A Country Called Nigeria

Who named Nigeria and in what year?

Nigeria Missions Directory of Nigerian missions abroad. Administrative Map of Nigeria Map of Nigeria showing the boundary of the administrative divisions and state capitals. Political Map of Africa The 54 countries of Africa. Nigeria News According to Reporters Without Borders, Nigeria has more than independent media outlets, but it is nearly impossible to cover stories involving politics, terrorism, or financial embezzlement.

Journalists are often threatened, subjected to physical violence, or denied access to information by government officials, police, and sometimes the public itself.

Daily Independent Lagos based daily. Daily Post Online news covering Nigeria and other African countries. Daily Trust Abuja-based daily with national and international news. This Day National newspaper with regional and international news. The Premium Times Abuja-based daily with national and international news. The Punch A widely read newspaper in Nigeria. Vanguard Regional news, daily newspaper based in Lagos.

Today Digital news site with a primary focus on Nigeria. Oil has been a dominant source of government revenues since the s. Regulatory constraints and security risks have limited new investment in oil and natural gas, and Nigeria's oil production contracted in and Abuja-ng Abuja an emerging business hub. Arik Air Arik Air is the country's largest airline, it took over the facilities of former Nigeria Airways in Arik offers flights to and from Nigeria and within West Africa. In spring the Nigerian government has announced a takeover of the airline to prevent it going bankrupt.

Dana Air Nigerian regional airline with several suspended licences, it is headquartered in Ikeja, state capital of Lagos State. Railway Nigerian Railway State-owned enterprise headquartered in Lagos. A project to restore Nigeria's railways has been underway since , with Chinese help. Makoko, a shack city on stilts and the world's biggest floating slum.

It is West Africa's Waterworld. In July , Nigerian government officials destroyed dozens of residences after giving residents 72 hours notice of eviction. Some of the 'solutions' have been disastrous to the environment, resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater. Between and , Nigeria lost an average of , hectares of forest every year equal to an average annual deforestation rate of 2. Between and , in total Nigeria lost While estimates vary, it is thought that upwards of children died of acute lead poisoning , making this perhaps the largest lead poisoning fatality epidemic ever encountered.

In some contexts, the states are aggregated into six geopolitical zones: Lagos is the largest city in Africa , with a population of over 12 million in its urban area. Nigeria is classified as a mixed economy emerging market. It has reached lower middle income status according to the World Bank , [] with its abundant supply of natural resources, well-developed financial, legal, communications, transport sectors and stock exchange the Nigerian Stock Exchange , which is the second largest in Africa.

It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the US of any country worldwide. Nigeria is the 50th-largest export market for US goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the US. The United States is the country's largest foreign investor. In February , Citigroup projected that Nigeria would have the highest average GDP growth in the world in — Nigeria is one of two countries from Africa among 11 Global Growth Generators countries.

Previously, economic development had been hindered by years of military rule , corruption, and mismanagement. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential. As of [update] it is the largest economy in Africa, having overtaken South Africa. During the oil boom of the s, Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. With the fall of oil prices during the s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments, limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans.

Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal, which increased the size of the debt. Nigeria is trying to reach the first of the Sustainable Development Goals , which is to end poverty in all its forms by Major crops include beans , sesame , cashew nuts , cassava , cocoa beans , groundnuts , gum arabic , kolanut, maize corn , melon , millet , palm kernels , palm oil , plantains , rice , rubber , sorghum , soybeans and yams.

Prior to the Nigerian civil war , Nigeria was self-sufficient in food. Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter, and has the 10th largest proven reserves. The country joined OPEC in The Niger Delta Nembe Creek Oil field was discovered in and produces from middle Miocene deltaic sandstone - shale in an anticline structural trap at a depth of 2 to 4 kilometres 1. While many international oil companies have operated there for decades, by most were making moves to divest their interests, citing a range of issues including oil theft.

