Had the bomb been forty yards to the west it would have hit the crowded cinema perhaps killing hundreds. Warmley and Siston were directly under the flight path of the Luftwaffe on its horrific raids on Filtons airplane factories. In September the people of this area were treated to the spectacle of one of the fiercest dog fights over Bristol as nine Hawker Hurricanes of Squadron, RAF.
As the retreating pilots passed overhead for the second time that day the area was lucky not to have the remaining contents of the bomb bays emptied here so that the fleeing planes could make better progress on their way back home. If the death and destruction of the war were not enough, everyday tragedies were still occurring. In June of this year Ernest Stone, aged only 10, was swimming in the quarry pools near the brickyard on London Road. The day had been hot and the water looked inviting but the sides of the quarry were steep and just below the surface the water was icy cold.
Ernest soon found himself in great difficulty and in no time was sucked under and drowned. Queen Mary had moved out of London, and was staying with the Duke of Beaufort at his estate at Badminton for the duration of the war. The Queen made several good-will tours of Carsons Factory and to Douglas Works in Kingswood, to boost the moral of the local workforce. During the Blitz of Bristol in and , every single fire fighter was called out to assist. Captain Knee and the rest of the Warmley A.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbour, the Americans were dragged into the War. Just over the Siston border, opposite Fisher Road, the Americans set up a military camp. This was the first time many local people from this area had seen a real Yankee rather than the actor on the silver screen. When the Americans ventured out for an evenings entertainment it was a great novelty, especially for the girls, to see them in the local public houses. The camp was set up by a black labour unit and these dark skinned G.
A little later, the U. In this unit was involved in the D Day landings and a large number of the men lost their lives. Meanwhile, the Home Guard, part of the 6th Gloucestershire Battalion, were becoming a co-ordinated fighting unit. The most dangerous period had passed. Had the Germans landed in force in or the Home Guard would have had little chance to repulse them as they were lacking good weapons and training. Weekend manoeuvres and night exercises all helped and on many evenings, the Warmley Home Guard would find themselves attacking units from the surrounding villages, training for the real thing.
On 15th December, the Vicar of St. Barnabas, the Reverend Hen John Say, passed away aged Just prior to his death, and as a mark of appreciation for his long and faithful service to the Diocese of Bristol, The Reverend Say was made an Honorary Canon of Bristol Cathedral. In his memory, his sister and fellow parishioners placed a beautiful stained glass window in the south east nave of the St.
Barnabas Church where he had served for seventeen years. In his Will, Canon Say had left pounds toward the construction of a Church Hall for the Church and its parishioners. Another five years passed before the hall was built, which gave an enormous boost to the social life of the Church and proved to be a tremendous asset to the School as an assembly hall and home to the local Scouts. The role of the Vicar of St. Barnabas was filled with the arrival of The Reverend R. During his incumbency the Church, which by now was nearly a hundred years old, was in need of many expensive repairs to its roof and other structures.
Large sums were raised to fulfill these needs as well as completing other projects. In the summer of , strange accents and foreign languages were heard in the locality. The Italians were given non-political status and as such were considered harmless. Only a handful of guards were needed and during the evening after a hard days work, the P. It was not an uncommon sight to see several men in their chocolate coloured uniforms strolling the nearby lanes or hear them singing at the tops of their voices in perfect harmony.
The end of the war was now inevitable, it was only a matter of time. On 9th May, Hitler was dead and Germany had capitulated. There was great excitement and many street parties were organised to celebrate the end of the war in Europe. But the war in the far east was still raging and it wasnt until Victory over Japan V. Day that the people really let their hair down. The lights were finally turned back on, illuminating the shops and houses surrounding the Memorial Park. There was dancing in the streets and everyone was singing and laughing. An impromptu party began with the musical accompaniment of the 'Warmley Wonders' Clive and Terry Whittock.
Soon after, trestle tables and chairs were arranged in the Park in several rows and all the children of the district were given a picnic and party, the like of which had never been seen before. All the stops were pulled out to give the kids a day they would never forget. It was not all joy in this year, there was a price to pay for victory, another eight names had to be added to the list of heroes from our district who made the supreme sacrifice. Only one or two people in each century stand out in local memory.
At the tail end of the 19th century, and for nearly half of the 20th century, John Lloyd Vaughan Seymour-Williams could be described as the man who put Warmley firmly on the map. Born in and educated in Bath, he later joined the firm of solicitors under Mr. He was a very energetic and enterprising man, involving himself in many forward looking ventures which were to benefit the area. He was also on the Council of the Coroners Society and he represented this area as the Coroner of the Lower Division of Gloucestershire.
He was responsible for guiding these bodies for forty-eight years. Sir John lived for many years in the Old Lodge opposite Warmley House and after his death on the 24th January , his widow, Lady Williams, then of the Old Rectory, Siston, made the gift of a splendid pair of gates for St. Barnabas Church, in his memory. In the post war years, there was an air of optimism, which been kindled by the solidarity shown through the darkest days of the Second World War.
Its first President was the headmaster of the school from to , Mr. Its aims were to promote and maintain cultural, social and recreational activities amongst the members of the association. In the early days, the organisation flourished and the first year ended with a carnival on Siston Common. Money was raised, some of which went to a special prize to be presented at the School Prize-giving for the child with the best character.
The early days were the high days and this organisation, that had such potential, eventually faded away and was disbanded in To commemorate the fallen of the Great War, the people of the district marked the occasion with the erection of the stone column and the laying out of Warmley Green as a Memorial Park.
A suitable tribute to the men lost in the Second World War was needed and even before that war was concluded plans were afoot to establish a hall in the community in remembrance of these men. After three years of planning and fund raising, the Warmley War Memorial Hall and Community Centre was eventually opened. Since that time, the centre has played a predominant role in the social life of the whole community.
In the early years organisations like the Townswomens Guild and the Womens Institute would meet at the centre. There were whist drives and beetle drives and childrens Christmas parties. The centre also held baby shows and carnivals on the adjoining field as well as sports days and bonfires.
Theatre groups, Christmas pantomimes and flower shows have all enlightened and enlivened the community. All of these activities have made the building alive. It wasnt just a centre for activities but a centre for the whole community The Community Centre. From the very beginning, the committee with its first Chairman, Bill Bowler, has striven to enrich the lives of the community and this great work has been built upon by later committees and chairmen, namely Alan Chubb, R. It must be with much pride that these first far-sighted and community minded men look back to see that after nearly fifty years something very positive was formed from an event that for many was so tragic.
Following the the much deserved retirement of P. Charlie Gowing his well worn boots were filled by a succession of P. As time went by the old police house in Tower Road was proving unsuitable and by the Late s, when money became available, a purpose built police station with accommodation was built. This was on the corner of Crown Gardens. It was from here that P. Stan Wheeler and his family continued to serve the community until his retirement in when he, in turn, was succeeded by Doug Hardiman.
