew printer in Berlin was the court preacher and professor D. Jablonsky, as Jews could not obtain the necessary license; nevertheless, the manager J. Neumark, and most of the setters and proofreaders were Jews. The first book published by them was the Book of Psalms , followed by the complete Bible , and other scholarly and liturgical works. An application by Rabbi Mirels for permission to print the Talmud in Berlin was refused by Frederick i, king of Prussia; the permission to publish Maimonides' Code was not taken up, as this was just being printed in Amsterdam by J.

But a Talmud edition was issued by Gottschalk and Jablonski, in partnership with a Frankfurt on the Oder printer, — Nathan, son of the aforementioned J. Neumark, was active —27, while his son-in-law Aaron b. Moses Rofe of Lissa built up an important press, —62, publishing a series of well-known rabbinic works, above all the second Berlin Talmud edition — Aaron's press was continued for a while by his grandson Moses b. Of some importance was the press of Isaac b. Jacob Speyer —70 , a son-in-law of the Berlin rabbi David Fraenkel, who printed notable rabbinic works — Steinschneider calls it "the highlight of Hebrew printing in Berlin"; and that of Mordecai Landsberg, also from In David Friedlaender and his friends founded the Verlag der juedischen Freischule, managed by A.

Pupils of the society were taught the craft of printing and a number of books were published from with the imprint "Orientalische Druckerei. Mendelssohn's edition of the Pentateuch appeared here in In the Landsberg press was bought by Isaac Levent. In that year the printer Trevitsch and son moved to Berlin from Frankfurt on the Oder.

In , the year of his death, David Friedlaender founded his own press and published a number of important books; the scholar D. In the apostate Julius Sittenfeld set up a printing house which published the complete Talmud —68 , Maimonides' Code , and other works. In the late 19 th and early 20 th century H.

Arim ve-Immahot be-Yisrael , 1 , 80—; H. Landshuth, Toledot Anshei Shem ; P. Geiger, Geschichte der Juden in Berlin ; D. Stern, Beitraege zur Geschichte der juedischen Gemeinde zu Berlin , 6 vols. Freund, Die Emanzipation der Juden in Preussen , 2 vols. Stern, Der preussische Staat und die Juden , 2 vols. Essays on Jewish Life and Thought , —97; Barzilay, in: Yad Vashem Studies , 3 , —81; 5 , —; H. Nachtrichtenblatt der juedischen Gemeinde von Gross-Berlin d. Gruner, Judenverfolgung in Berlin ; B. Rabinowitz, Ma'amar al Hadpasat ha-Talmud , f.

Berlin, with its unprepossessing location on the north German plain, rose to prominence first as a garrison town and then as the capital of a major military power, Prussia. By the time Frederick I Frederick the Great , r. Frederick was a great devotee of the French Enlightenment, but his main contribution to intellectual life in his capital was the relaxation of censorship.

After , the city emerged as a center of publishing and of interaction across class and gender lines in literary salons, the most notable of which were hosted by Jewish women, Henriette Herz — and Rahel Levin later Rahel Levin-Varnhagen; — The salons nurtured the writers who cultivated the new literary sensibility that came to be known as Romanticism.

Although revolutionary ideas from France were much discussed in the salons, the distant rumblings left Berlin largely untouched until the army of Napoleon I r.

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The anti-French feelings that had already emerged in Romantic theories of nationalism took their most pointed form in the lectures of the philosopher Johann Gottlieb Fichte — and a cult of bodily fitness promoted by the schoolteacher Ludwig Jahn — After the French defeats of —, however, political repression and censorship quieted nationalists and other reformers. The Prussian reforms that followed the defeat gave Berlin an elected city council—with a limited franchise and limited powers—as well as a university, intended by its founder Wilhelm von Humboldt — as the embodiment of humanistic education.

It quickly emerged as a major center of theology and philosophy most notably with Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel [—] and later became one of Europe's leading centers of scientific research, even attracting Albert Einstein — to its faculty in Humboldt's efforts to stake a claim for art in the capital also helped promote the work of the royal architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel — , whose state theater and museum were the most prominent of the buildings that reshaped the vicinity of the royal palace in the early decades of the nineteenth century. March resembled that of many other cities.

Attempts to disperse the 10, demonstrators on 18 March turned bloody, prompting the king to pull his troops out of the city. He bowed to the demands of the demonstrators both substantively and symbolically, paying his respects to the dead and naming a new government. A newly elected Prussian national assembly convened in Berlin in May.

The freedom of the press established in March also permitted a national workers' congress to meet there in August. Continuing demonstrations and riots strengthened the hand of the king's conservative advisors, however, leading to the forcible adjournment of the national assembly in November, followed by arrests and a reimposition of censorship. Berlin was a rare national capital that also became a major center of large-scale, cutting-edge industry.

The city's eighteenth-century economy had been shaped by two royal policies: Berlin's population and industry continued to grow rapidly in the early nineteenth century, but the more fundamental transformation came at mid-century, as Germany's new joint-stock banks clustered in Berlin and helped to finance the large factories that accompanied the arrival of the railroads the locomotive manufacturer Borsig being Berlin's first industrial behemoth and telegraphy to which the Berlin firm Siemens made major contributions.

In , two decades after he had been a student there, Karl Marx — wrote, "If you saw Berlin ten years ago, you would not recognize it now. From a stiff place of parade it has been transformed into the bustling center of German machine-building. The large factories first clustered at the northern gates and later scattered to many suburbs, while the Luisenstadt district in the southeast attracted hundreds of small courtyard workshops, especially in the clothing industry.

The army's contribution to this industrial revolution is difficult to measure, but just as the demand for uniforms helped make eighteenth-century Berlin a major center of textile manufacturing, it is notable that the Prussian army took an early interest in the military uses of the telegraph and railroad, refining their use to devastating effect in the wars of and These victorious wars made Berlin the capital of a unified Germany.

The federal nature of the new state meant that its presence in Berlin remained much smaller than that of the growing Prussian bureaucracy. Wilhelmstrasse, with its row of ministries in converted palaces, became synonymous with government and especially with the diplomacy of Otto von Bismarck — , who presided over both the chancellery and foreign ministry and served as host of the Congress of Berlin in A few blocks away, the Reichstag building was completed in to house the imperial parliament created in The national government was just one catalyst for the creation of a far more dominant metropolis than decentralized Germany had ever had, as Berlin drew political, economic, and cultural elites from the provinces and also became a target for anti-urban passions.

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After midcentury, Berlin grew outward rapidly. Although its eighteenth-century customs wall remained in place until , in and the city annexed large chunks of territory beyond it, growing from 1, to a still-compact 5, hectares. The city's population of , in was some seven times as large as a century before, but nearly a quarter of the residents were garrison soldiers and their dependents.

By another sevenfold increase brought the total over a million, with a second million added by By then, growth had long since spilled over into the suburbs: When Berlin annexed its suburbs in , it doubled its population to about four million.