Nigeria has a total of oil fields and 1, wells in operation according to the Department of Petroleum Resources. Most of Nigeria's oil fields are small and scattered, and as of , these small unproductive fields accounted for This contrasts with the sixteen largest fields which produced Next to petrodollars, the second biggest source of foreign exchange earnings for Nigeria are remittances sent home by Nigerians living abroad.

According to the International Organization for Migration , Nigeria witnessed a dramatic increase in remittances sent home from overseas Nigerians, going from USD 2. On the African continent, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Chad, Libya and South Africa are important source countries of remittance flows to Nigeria, while China is the biggest remittance-sending country in Asia. Nigeria has one of the fastest growing telecommunications markets in the world, major emerging market operators like MTN, 9mobile, Airtel and Globacom basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country.

Nigeria has a highly developed financial services sector, with a mix of local and international banks, asset management companies, brokerage houses, insurance companies and brokers, private equity funds and investment banks. On the 18th of July , the Nigeria government announced a new birth of a National Carrier, the Nigeria Air, [] this is after 15 years during which the former carrier was shut down as a result of mismanagement.

The Name, Logo and the government planned was announced the same day it was launched, the Nigeria website and staff have not been planned. Though the issue of the staff is expected to be managed by the private owners. Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas, coal, bauxite , tantalite , gold, tin , iron ore, limestone , niobium , lead and zinc. Nigeria has a manufacturing industry that includes leather and textiles centred on Kano, Abeokuta, Onitsha, and Lagos , Nigeria currently has an indigenous auto manufacturing company; Innoson Vehicle Manufacturing located in Nnewi.

It produces Buses and SUVs. Nigeria in recent years has been embracing industrialisation. It currently has an indigenous vehicle manufacturing company, Innoson Motors, which manufactures Rapid Transit Buses , trucks and SUVs with an upcoming introduction of cars. The Nigerian government has commissioned the overseas production and launch of four satellites. The Nigeriasat-1 was the first satellite to be built under the Nigerian government sponsorship.

The satellite was launched from Russia on 27 September Nigeriasat-1 was part of the worldwide Disaster Monitoring Constellation System. NigeriaSat-2, Nigeria's second satellite, was built as a high-resolution earth satellite by Surrey Space Technology Limited, a United Kingdom -based satellite technology company. This satellite was launched into orbit from a military base in China. NigComSat-1 , a Nigerian satellite built in , was Nigeria's third satellite and Africa's first communication satellite.

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On 11 November , NigComSat-1 failed in orbit after running out of power because of an anomaly in its solar array. It was based on the Chinese DFH-4 satellite bus , and carries a variety of transponders: It was designed to provide coverage to many parts of Africa, and the Ka-band transponders would also cover Italy. On 10 November GMT , the satellite was reportedly switched off for analysis and to avoid a possible collision with other satellites. According to Nigerian Communications Satellite Limited, it was put into "emergency mode operation in order to effect mitigation and repairs".

It was stated the satellite would have a positive impact on national development in various sectors such as communications, internet services, health, agriculture, environmental protection and national security. The United Nations estimates that the population in was at ,, [] , distributed as National census results in the past few decades have been disputed. The results of the most recent census were released in December and gave a population of ,, The only breakdown available was by gender: According to the United Nations, Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and has one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world.

By their projections, Nigeria is one of eight countries expected to account collectively for half of the world's total population increase in — One in four Africans is a Nigerian. Nigeria's largest city is Lagos. Lagos has grown from about , in [] to an estimated 15 million today.

Nigeria has more than ethnic groups, with varying languages and customs, creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups, including the Pyem, Goemai, and Kofyar. The official population count of each of Nigeria's ethnicities has always remained controversial and disputed as members of different ethnic groups believe the census is rigged to give a particular group usually believed to be northern groups numerical superiority. Immigrants also include those from other West African or East African nations.

These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja , or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. A number of Cubans settled in Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. In the middle of the 19th century, a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent [] and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos and other regions of Nigeria.