On the 14th October, Warmley C. School had received the news that it had been granted controlled status by the Ministry of Education. This led the way to great reorganisation and improvements at the school. Evans a Welshman appointed as its first headmaster. On the 19th August, the news came of the death of Fred Brain. Walter Brain built a massive flour mill, conveniently situated next to the railway sidings in Chapel Lane, Warmley, employing his sons to run the business. The trademark was the Camden sign and the product was used in making extra fine quality bread as well as cattle, pig and poultry rations.
Later the firm was controlled by the brothers. Alex Brain was the travelling representative and Fred Brain took control at the mill. From the front of the House he could look across the valley to the red bricked mill standing high against the skyline. Throughout his life Fred Brain was a prominent patron of St. Barnabas Church and continued to use the grounds and grottoes of Warmley House as a venue for garden parties and other events to raise funds for the Church.
Fred served as choirmaster at the Church but his great love was playing the organ which he did with passion for 28 years. When the instrument was due for an expensive overhaul, it was Fred who contributed a great deal to the cost. Another stalwart of the community, who should not be forgotten, was Mr. Joseph Daniel Clark died on the 18th January and throughout his life worked hard to improve the lot of others.
Joe was elected to the Siston Parish Council in its sixteenth year , the following year achieving the position of Vice-Chairman. In , the Warmley and District Allotments Ltd. The aim of the organisation was to provide seed and agricultural implements for the surrounding farmers and other land users. In , Joe became the Chairman of Siston Parish Council, a position he held for a further sixteen years and then, after a short break, he returned to the Chair from until his death in Joseph Clark will perhaps be best remembered for his contribution and efforts as a leading member of the team who set up the War Memorial Hall and Community Centre.
This year marked the Festival of Britain and will always be remembered for the return of the famous poet, Minnie Haskins, to Warmley House, her childhood home. At this date Joseph Haskins was still trading as a grocer and living in Warmley Hill. Minnie was a very energetic member of the Warmley Congregational Chapel and by the end of the century was a Sunday School teacher, leader of the Womens Bible Class and also a founder of the Christian Endeavour Group.
In she published a number of her own poems in a small booklet entitled 'The Desert'. This was to raise funds for missionary work in India. Amongst the many poems was one entitled 'God Knows', which was written in the Balcony Room of Warmley House and inspired by a gloomy vision she had one cold and misty night whilst looking down the drive of the house.
For the next thirty years, the poem remained almost unknown but in the words were printed as a private Christmas card, a copy of which was sent to King George VI. The following Christmas the Empire was at war and in its darkest hour, the King found these words comforting. It was with this verse that he ended his Christmas broadcast. But who wrote this work? No one seemed to know. After much searching it was eventually revealed that the author was none other than Miss Minnie Haskins, by then a retired lecturer living in Sussex.
In , at the age of 75, Minnie returned once more, at the invitation of Warmley R. She unveiled a plaque on the entrance porch to commemorate the visit and recalled her long lost youth in the house and grounds where she loved to think and play. In , when the King was buried in the Royal Mausoleum at Windsor, a stained-glass window was installed in memory of him. At the foot of it were the words of Miss Haskins that he had quoted in Warmley School re-opened after its Christmas break as a primary school catering for infants and juniors.
This was a period of great hope and enterprise for the old Victorian school and by September , with a need to strengthen links between the school and home, the Warmley Parent-Teacher Association was formed. In Warmley was one of the first Primary Schools in the country to have its own television set and many other items were to be presented to the school, courtesy of the P. It was not all work though, as social activities were also arranged with educational trips to the theatre, coach outings to places of interest, usually using the services of John Sparkes Coaches of Warmley and often returning via an historic inn!
The high-lights of the school year, besides the Christmas concert, sports day and prize giving, were the social evenings and the summer fair, as these were the main source of revenue. The fairs, a cross between a carnival and a car boot sale, were held on the tennis court if dry or in the church hail if wet and were enjoyed by the stall holders and public alike.
A, was chaired by the Headmaster, Mr. Wintle, and presided over by the Prebendary, C. It would be difficult to name teachers who have influenced the children of the parish the most, however, three names come up over and over again. The first is Mr. William Moore, who was head from to whose legacy was the wonderful copper plate handwriting that a generation left school with. The next is Mrs. Myers, known affectionately as 'Mini-Myers'; although she seemed to be very stern, underneath she was very loving and cared for her little flock. The third of this selection has to be Mr.
Arthur had probably worked with more head teachers than any other master. He had many opportunities for promotion but passed them over for the love he had for the school and its pupils. The only way to obtained a headship was to move to another school and that was not for Mr. King George VI died on 6th February and the young Princess Elizabeth was thrown into the role she has performed so well now for over forty years.
The 2nd June was the beginning of the new Elizabethan era for the country and everyone joined in the celebrations. Food rationing was by now almost phased out and Coronation parties were being organised everywhere. At the party all the children were presented with their own coronation mug full of sweets. This was a treat indeed! A grand party was held in the canteen of Kingswood Grammar School, to the delight of all who attended. Siston had its own Coronation Queen when Rachel Willmott was crowned.
There was a huge increase in the sale of television sets this year and for many this was the first opportunity to see 'the magic box'. That wet June day was spent with most of the neighbours watching the flickering black and white images of the Coronation followed in the evening by more celebrations. Mervyn and Bertha Whittock and their sons Clive and Terry have entertained the local community for over forty years. During the second world war the family, who were then living in Stanley Road, were often called upon to entertain both British and American troops.
In one year they performed two hundred shows as well as dinner hour concerts at factories. It was therefore not surprising that they were better known by their stage name of the 'Warmley Wonders'. Clive was the star of the show and had appeared on the same bill as Bing Crosby. He also made broadcasts for the B. Crown Farm has stood for several hundred years on the east side of Tower Road North, Warmley, adjacent to the junction with Station Road. The Jeffrayes in the area greatly upset a Siston parish priest, for in a memorandum of the parish registers for he wrote, 'Ye Jeffrayes and Tukers of Warmley are rogues, whores and thieves and WT not YT is wicked.
Records show members of the Jefferies family were living in Crown Farm into the 19th century. In the early part of that century the property was purchased by George M. Davidson of Warmley House and subsequently was owned by the Haskins family. At one time Crown Farm was divided into several dwellings. In the late 19th century Crown Farm became the venue for the local Council meetings.
This continued until when the new council offices in Stanley Road were built. At the beginning of the 20th century, Luther Hamblin lived at Crown Farm. He was a haulier and would take leather from Avonmouth to the Kingswood boot factories then return with boots for export. Hamblin moved out, Cyril Turner became the tenant of Crown Farm. Farmer Fred Bryant was the last occupier of Crown Farm and after he moved away on Michelmas Day the buildings rapidly deteriorated and became the target of vandalism.
The farm was knocked down in and the site left for many years. Factories now cover the fields and the site is owned by Mardon Son and Hall. The land around Crown Farm which for so many years was used for grazing now produced a very different product. After the reorganisation in the education system in secondary schools were required for children of eleven years and above. The boys were transferred to High Street, Oldland but it would be several years more before the girls school would be completed. This was officially opened in September with Miss Nicholls as headmistress.