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Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in the Americas. Many of the immigrants, sometimes called Saros immigrants from Sierra Leone and Amaro ex-slaves from Brazil [] later became prominent merchants and missionaries in these cities. In some areas of Nigeria, ethnic groups speak more than one language. The official language of Nigeria, English, was chosen to facilitate the cultural and linguistic unity of the country, owing to the influence of British colonisation that ended in Many French speakers from surrounding countries have influenced the English spoken in the border regions of Nigeria and some Nigerian citizens have become fluent enough in French to work in the surrounding countries.

The French spoken in Nigeria may be mixed with some native languages but is mostly spoken like the French spoken in Benin. French may also be mixed with English as it is in Cameroon. Most of the population speaks English as their native language. The major languages spoken in Nigeria represent three major families of languages of Africa: Even though most ethnic groups prefer to communicate in their own languages, English as the official language is widely used for education, business transactions and for official purposes.

English as a first language is used only by a small minority of the country's urban elite, and it is not spoken at all in some rural areas. Hausa is the most widely spoken of the three main languages spoken in Nigeria itself Igbo, Hausa and Yoruba but unlike the Yorubas and Igbos, the Hausas tend not to travel far outside Nigeria itself. With the majority of Nigeria's populace in the rural areas, the major languages of communication in the country remain indigenous languages.

Some of the largest of these, notably Yoruba and Igbo, have derived standardised languages from a number of different dialects and are widely spoken by those ethnic groups. Nigerian Pidgin English , often known simply as " Pidgin " or "Broken" Broken English , is also a popular lingua franca , though with varying regional influences on dialect and slang. Religion in Nigeria []. Nigeria is a religiously diverse society, with Christianity and Islam being the most widely professed religions. Nigerians are nearly equally divided into Christians and Muslims , with a tiny minority of adherents of Animism and other religions.

It also has a number of adherents in the South Western, Yoruba part of the country. Nigeria has the largest Muslim population in sub-Saharan Africa. Protestant and locally cultivated Christianity are also widely practiced in Western areas, while Roman Catholicism is a more prominent Christian feature of South Eastern Nigeria. The vast majority of Muslims in Nigeria are Sunni belonging to Maliki school of jurisprudence ; however, a sizeable minority also belongs to Shafi madhhab. A large number of Sunni Muslims are members of Sufi brotherhoods.

A significant Shia minority exists see Shia in Nigeria. Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems, which has brought about some controversy. An 18 December report on religion and public life by the Pew Research Center stated that in , The census of Association of Religion Data Archives has also reported that Since the s, there has been significant growth in many other churches, independently started in Africa by Africans, particularly the evangelical Protestant ones.

The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population, while Igboland is predominantly Roman Catholic and the Edo area is composed predominantly of members of the Pentecostal Assemblies of God, which was introduced into Nigeria by Augustus Ehurie Wogu and his associates at Old Umuahia. Further, Nigeria has become an African hub for the Grail Movement and the Hare Krishnas , [] and the largest temple of the Eckankar religion is in Port Harcourt, Rivers State, with a total capacity of 10, Health care delivery in Nigeria is a concurrent responsibility of the three tiers of government in the country, and the private sector.

A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care, with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost. As of [update] , the HIV prevalence rate among adults ages 15—49 was just 3. However, a major breakthrough came in December , when it was reported that Nigeria hadn't recorded a polio case in 6 months, and was on its way to being declared Polio free.

Nigeria became the second African country to have successfully carried out this surgery. The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as ' brain drain ', because of emigration by skilled Nigerian doctors to North America and Europe. In , it was estimated that 21, Nigerian doctors were practising in the United States alone, which is about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government.

Education in Nigeria is overseen by the Ministry of Education. Local authorities take responsibility for implementing policy for state-controlled public education and state schools at a regional level. The education system is divided into Kindergarten , primary education , secondary education and tertiary education. After the s oil boom, tertiary education was improved so that it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. Nigeria provides free, government-supported education, but attendance is not compulsory at any level, and certain groups, such as nomads and the handicapped, are under-served.