The older belonged to George Lacey, built around , and was opposite the flour mill. The second bakery was owned by Percy White and his home and ovens were opposite the Congregational Chapel. For over half a century these two men produced most of the loaves needed for Warmley and Siston, and all around the district. However, the days of the small baker were coming to an end.
In , Christopher Bell Ltd. There was nothing like it this side of Bristol. Bread, cakes and many other kinds of confectionery were produced and were sold in shops all around the region. At this time the customer could have bread delivered daily to his door and scores of the familiar red and white vans could be seen passing to and fro from the factory.
The little Chipmunk on top of the vans became the Christopher Bell trade mark. In the s Rank took control of the bakery and Mothers Pride bread became the main product. Bread is no longer baked at Warmley and the factory serves only as a warehouse for the container loads of bread brought in from the Midlands. Bit by bit all the fields that were once part of Crown Farm have been covered with warehousing or factories.
This year saw the opening of another distribution depot for the confectionery trade. United Biscuits, whose products include Jacobs Biscuits, moved to the lower section of Crown Road, bringing much needed work to the area. The company has had a number of structural changes since the s and the depot at Warmley is now the regional distribution point for the Jacobs Biscuits Group of Companies.
Before the decade was over Motorway Tyres and Kraft Products were to set up business here. Many things in life we take for granted and some institutions seem always to have been around. Yet a basic service like the Library has had a relatively short history. Warmley Community Centre was set up about fifty years earlier as a Reading Room for the people of the area. Books were in short supply and in great demand. About the same time a lending library was in existence in a shop opposite the Kings Arms in Kingswood run by the two daughters of Isaac Green of Stanley Road.
Siston and Warmley has never had its own official library but with the growing population in the Warmley district of Parkwall, a purpose built library was planned. Prior to this, boxes of books were allocated and distributed, mainly to schools, from Shire Hall in Gloucester. As our parish was almost at the southern-most end of the County and Bristol dealt within its own boundary, the selection was extremely limited compared to the wide range of books and activities offered today.
Many of us will have heard the above words at some time in our life, written by Minnie Louise Haskins in Much later to become famous by King George VI reading it as part of his first Christmas message to the nation at the start of the second World War. Minnie was born on 12th May to Louisa and Joseph Haskins the eldest of four daughters. Her father was then trading as a grocer. It was whilst at Warmley House where standing at the upstairs balcony window and looking down the illuminated driveway to the gate that Minnie was inspired to write the words of God Knows which for a while was put away and forgotten.
From Minnie studied at the London School of Economics. Gaining a Social Science certificate and distinction, also a diploma in Sociology with distinction in Philosophy in She joined the staff of LSE in Social Science Department becoming a tutor in retiring in reappointed and continued until In she was described as a woman of unusual capacity and character with a rare understanding and sympathy with great love and interest in people Privately Minnie printed her poems and verses The Desert later Through Bed of Stone A Few People her other articles and pieces were mainly on industry.
Minnie was astounded to know her poem was broadcast, although she never heard it herself. The subsequent royalties Minnie donated to charity and by then was living in Sussex. In aged seventy five Minnie returned to Warmley House, which was then owned by Warmley Rural District Council who had purchased it in to unveil a commemorative plaque during the Festival of Britain.
This plaque still remains to this day. In King George VI died and was buried at Windsor Castle and at the foot of a stained glass window in his memory are Minnies words the King had quoted in Mystical avatars agonize each other. Metamorphosed into hellenic myth: Persephone struggles to elude from the ineluctable gate of Hades. How did the puzzling sedimentation-like black halo come about?
The thin film of water on the hygrophilous tar evaporated quickly and left the fringe pattern. Melted, gravel-free tar as a kind of sealing wax. It involves passing a mixture dissolved in a "mobile phase" through a stationary phase, which separates the analyte to be measured from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated. It was first observed between fluids of differing densities, and as taking place through a membrane or an intervening porous structure.
Emergent structures are patterns not created by a single event or rule". In the s it was cybernetics. In the '70s it was catastrophe theory.
Then came chaos theory in the '80s and complexity theory in the '90s. The Psychoanalyst Carl Jung saw the mandala as "a representation of the unconscious self," and believed his paintings of mandalas enabled him to identify emotional disorders and work towards wholeness in personality. Four leaf pigments are responsible for leaf color: Why do leaves fall? Shorter days and cooler temperatures signal leaf senescence in which an increase in the enzymes that promote the breakdown of cells occurs.
The veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf gradually close off as a layer of cells abscission layer forms at the base of each leaf petiole where it is attached to the twig. These clogged veins trap sugars in the leaf and promote production of anthocyanins. Once the separation layer is complete and the connecting tissues are sealed off, the leaf is ready to fall.
Molecular studies have shown that Liquidambar isn't closely related to Hamamelis and is better placed in the Altingiaceae instead of the Hamamelidaceae. The leaves are palmately lobed, cm rarely to 25 cm long and broad and with a cm petiole, looking somewhat similar to those of some maples. They have five sharply pointed lobes, but are easily distinguished from maples in being arranged alternately, not in opposite pairs.
The gum resin, also known as liquid amber or copalm balsam, yielded by this tree has no special medicinal virtues, being inferior in therapeutic properties to many others of its class. It is a kind of native balsam, or resin, like turpentine. It may be clear, reddish or yellow, with a pleasant smell like ambergris.
As it grows older, it hardens into a solid form, which historically was shipped to other countries in barrels. It was reputed an excellent balsam for mollifying and consolidating, and good against sciatica, weakness of the nerves, etc. Mixed with tobacco, the gum was once used for smoking at the court of the Mexican emperors. It was long used in France as a perfume for gloves and other such items.
It is mainly produced in Mexico, little being obtained from trees growing in higher latitudes of North America, or in England. An American Sweetgum will be featured as part of the Memorial Grove at the World Trade Center Memorial , with installation set for fall and spring Mooning is used in some cultures to express protest, scorn, disrespect or provocation but can simply be done for shock value or fun.
Moon has been a common shape-metaphor for the buttocks in English since , and the verb to moon has meant 'to expose to moon light' since , long before they were combined in US student slang in the verb al expression mooning "to flash the buttocks" in Formerly, mooning was slang for "wandering idly" and "romantically pining".
The true colour of primeval animals in the earth history , e. Mosquitos, is tellurian, too. Watch for second full moon in June June 30, Its brilliance and apparent yellow-white color in the night sky are an illusion caused by dark adaptation of one's eyes, together with the fact that the black sky provides no background illumination for comparison.
Astronauts who have circled the moon and walked on its surface report it is almost colorless. Some describe the color as a dull grey; others say it is a dull grey-tan. I wondered darkly if I was wasting time 2 with a dark colour: The tea-cosy, property of one Edmund Gravel -- "known as the Recluse of Lower Spigot to everybody there and elsewhere," as the book's first page informs us -- is haunted by a six-legged emcee for various "subfusc but transparent" ghosts.
Boraginanaceae , cultivated for its fragrant purple or blue flowers which are used in perfume. Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product. By means of stretching the saturation in Photoshop you can easily achieve the ' Green Moon of Alabama ' or a Moon Blue.
Blue oceans dominate our world, while areas of green forest, brown mountains, tan desert, and white ice are also prominent. Oceans appear blue not only because water itself is blue but also because seawater frequently scatters light from a blue sky. Forests appear green because they contain chlorophyll, a pigment that preferentially absorbs red light.
Early 19th from lt. When two full moons occur in any calendar month, the second is called a blue moon. The term in its modern usage therefore has nothing to do with the Moon's actually color. A blue moon occurs about once in 2. A blue moon can occur in January and the following March if there is no full moon at all in February, as is the case in the years , , and There are several other meanings ascribed to the term "blue moon" the most common being " a very uncommon event " , but the one given here seems first to have appeared in The Maine Farmers' Almanac of The phrase "blue moon" has been around for several hundred years, but its meaning has changed a few times.
The earliest use of "blue moon" meant an obvious absurdity which everyone knew never happened. However, the moon does occasionally turn blue as a result of smoke from forest fires or particles from a volcanic eruption. Since these blue-looking moons were rare but did happen from time to time, the phrase "once in a blue moon" was coined, meaning that an event is unusual, but can happen occasionally Kibbey. That appears to have a history of its own among musicians and songwriters Kibbey.
Until recently it was commonly misunderstood that the second full moon in a month was the blue moon. The older meaning of blue moon to name an extra full moon, as was used in the Maine Farmer's Almanac, was the third full moon in a quarter of the year when there were four full moons — normally a quarter year has three full moons. The division of the year into quarters for this purpose has the dividing line set between March 21 and March This has to do with the rule for setting the date for the Christian Holy Day of Easter, which depends on the last full moon - as calculated by the computus, a somewhat inaccurate formula - on or before the Equinox on March 21, which is also somewhat inaccurate.
This meaning of blue moon was lost when the editors of the original Farmer's Almanac died. In recent times, people have taken to calling a full moon a blue moon based on the Gregorian calendar. By this use of the term, a blue moon is the second of two full moons to occur in the same calendar month. She used the definition — the second full moon in a single month — in the radio series Star Date for some years. As a result, the game Trivial Pursuit used a question and answer about blue moon.
As it is easier to understand, the mistaken calendar-based meaning has stuck. Calendar blue moons occur infrequently, and the saying once in a blue moon is used to describe a rare event. However, they are inevitable because of the mis-match between the solar and lunar cycles. Each calendar year contains twelve full lunar cycles, plus about eleven days to spare. The extra days accumulate, so that while most years contain twelve full moons to match the twelve months, every two or three years there is a year with thirteen full moons. On average, this happens once every 2.
Additionally, in some years there is no full moon in February at all, since February is slightly shorter than the time from one full moon to the next. This condition, known as black moon, gives additional 'blue' moons in the preceding and following months namely January and March. The last time this occurred was in The next time this will occur will be in , because February will have no full moon that year, according to UTC, which means that January and March will each have a calendar blue moon that year.
When there are thirteen moons in a year, twelve of them are given the twelve traditional names associated with that time of year the names vary from culture to culture , and the extra one is termed a blue moon. Which of the thirteen moons is termed 'blue' depends on whether it is calculated by the old or the new method. The months of the Gregorian calendar are all very close to the Most of the months are longer than this by one or two days, except February, which is the only month which cannot contain a calendar blue moon. Since February is one or two days shorter than the moon's cycle, very occasionally it has no full moon — there is a full moon at the end of January, and the next one is at the beginning of March.
What this means is that both January and March will have blue moons. This happens, on average, once every thirty-five years. The previous calendar blue moon based on UTC was on June 30, The first full moon would have occurred on June 1, But that was May 31, in the Western Hemisphere making that full moon the second occurrence in May in the Western Hemisphere; see below ; and the next calendar blue moon will be December 31, Occasionally whether a moon is called blue depends on the time zone.
Any full moon occurs simultaneously everywhere, but at that moment clocks and calendars are not the same. Example, when it is early evening on August 31 in Europe, it is already early morning September 1 in New Zealand. Hence, residents of London seeing a full moon when their clocks and calendar say it is August 31 would call what they see a calendar blue moon. People seeing the same full moon from Auckland would note by their clocks and calendar that it is the early morning of September 1, and they would not term it a blue moon. But they would probably have a calendar blue moon at the end of September, or perhaps October.
Because this is confusing, astronomers worldwide and the calendar makers who rely on them typically choose the time zone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom, known as Greenwich Mean Time, or the nearly identical UTC time zone. As a practical matter, because the moon seems to the casual viewer to be full for almost three days, the use of a foreign time zone for calendar markings for full moons makes little difference. Demeter and Persephone, Herodot. O Earth, and you other rulers of those who dwell in the nether world, ensure, I implore, that the glorious spirit, the god of the Persians, whom Susa bore, may quit his abode.
Smyth translates for Perseus Tufts. And when will mighty Zeus bring down his hand on them  and split their heads open? Let it be a pledge to the land! After injustice I demand justice as my right. Hear, O Earth, and you honored powers below! Heirs of the oracle: Was carried off by Hades and made queen of the underworld. The dull blades bounced off as if the bamboo was made of iron. We had hoes to break up the ground and shovels to move the soil.
Below the topsoil, solid roots. The yellow clay was unyielding and soul-destroying. We dragged the tangle of weeds away in woven baskets and hauled at rocks with our bare hands, the skin of our fingers cut to ribbons. We worked in silence because the Japs allowed no talking. Rest periods and water were strictly limited: A piece of bamboo, ten to fifteen feet long, is bloody heavy. We had to carry them two at a time to clear the jungle. First you try one under each arm. So you lay them across your shoulders like a yoke, too painful, so you try something else, carrying them like a baby across your chest.
I started to carry just one, but a Jap screamed at me and jabbed his two fingers into my eyes. I never made that mistake again. The guards watched us constantly. Then the boots go in. You curl up on the ground. I began to focus on the jungle as a fascinating new friend. The floor was alive. Centipedes were six inches long. I never counted the types of snake: The brown, sluggish river drew everybody like a magnet.
We drank it, boiling it at first when we had the opportunity but afterwards not giving a darn. We bathed in it, peed in it, relaxed in it and cooked our rice with it. We lived alongside it, built bridges across it. My hair was crawling with lice and my skin had tanned to the colour of old leather. I had no choice but to go barefoot. The rocks now had to be shattered to make an embankment. We loaded our baskets with stones, struggled up the slope barefoot and threw them on the pile.