The education system consists of six years of primary school, three years of junior secondary school, three years of senior secondary school, and four, five or six years of university education leading to a bachelor's degree.

Federal Republic of Nigeria

Under Britain's policy of indirect rule and validation of Islamic tradition, the Crown did not encourage the operation of Christian missions in the northern, Islamic part of the country. I am working hard just to survive, whereas the rich have everything. What is so special about the question 'who named Nigeria as a country'? Only in a new constitution was adopted, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. Cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava tapioca , yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish. Capital city is Abuja , located in the center of the nation, while Lagos is the country's primary port, economic hub and the largest city.

The government has majority control of university education. The country has a total number of universities registered by NUC among which federal and state government own 40 and 39 respectively while 50 universities are privately owned. In order to increase the number of universities in Nigeria from to the Federal Government gave 9 new private universities their licences in May First year entry requirements into most universities in Nigeria include: Students with required documents [] typically enter university from age onwards and study for an academic degree.

Nigeria is home to a substantial network of organised crime , active especially in drug trafficking. Nigerian criminal groups are heavily involved in drug trafficking, shipping heroin from Asian countries to Europe and America; and cocaine from South America to Europe and South Africa.

As confraternities have extensive connections with political and military figures, they offer excellent alumni networking opportunities. According to official statistics, gang violence in Lagos resulted in civilians and 84 policemen killed in the period of August to May Internationally, Nigeria is infamous for a form of bank fraud dubbed , a type of advance fee fraud named after Section of the Nigerian Penal Code along with the " Nigerian scam ", a form of confidence trick practised by individuals and criminal syndicates. The victim is talked into exchanging bank account information on the premise that the money will be transferred to him, and then he'll get to keep a cut.

There is some major piracy in Nigeria , with attacks directed at all types of vessels. Consistent with the rise of Nigeria as an increasingly dangerous hot spot, 28 of the 30 seafarers kidnapped as of January—June were in Nigeria. Additionally, the single death to date in occurred in Nigeria. Nigeria has been pervaded by political corruption. It was ranked out of countries in Transparency International 's Corruption Perceptions Index ; however, it improved to th position in Jonathan, however, dismissed the claim and replaced Sanusi for alleged mismanagement of the central bank's budget.

A Senate committee also found Sanusi's account to be lacking substance. Tourism in Nigeria centers largely on events, due to the country's ample amount of ethnic groups, but also includes rain forests , savannah , waterfalls , and other natural attractions. Abuja is home to several parks and green areas with the largest one being Millennium Park. Another open area park is located in Lifecamp Gwarimpa; near the residence of the Minister of the Federal Capital Territory. The park is located on a slightly raised hilltop which contains sport facilities like Basketball and Badminton courts another park is the city park, it is located in wuse 2 and is home to numerous outdoor and indoor attractions such as a 4D cinema, astro-turf, lawn tennis court, paintball arena and a variety of restaurants.

Lagos , subsequent to the re-modernization project achieved by the previous administration of Governor Raji Babatunde Fashola, is gradually becoming a major tourist destination, being one of the largest cities in Africa and in the world. Lagos is currently taking steps to become a global city. The Eyo carnival a yearly festival originated from Iperu Remo , Ogun State , which took place on 25 April, was a step toward world city status.

'Shameful' Nigeria: a country that doesn't care about inequality

Currently, Lagos is primarily known as a business-oriented and a fast-paced community. Lagos has become an important location for African and " black " cultural identity. Established in , the event takes place over a 3—5 day period at selected high quality outdoor venues. The music is as varied as the audience itself and features a diverse mix of musical genres from rhythm and blues to soul, Afrobeat , hip hop, bebop, and traditional jazz. The festivals provide entertainment of dance and song to add excitement to travelers during a stay in Lagos.

Lagos also has a number of private beach resorts including Inagbe Grand Beach Resort and several others in the outskirts. Lagos has a variety of hotels ranging from three star to five star hotels, with a mixture of local hotels such as Eko Hotels and Suites , Federal Palace Hotel and franchises of multinational chains such as Intercontinental Hotel, Sheraton and Four Points by Hilton. It was developed in by M. McCaughley, a Scot who first explored the mountain ranges in He camped on the mountaintop of the Oshie Ridge on the Sankwala Mountains for a month before returning with Mr.

Hugh Jones a fellow rancher in Charter air service is available to the Bebi Airport which lies between the village of Obudu and the resort. The ranch has in recent times seen an influx of both Nigerian and international tourists because of the development of tourist facilities by Cross-River State Government, which has turned the ranch into a well known holiday and tourist resort center in Nigeria. Nigerian citizens have authored many influential works of post-colonial literature in the English language.

Nigeria has the second largest newspaper market in Africa after Egypt with an estimated circulation of several million copies daily in Nigeria has had a huge role in the development of various genres of African music , including West African highlife , Afrobeat , and palm-wine music , which fuses native rhythms with techniques that have been linked to the Congo , Brazil , Cuba , Jamaica and worldwide.

Many late 20th-century musicians such as Fela Kuti have famously fused cultural elements of various indigenous music with American jazz and soul to form Afrobeat which has in turn influenced hip hop music. Fuji music , a Yoruba percussion style, was created and popularised by Mr. Fuji, Alhaji Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. Afan Music was invented and popularised by the Ewu -born poet and musician Umuobuarie Igberaese. There is a budding hip-hop movement in Nigeria. Kennis Music , the self-proclaimed number-one record label in Africa, and one of Nigeria's biggest record labels, has a roster almost entirely dominated by hip-hop artists.

Notable musicians from Nigeria include: In November , Nigeria's music scene and that of Africa received international attention when MTV hosted the continent's first African music awards show in Abuja. The Nigerian film industry is known as Nollywood a portmanteau of Nigeria and Hollywood [] and is now the 2nd-largest producer of movies in the world. Nigerian film studios are based in Lagos , Kano and Enugu , forming a major portion of the local economy of these cities.

Nigerian cinema is Africa's largest movie industry in terms of both value and the number of movies produced per year. Although Nigerian films have been produced since the s, the country's film industry has been aided by the rise of affordable digital filming and editing technologies. The thriller film The Figurine is generally considered the game changer, which heightened the media attention towards New Nigerian Cinema revolution.

The film was a critical and commercial success in Nigeria, and it was also screened in international film festivals. It contributed about 1. Joshua 's Emmanuel TV , originating from Nigeria, is one of the most viewed television stations across Africa. There are many festivals in Nigeria , some of which date to the period before the arrival of the major religions in this ethnically and culturally diverse society.

The main Muslim and Christian festivals are often celebrated in ways that are unique to Nigeria or unique to the people of a locality. Nigerian cuisine, like West African cuisine in general, is known for its richness and variety. Many different spices, herbs and flavourings are used in conjunction with palm oil or groundnut oil to create deeply flavoured sauces and soups often made very hot with chili peppers.

Nigerian feasts are colourful and lavish, while aromatic market and roadside snacks cooked on barbecues or fried in oil are plentiful and varied. Football is largely considered Nigeria's national sport and the country has its own Premier League of football. Nigeria's national football team , known as the "Super Eagles", has made the World Cup on Six occasions , , , , , and most recently in They won the gold medal for football in the Summer Olympics in which they beat Argentina becoming the first African football team to win gold in Olympic Football.

Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball, cricket and track and field. Nigeria's national basketball team made the headlines internationally when it qualified for the Summer Olympics as it beat heavily favoured world elite teams such as Greece and Lithuania. Despite its vast government revenue from the mining of petroleum, Nigeria faces a number of societal issues, owing primarily to a history of inefficiency in its governance. Nigeria's human rights record remains poor; [] according to the US Department of State, [] the most significant human rights problems are: Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states, offences such as alcohol consumption, homosexuality , [] infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences, including amputation, lashing, stoning and long prison terms.