Then we had to flatten the top and prepare it for sleepers and track. I stole to stay alive. There was a metal skip behind the Jap cookhouse full of dried fish. At night, with the Japs relaxing, I had the place to myself. I lifted the rough matting over the top and grabbed two pieces of fish, shoving them down my Jap-happy. I retraced my steps, strolling slowly as if I was still taking the night air. Back in the hut, I lay down on my bed. I grinned and ferreted in my loincloth, hauling out the fish.
The pace of work became impossible. They were walking skeletons. Worked-out wrecks, often younger than me, worked to death by the sheer, blind inhumanity of the Japanese. With no rights, no honour, no feelings. But you get used to anything. In early , I had proof of just how useless they were. An ancient locomotive was tentatively trying out a new section of timber viaduct. The driver and his mate hung out of the cab as they inched forward. As we watched, there was a series of loud cracks. The upper portion lurched to one side and the two men leapt from the cab, shrieking before the locomotive twirled down almost in slow motion into the chasm.
As the years rolled on we were moved on from camp to camp. Hauling sleepers into position at Tarso, I found my chin itching, and my neck and cheeks. Too much hair in the jungle is the last thing you need. I stole an old knife from the cookhouse and sharpened the blade on the whetstone of a leather belt or smooth stones alongside the track. I boiled some water and, using my last bit of carbolic, scraped the dinner knife down my cheek. I had no mirror and it hurt a lot, but it worked. And it got noticed. And so I became the Barber of Tarso. It filled my time, gave me a purpose.
It was at Rin Tin that we first saw signs that something was going wrong for the Japs. Next day we were marched up-country through the steaming jungle to what I can only describe as a train wreck. But this was no accident. There were bomb craters everywhere — huge mounds of earth and rock piled up, with trees shattered to matchwood.
It took us two days to drag it all away and repair the track. It was payback time for the Japs, who had bayoneted nurses in hospitals and tortured so many of us to death on the Railway. I saw a Japanese army unit come through in single file, shoulders down, their faces worn with the exhaustion of defeat. Instead thousands of leaflets were fluttering down. His gripping theatrical presentations and heart-stopping outdoor spectacles attracted unprecedented crowds, and his talent for self-promotion and provocation captured headlines on both sides of the Atlantic.
After being handcuffed, he was closed inside the milk can that had been dramatically filled over the brim with pail after pail of water. After a curtain was drawn, with the audience attempting to hold its breath along with him, he would make his escape. The promotional posters for the Milk Can Escape had the ominous tagline: While how he escaped this watery tomb each night of his performance remained a mystery during his life, a few years after his death Walter Gibson published a book purportedly based on Houdini's own notes and drawings.
The top of the milk can, while nearly impossible to remove from the outside, was actually quite easy to push out from the inside, and Houdini had only to place it back on the milk can securely for it to pass inspection once he'd walked out, wet, but free, to face the cheering crowd. In performance Houdini poked and pounded the can to demonstrate its solidity. When he walked offstage a moment, stagehands filled it to overflowing with twenty or so pails of water. Returning in a bathing suit, he first invited the audience to experience what long submersion might be like. He asked them to time themselves while holding their breath.
Then he squeezed himself into the can, the displaced water splashing onto the stage. Long before a minute elapsed, most spectators gave up, gasping. Houdini, however, stepped out of the can, smiling, to perform the actual test. Kukol [his assistant] appeared onstage with an ax. Houdini explained that if something went wrong, Franz would after a certain time smash the milk can open.
Now handcuffed, he again folded himself inside. This time the steel cover was slammed on, the hasps latched, the cover padlocked. The ghost house was pulled forward to surround the can. The audience waited nervously, watches in hand, Kukol standing ready to hack. After little more than two minutes Houdini walked from the cabinet, dripping, puffing, blowing, breathless. The ghost house was withdrawn, revealing the milk can with its six padlocks still closed and in place.
Meccano founder Frank Hornby's th anniversary marked Celebrations have started on Merseyside to commemorate the th anniversary of the birth of the inventor of Meccano, Hornby trains and Dinky toys. A four-day festival starts later celebrating Liverpool-born Frank Hornby, who is buried in the churchyard of St Andrew's Church, in Maghull. Hornby first made the metal construction set toy Meccano in a one room factory in Liverpool in The first Hornby festival includes a play and a Hornby exhibition. The festival starts with an opening ceremony at Meccano was created when Hornby made a mini-construction kit for his sons Roland and Douglas.
The year-old, she said, died surrounded by close family at a hospice in Rotherham, South Yorkshire, on Thursday after a short illness. He leaves behind his three daughters and six grandchildren. His wife died in Shane made his name playing entertainer Ted Bovis in Hi-de-Hi! He later appeared in You Rang, M'Lord? These included Su Pollard, who called her co-star "absolutely gorgeous". Pollard - who played hapless cleaner Peggy Ollerenshaw - remained friends with Shane throughout his life and visited him just days before he died.
She said Shane had "a quiet, reflective side" but was a born entertainer "deep down in his heart". There was very definitely two sides to him, but [they were] equally lovely". Boats make regular trips and helicopters fly over the crumbling cell blocks, where vines and creepers seek to purge the island of its hideous past.
But this is just a facade. Their ghosts are everywhere in the crumbling ruins. Although time and foliage have softened their imposing features, the main prison blocks where 2, convicts were once imprisoned remain an eyesore. Clad in shapeless red and white striped pyjama pants, the prisoners shuffled from the workplaces to the cellblocks, thin-lipped and hollow-eyed, shadows of men who had long given up hope of escape or freedom. Its dehumanising process was law and began as each consignment of convicts made the long day trip from Marseilles to the mainland prison at St Laurent ont he northern tip of South America.
Crammed in steel cages below decks, 80 to each cage, tempers flared as men fought for space nd food. Any threat of rebellion and jets of scalding steam were directed through the bars from overhead pipes. By the end of World War I, a converted German freighter, La Martiniere, was carrying its cargo of human misery to the settlements twice a year. Most of those aboard were replacements for those that had died of beatings, malnutrition and self-inflicted wounds.
Today, flying over the mainland across the chocolate-coloured Maroni River from Surinam, one can look down and see the sprawl of decaying jail buildings and ancient cell blocks, long since taken over by squatters. The impressive brick entrance is till there to the Camp de Transportation, leading to the vast parade ground where the commandant, resplendant in white uniform and pith helmet, addressed the ranks of naked new arrivals.
He said he knew some would try to escape.
Then you will be severely punished. You will get locked up in solitary. The first attempt will get you two years. The surrounding sea was infested with sharks, the rivers with piranha. The jungled teemed with army ants and alligators. Once encamped on Royale, the prisoners would be forced into back-breaking, soul-sapping toil.
Naked but for shoes and a straw hat, up to their waists in water, each convict was forced to cut a stire one cubic metre of hard wood every dady or receive nothing but a lump of dry bread. In over 40 years of hard labour, Route Zero never passed 25km in length. Left in total darkness, they were forbidden to speak, not even to the guards who pushed food through the flap in the heavy iron doors. Some were bricked up in the individual dungeons, cramped cylinders of stone lit only by a three-inch hole high in the wall.
Others were kept in concrete pits with iron bars above their heads. Find the cells today, under the blanket of rotting coconut husks and jungle vines, is difficult. And for the unwary, the first sight of agoutis huge rat-like creatures feeding on fallen fruit is scary.
Everything is wet, decayed and haunted. Push open the rusting remains of a cell floor and part of it collapses. Inside, against one wall, are two decaying planks which once served as a bed. Behind each door, at least four inches thick, is a cramped bare cell.
There is no window and when the door clanged shut, it must have felt like being buried alive. In these conditions, death often came as a blessed release. Away from the smell of the damp and decay, beneath a blue sky just visible above the canopy of trees, you stumble upon a series of concrete pits barred at ground level by rusting iron grids. Today, young palms sprout from fallen coconuts. Jailers and survivors would speak of how easily men went mad.
Others, reduced to mindless, emaciated animals, were left in the fetid darkness of the punishment cells waiting to die. As a liberte, of freed prisoner, he was stabbed in the back in a bar in Martinique. Most notable of all was Captain Alfred Dreyfus, falsely imprisoned for spying from to and kept in total isolation. But even the elite were subjected to a regime so perverse it made Oz look like Porridge. Although there was no chance of escape, Dreyfus was still shackled all night, unable to twist or turn, always prey to vampire bats that roosted under the corrugated iron roofs.
Invisible in the darkness, despite their huge wingspan, the bats waited for their victim to fall asleep. Its original purpose is unclear to us, but some have speculated that it was a temple made for the worship of ancient earth deities. It has been called an astronomical observatory for marking significant events on the prehistoric calendar.
Others claim that it was a sacred site for the burial of high-ranking citizens from the societies of long ago. While we can't say with any degree of certainty what it was for, we can say that it wasn't constructed for any casual purpose. Only something very important to the ancients would have been worth the effort and investment that it took to construct Stonehenge. The stones we see today represent Stonehenge in ruin. Many of the original stones have fallen or been removed by previous generations for home construction or road repair.
There has been serious damage to some of the smaller bluestones resulting from close visitor contact prohibited since and the prehistoric carvings on the larger sarsen stones show signs of significant wear. Construction of the Henge In its day, the construction of Stonehenge was an impressive engineering feat, requiring commitment, time and vast amounts of manual labor. In its first phase, Stonehenge was a large earthwork; a bank and ditch arrangement called a henge, constructed approximately 5, years ago. It is believed that the ditch was dug with tools made from the antlers of red deer and, possibly, wood.
The underlying chalk was loosened with picks and shoveled with the shoulderblades of cattle. It was then loaded into baskets and carried away. Modern experiments have shown that these tools were more than equal to the great task of earth digging and moving. The Bluestones About 2, BC, the first stone circle which is now the inner circle , comprised of small bluestones, was set up, but abandoned before completion. The stones used in that first circle are believed to be from the Prescelly Mountains, located roughly miles away, at the southwestern tip of Wales.
The bluestones weigh up to 4 tons each and about 80 stones were used, in all. Given the distance they had to travel, this presented quite a transportation problem. Modern theories speculate that the stones were dragged by roller and sledge from the inland mountains to the headwaters of Milford Haven. There they were loaded onto rafts, barges or boats and sailed along the south coast of Wales, then up the Rivers Avon and Frome to a point near present-day Frome in Somerset.
From this point, so the theory goes, the stones were hauled overland, again, to a place near Warminster in Wiltshire, approximately 6 miles away. From there, it's back into the pool for a slow float down the River Wylye to Salisbury, then up the Salisbury Avon to West Amesbury, leaving only a short 2 mile drag from West Amesbury to the Stonehenge site. Construction of the Outer Ring The giant sarsen stones which form the outer circle , weigh as much as 50 tons each. To transport them from the Marlborough Downs, roughly 20 miles to the north, is a problem of even greater magnitude than that of moving the bluestones.
Most of the way, the going is relatively easy, but at the steepest part of the route, at Redhorn Hill, modern work studies estimate that at least men would have been needed just to get each stone past this obstacle. Once on site, a sarsen stone was prepared to accommodate stone lintels along its top surface.
It was then dragged until the end was over the opening of the hole. Great levers were inserted under the stone and it was raised until gravity made it slide into the hole. At this point, the stone stood on about a 30? Ropes were attached to the top and teams of men pulled from the other side to raise it into the full upright position. It was secured by filling the hole at its base with small, round packing stones. At this point, the lintels were lowered into place and secured vertically by mortice and tenon joints and horizontally by tongue and groove joints.
Stonehenge was probably finally completed around BC. The Maids of Honour had unfurled a long purple velvet and silk train to stretch out 18 feet behind the future Queen Elizabeth, so that she could walk forward to her Coronation. She entered the Abbey on the morning of June 2, at the head of a procession of people, including leaders of Church, Crown and State. Kings, queens and presidents from all over the world were among the 8, guests waiting inside. Across the nation, 20 million people were watching on the newfangled television sets that many had bought for the occasion, with many more listening to the radio.
The fanfares blared, but those standing close by were reminded that at the centre of all the pomp and ceremony was a slender young woman whose father had died only the previous year. The Coronation was a triumph, bringing inspiration and some healing to a nation still carrying the scars of war. But the weight of it was revealed in a private moment that afternoon, as the new monarch and her companions snatched tea and sandwiches inside Buckingham Palace, before going out on to the balcony to greet the huge crowd.
Is Her Majesty preparing to take off her crown for good? Is she yielding at last to the demands of her age, now 87, and considering stepping back from some of her duties so that her son, Prince Charles, can take up the burden? Speculation began with the announcement last week that she would miss the biennial Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting for the first time since , sending Charles in her place. The official reason is that it is too far to travel, being held in Sri Lanka. The Queen did not go abroad on official business at all last year, leaving that to younger members of her family.
Her only trip this year, to Italy in March, was cancelled when she was hospitalised by gastroenteritis. Prince Charles was by her side for the State Opening of Parliament for the first time in 17 years, which caused the speculation to intensify. He had just come back from representing his mother at the abdication party for Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, who had chosen to step down in favour of her year-old son. At 64, Charles could be forgiven a little envy.
There seems to be little chance, however, that our Queen will abdicate. She saw the agony that abdication caused her father, and the instability that threatened the country, when her uncle stepped down unexpectedly as King Edward VIII in Much has also been made of the promise she made in a broadcast on her 21st birthday in , knowing what was to come: And if she did, would that lifting of the crown be a relief? There is Prince Philip to consider. The Duke of Edinburgh will be 92 next month.
He will not slow down while she is still going, but would surely ease up if she did. There is no question that she has earned it, after 15, official engagements in the last 30 years alone.
According to law, a Regent can only be appointed if the sovereign is considered unfit to rule, by the written testimony of three or more of the following people: That seems to offer a little more wriggle room for the constitutional lawyers, if needed. When the young Elizabeth dedicated her life to service, the war had been over for less than two years.