Under a law signed in early , [] same-sex couples who marry face up to 14 years each in prison. Witnesses or anyone who helps gay couples marry will be sentenced to 10 years behind bars. The bill also punishes the "public show of same-sex amorous relationships directly or indirectly" with ten years in prison. Another portion of the bill mandates 10 years in prison for those found guilty of organising, operating or supporting gay clubs, organizations and meetings. In the Nigerian state of Akwa Ibom about 15, children were branded as witches and most of them end up abandoned and abused on the streets.

Because of its multitude of diverse, sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups, Nigeria prior to independence was faced with sectarian tensions and violence, particularly in the oil-producing Niger Delta region, where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts gain control over regional petroleum resources.

Some of the ethnic groups like the Ogoni , have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction. Since the end of the civil war in , some ethnic violence has persisted. There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony [ when? Muslim rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated men, women, and children with a further injured taken to hospital. Since , the country has seen sectarian violence by Boko Haram , an Islamist movement that seeks to abolish the secular system of government and establish Sharia law in the country.

Nigerian President Goodluck Jonathan in May claimed that Boko Haram attacks have left at least 12, people dead and 8, people crippled. In April , over people in ten villages in predominantly Christian areas in Agatu were murdered by Fulani herdsmen.

Country Profile

The Federal Republic of Nigeria, commonly referred to as Nigeria is a federal republic in West With million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in the world. . direct trade with peoples of modern-day Nigeria, at the port they named Lagos and in Calabar. It's Time” for A Country Called Nigeria: The Journey of an African American Businessman Who Lived in Nigeria for More Than Fourteen Years [Bob Siller] on .

A visiting Nigerian Senator reported that all the primary and post-primary schools, health centres, worship centres as well as the police station in the area were destroyed. Forced marriages are common.


Child marriage remains common in Northern Nigeria. There is polygamy in Nigeria. Women have less land rights. In , there was a federal ban. In Nigeria, at least half a million suffer from vaginal fistula , largely as a result of lack of medical care. The Niger has many rapids and waterfalls, but the Benue is not interrupted by either and is navigable throughout its length, except during the dry season. Rivers draining the area north of the Niger-Benue trough include the Sokoto , the Kaduna , the Gongola , and the rivers draining into Lake Chad.

The coastal areas are drained by short rivers that flow into the Gulf of Guinea. River basin development projects have created many large man-made lakes, including Lake Kainji on the Niger and Lake Bakolori on the Rima River. The Niger delta is a vast low-lying region through which the waters of the Niger River drain into the Gulf of Guinea. Characteristic landforms in this region include oxbow lakes , river meander belts see meander , and prominent levees.

Large freshwater swamps give way to brackish mangrove thickets near the seacoast. Soils in Nigeria, and in Africa generally, are usually of a poorer quality than those in other regions of the world. However, over the centuries Nigerians have utilized agricultural techniques such as slash and burn, intercropping, and the use of shallow planting implements to cope with the shortcomings of the soil. In the precolonial period the country normally produced enough agricultural commodities to feed its population, and it even maintained a surplus for export.

Loose sandy soils consisting of wind-borne deposits and riverine sands are found in the northern regions, although, in areas where there is a marked dry season, a dense surface layer of laterite develops, making these soils difficult to cultivate. The soils in the northern states of Kano and Sokoto , however, are not subject to leaching and are therefore easily farmed.

South of Kano the mixed soils contain locally derived granite and loess wind-borne deposits. The middle two-thirds of the country, the savanna regions, contain reddish, laterite soils; they are somewhat less fertile than those of the north because they are not subject to as much seasonal drying, nor do they receive the greater rainfall that occurs in the more southerly regions. The forest soils represent the third zone.

There the vegetation provides humus and protects it from erosion by heavy rainfall. Although these soils can readily be leached and lose their fertility, they are the most productive agriculturally. Hydromorphic and organic soils, confined largely to areas underlain by sedimentary rocks along the coast and river floodplains, are the youngest soil types.

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