She continues to represent the values of those men and women who experienced wartime, in particular their devotion to service and their willingness to make sacrifices. She has also been mythologised lately, in her own lifetime, as a wise woman holding the nation together and keeping prime ministers in their place — although the real Queen may have been displaced in the popular imagination by the version of her played by Helen Mirren. What this means is that both January and March will have blue moons.
This happens, on average, once every thirty-five years. The previous calendar blue moon based on UTC was on June 30, The first full moon would have occurred on June 1, But that was May 31, in the Western Hemisphere making that full moon the second occurrence in May in the Western Hemisphere; see below ; and the next calendar blue moon will be December 31, Occasionally whether a moon is called blue depends on the time zone.
Any full moon occurs simultaneously everywhere, but at that moment clocks and calendars are not the same. Example, when it is early evening on August 31 in Europe, it is already early morning September 1 in New Zealand. Hence, residents of London seeing a full moon when their clocks and calendar say it is August 31 would call what they see a calendar blue moon.
People seeing the same full moon from Auckland would note by their clocks and calendar that it is the early morning of September 1, and they would not term it a blue moon.
But they would probably have a calendar blue moon at the end of September, or perhaps October. Because this is confusing, astronomers worldwide and the calendar makers who rely on them typically choose the time zone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom, known as Greenwich Mean Time, or the nearly identical UTC time zone. As a practical matter, because the moon seems to the casual viewer to be full for almost three days, the use of a foreign time zone for calendar markings for full moons makes little difference.
Demeter and Persephone, Herodot. O Earth, and you other rulers of those who dwell in the nether world, ensure, I implore, that the glorious spirit, the god of the Persians, whom Susa bore, may quit his abode. Smyth translates for Perseus Tufts. And when will mighty Zeus bring down his hand on them  and split their heads open?
Let it be a pledge to the land! After injustice I demand justice as my right. Hear, O Earth, and you honored powers below! Heirs of the oracle: Was carried off by Hades and made queen of the underworld. Demeter vainly seeking her, refused to let the earth produce its fruits until her daughter was restored to her, but because Persephone had eaten som pomegranade seeds in the other world, she was obliged to spend part of every year there.
Trivia , was originally a goddess of the wilderness and childbirth, naturalized early in Thrace, but originating among the Carians of Anatolia, the only region where theophoric names are attested, and where Hekate remained a great goddess into historical times, at Lagina. The monuments to Hekate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date. In Ptolemaic Alexandria she ultimately achieved her connotations as a goddess of sorcery and her role as the "Queen of Ghosts", in which guise she was transmitted to post-Renaissance culture. Today she is often seen as a goddess of witchcraft and Wicca.
One aspect of Hecate is represented in the Roman Trivia. Unusual Trivia Collection Superstitions: Hekate assisted Demeter in her search for Persephone, guiding her through the night with flaming torches. After the mother-daughter reunion became she Persephone's minister and companion in Hades. Two metamorphosis myths describe the origins of her animal familiars: The bitch was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe, who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by the goddess into her familiar. The polecat was originally the witch Gale who was transformed into the beast to punish her for her incontinence.
Other say it was Galinthias, the nurse of Alkmene, transformed by the angry Eileithyia, but received by Hekate as her animal. Ask Hecate  whether it is better to be rich or starving; she will tell you that the rich send her a meal every month and that the poor make it disappear before it is even served. But go and hang yourself and don't breathe another syllable. This stone-shrine contains two iconized ornamental stars, ' asterisks ', starlets amazingly similar to japanese maple leaves of Hecate, placed at the entrance of houses or where three roads meet.
These shrines dedicated to Hekate were invented by Alcamene as Pausanias remarks 2,30,2. Alkamene's statue was one of the earliest representations of the retrospective style known as archaistic, which imitated the stiff, linear quality of drapery that marked works of the sixth BC The three figures of the goddess also wear poloi , cylindrical headdresses often associated with female deities of rebirth.
Granulated carabus Carabus granulatus in Stenshuvud national park, Scania, Sweden. The granulated carabus is a temperate species, widespread through Europe and Siberia to the Pacific coast, and has been introduced in North America. It is hygrophilous, which is to say that it has an affinity to wet places.
It occurs in and around wetlands, on lakeshores and river margins, in deciduous forests on moist soil, and occasionally in gardens. Sin embargo, la llegada del ferrocarril pronto lo hizo quedar obsoleto. El Canal discurre a lo largo de km uniendo las localidades de Alar del Rey Palencia , donde tiene su nacimiento, y las de Valladolid y Medina de Rioseco, situadas respectivamente al final de los ramales sur y de Campos El Canal tiene forma de y invertida. El aprovechamiento de la fuerza motriz en las esclusas —molinos harineros, batanes, etc.
El Canal de Castilla is one of the civil engineering works hydraulic major transactions between the mid eighteenth century and the first third of the nineteenth. It was built to facilitate transport of wheat from Castile to the northern ports and from there to other markets. However, the arrival of the railroad will soon be made obsolete. The canal runs along km linking the villages of Alar del Rey Palencia , which has its source, and Valladolid and Medina de Rio Seco, located respectively at the end of the branches south and Campos The Canal has a inverted Y.
Palencia province is the most miles of canal have north branch. A few kilometers north of the capital Palencia channel is divided into two main branches that lead one to Medina de Rioseco Campos branch and one at Valladolid southern branch. On their way through the city of Palencia, which comes complete with a bridle on a dock for easy loading and unloading tasks, the Canal de Castilla is situated within walking distance of two points emblematic of it: Calahorra de Ribas, where the canal crosses the river Carrion's going to take the waters, and the Serron in Grijota, where the channel splits into the branches and South Field.
Precisely in Calahorra de Ribas you can read a monumental milestone erected to commemorate the union of the river Carrion and Pisuerga in August The development of inland navigation systems in Europe to promote trade and irrigation, are translated in Spain in studies led by Bartolome Bustamante in on the potential of the basin Pisuerga. The Enlightenment idea of improving internal communications and promotion of economic activity will take body with two major achievements: El canal de Castilla, is one of the most important civil engineering Illustrated Spain, its main goal was to serve as a means of communication and transport that address the problem of isolation suffered by the Castilian plateau, due to complicated and poor relief road network, making it almost impossible to transport agricultural products from the region mid eighteenth century, King Ferdinand VI and his minister, the Marques de la Ensenada, began to think of a plan to boost the economy of Spain, then when the Marquis Ferdinand VI suggests building a network of roads and transport channels designed to Castile, to be, then, the major grain producer.
Work on the canal began on July 16, in Calahorra de Ribas, under the direction of Antonio de Ulloa and chief engineer Carlos Lemaur in the section known as Ramal de Campos. A year after the start paralyzed, having been built up then 25 km, from Sahagun Calahorra de Ribas. Later, in , work was resumed, but this time start in the Strait of Nogales, near Alar del Rey, Thus began the construction of the Northern Branch, with its completion of this branch in August when northern waters merge with the branch of Fields in the place of Calahorra de Ribas.
The year after completion of North Branch begins shipping in the section between Sahagun and Alar del Rey, while work began in the South Branch was Valladolid. The War of Independence and the subsequent political crisis, economic and social caused major damage to the already built, and forced to stop work in Alburez Soto in King Ferdinand VII, seeing that the Public Treasury was unable to continue funding the cost of the work, delivered in September , a Royal Order for the project could be done by a private company.
Thus, in the state grants to the Company of the Canal de Castilla Canal operation for 80 years, once construction is completed. In return they agree to complete the works within seven years. Again, the war prevents compliance with the deadlines, so it requires a new contract by which shortens the holding period of 70 years, and extending the deadline for the works.
Once privatized its construction in ended the South Branch with the arrival of the river waters Pisuerga to Valladolid, and in is the end of the branch Campos in the reign of Isabel II. So on December 14, starts the operation of the Canal de Castilla by the Company of the Canal de Castilla "and a period of 70 years, will revert back to the State administering it since then, depending on the Douro River Basin. Although the navigation began in the late eighteenth century, heyday occurred between the years , when the boats that plied the canal exceeded the Pero was from the opening of the railway line of Valladolid-Alar King, with a path almost parallel to the Canal de Castilla, where yield is limited and its use as a means of transport and communication.
The railroad Valladolid - Medina de Rioseco is, finally, the collapse of freight traffic. The use of the driving force in the locks, flour mills, fulling mills, etc. Another great resource exploited in the present century is becoming the tourist promotion of this great architectural legacy that is the Canal de Castilla.
In is set to begin the celebration of an event cyclist, Grand Prix Canal de Castilla, who will try to revive the former glory Castilla Canal through the promotion of its heritage values through this natural sporting event, that in a near future is to become professional bike race. The Grand Prix de Castilla Canal paved sections combined with stretches where the riders will move along the towpath, providing the proof of a spectacle inspired by the great Central European classic races like Paris Roubaix and the Tour of Flanders.
Today, this great 'and' inverted runs from north to south Castilian and Leonese autonomy, has a valuable network of locks, mills, mills, warehouses and docks of historic interest. It also provides water to urban, rural and irrigation to cultural and leisure space for locals and visitors. Different investments are being made to retrieve and provide output. Over time, in the margins of the Canal de Castilla have formed a series of high ecological value wetlands that represent a island of biodiversity within homogeneous landscape Tierra de Campos.
Its ecological value is related to its diverse aquatic vegetation and the large number of vertebrate species they contain. However, this degree of protection is not enough and now the gaps in the Canal de Castilla have an unfavorable conservation status, and even some have disappeared. Museum of Comparative Zoology. All Images From Book. Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book. Hemiptera Piesma, developmental stages. Five larval instars, Barber Piesmidse.
Antennae as long as or longer than the head, usually free, rarely Phymatidae fitting in a groove under the sides of the protho- rax, if the antennae are slightly shorter than the head the eyes and ocelli are absent; tarsal claws with or without arolia. Eyes and generally also the ocelli present eyes small in Acpo- philus, Couplet 13 3 Both eyes and ocelli wanting; scutellum not formed 55 3.
Claws apical, the last tarsal joint with entire tip 4 Claws of at least front tarsi distinctly anteapical, the apex of the last tarsal joint more or less cleft; hind coxae distant; upper. Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work. The river ecosystem surrounded by the fragments of marshes, hygrophilous forests and meadows dominates the area. It is characterized by the presence of rare and endemic species of animals, being endangered not only in Serbia, but also in Europe, such as the fish Umbra krameri and other.
Most Agonum species are pronouncedly hygrophilous and live near water. They are carnivorous, feeding on a wide range of small arthropods. Wing membrane with a secondary venation due to creases from the folding of the wing in the pupa; legs long and slender; hygrophilous species, frequenting swift-running streams, where their larvae live 10 Wings without an extensive secondary venation Hammatorrhina, wing Bezzi Blepharoceratidse. Blepharocera, wing Comstock Blepharoceratidse. Paltostoma, wing Williston Blepharoceratidse. Edwardsina, wing Alexander Blepharoceratidse. Wrings large, densely covered with fine hairs, true veins almost absent but an elaborate fan-like development of secondary folds present; antennae excessively long, six-jointed; ocelli and mouthparts absent.
Widespread, mainly holarctic and neotropical. Southern Africa Mozambique The Forests Like that of its neighbours, the flora of Mozambique is predominantly Zambezian, with Afromontane elements on high ground. Abundant mangroves on the coasdine grade into non-tidal swamps and river- ine forests and patches of coastal forest. Montane forests are mosdy confined to the border with eastern Zimbabwe Figure The montane forests in Mozambique are composed of trees up to 20 m in height. They are mainly confined to areas of the Gorongosa and Chimanimani mountains.
Dominant trees are Aphloia theifonnis, Maesa laticeolala, Cunisia dentaia, Tabcmaemoiitana stapfi- ana, Celris afncana, Widdnngtoma cupressoides and Podocarpus latifolim. Moist evergreen or 'sub-hygrophilous' forest occupies small areas dispersed at the base of mountainous areas where moisture is higher. It is, for example, found on the southern and eastern slopes of Namuli, Milange, Tamasse, Gorongosa and Chimanimani mountains and on the Mueda plateau as well as in patches throughout the most humid zone of the country.
The most representative species are Cordyla afncatia, Chrysophyllum goningosamoii, Bombax ichumannianum, Diospyros mespilifomiis, Mamlkara discolor, Cussonia spicata, Mihcia excelsa, Kigelia afncana. Moms mesozygia, Newtonia buchananh, Berchemia zeyheri and Sideroxylon inenne. There are also a number of small forest patches along the coasdine, south of the Zambezi River.
Some of these, such as the moist ever- green forest patches at Cheringoma, have been superficially surveyed and found to consist predominandy of Pteleopsis iiiynifolia, Erythrophkum suaveokns, Htnella zanguebanca, Pachystela brevipes, Milkia excelsa and others CTinley, n. Mangrove stands occur at all river mouths in Mozambique, as well as in many sheltered bays and lagoons. Their area has been estimated at sq. Along the northern section of the coasdine the mangrove association is continuous with that in Tanzania. Generally Soiineratia alba provides a dense outer coastal fringe of up to 20 m in height, backed by Rhizophora mucronata and Bnigiikra gymnorrhiza, the latter occurring in areas where flooding is less deep and less fi-equent.
Xytocarpus granatum is a common associate of both Rhizophora and Bntgukra, especially near streams. In drier sites, patches oiCenops lagal occur. In the Zambezi Delta and along other accessible parts of the coasdine, the mangrove swamps have been heavily exploited for firewood, charcoal and building materials. Many local people are dependent on the extensive mangroves for fishing. Forest Resources and Management No recent information has been obtained on the present extent of the forests or their management in Mozambique. In , virgin closed forest covered sq. The figure of sq.
A decade ago five species accounted for 90 per cent of the sawn timber produced in Mozambique: