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O prazer associado ao consumo dos alimentos e factores influenciadores, O impacto das alergias alimentares no dia-a-dia, As shown in Chart 1 , the Brazilian system of nutritional surveillance seeks to enable the formulation of public policy, planning, monitoring and assessment of social programs related to food and nutrition. Through SISVAN, national health indicators could be established, such as the rate of overweight or underweight in different age groups the prevalence of chronic diseases such as diabetes, hypertension, and cancer, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding, as well as an assessment of household food insecurity Brasil, c.
Launched in , this document is relevant to conducting actions in agriculture, industry and education, supporting the public policies and services which protect the population, the environment and biodiversity. A program instituted in PNAN's area was the Bolsa Familia Program, which consists of a direct transfer of income depending on conditions related to health and education Chart 1. In order to contribute to reducing food insecurity prevalence, it represents a strategy that benefits families in poverty and extreme poverty, with important impacts on family spending on food Brasil, b ; however, there is not yet information about how purchasing power affects diet quality.
PNAE , which has been in existence since Coordinated by the Ministry of Education, it guarantees food to basic education students enrolled in public and charity schools through transfer of financial resources. The goal of this initiative is to meet the nutritional needs of individuals during school time, contributing to their growth, development, learning, and school effectiveness, as well as promoting the formation of healthy eating habits FNDE, Interministerial Ordinance 1, established directives for the promotion of healthy eating in public and private early childhood education programs, elementary schools and high schools; these included nutritional and food education activities, considering cultural aspects and eating habits, stimulating the production of school gardens, establishing good food handling practices, restricting the sale of foods with high levels of saturated and trans fats, sodium and sugar, and offering incentives to consume fruits and vegetables and to conduct nutritional monitoring of students Brasil, a.
Furthermore, it has stimulated PNAE's potential in encouraging local food production, helping to develop rural and urban agriculture Triches and Schneider, Regarding Portugal, food and nutrition actions have followed the European policies. In , the Second WHO European Action Plan for Food and Nutrition Policy was developed in order to promote the adoption of healthy lifestyles in the European population, fostering healthy eating habits and physical activity.
This emphasizes promotion of physical activity, as well as concern with the environmental impact of producing and processing food, acting in accordance with the Global Strategy of Food, Physical Activity and Health. Furthermore, the Plan reinforces the importance of intersectoriality, highlighting the link between the food-producing sector through revising agricultural policy, encouraging local and urban agriculture, and reflecting on the use of pesticides, as well as pointing out the facilitation of import processes in the area of food WHO, , as shown in Chart 1.
The European document stresses the importance of establishing coherent intervention strategies with the causal relationship regarding dietary practices, as it is necessary to reformulate the food production chain in order to encourage production of healthier foods WHO, Specifically in Portugal, the National Health Plan Portugal, integrates strategy promoting health, rising as a management tool with strategic orientation meant to support the National System of Health; one of these is related to the conception of a human resources policy for the health field Chart 1.
This Plan indicates that, despite the fact that health gains have been significant, diseases associated with poverty and social exclusion are accentuated as a result of the increase in social inequality, the aging of the population, greater populational mobility, and a growing number of immigrants.
The Plan came into being with the implementation of a set of programs, among which are some related to food and nutrition, such as for example the National Intervention Program integrated with Health Determinants related to Lifestyle. Recognizing obesity as a serious public health problem in Europe, a Platform on "Diet, physical activity and health" was developed to reduce the risk factors for non-transmissible chronic diseases and encourage the development of policies in the area of nutrition and physical activity. As a consequence of this initiative in Portugal, the Platform Against Obesity created by the Director-General of Health came about as a response to the elevated rates of obesity, and proposed to create conditions where effective, integrated and multisectorial approaches to prevent and control the problem in the country can be created.
At the same time, questions related to malnutrition are not considered a public health problem due to its low prevalence; it is more common among bed-bound older populations and in regions where there are problems with access to food WHO, Questions related to interventions concerning obesity and malnutrition can be seen in Chart 1.
Its objective is to reinforce healthy eating practices, and to train children and families to adopt competencies which lead to greater consumption of fruit and vegetables through free distribution of these foods to all students in the first cycle of elementary education Portugal, Intervention in priority groups, such as children in the school environment, deserves emphasis. Aimed at educators, its principal goal is to reinforce a healthy lifestyle based on the principles of health promoting schools Portugal, Even with the emphasis on actions focused on non-communicable diseases in Portugal in the face of considering obesity as an epidemic, there is also concern with matters related to the consumption of safe food in the country, as can be seen in Chart 1 , such as food-borne illness, resistance of microorganisms, water quality, chemical contamination, and food allergies; for this last issue, there is mention of the importance of developing a specific policy WHO, As for nutritional diagnosis Chart 1 , The National Health Observatory, besides being responsible for National Health Surveys, also evaluates food consumption, and providing anthropometric data about the Portuguese population.
Under the Platform Against Obesity, studies have been conducted related to the assessment of the nutritional status of the population. For that, the National Center for Observation of Obesity and Weight Control is integrated into the Platform, with the goal of monitoring obesity in the country Portugal, With regards to diagnosis of nutritional deficiencies, Portugal utilizes data cited by the WHO which indicate that iron deficiency is still a reality, and the prevalence of anemia was Due to these alarming data, the WHO suggests actions related to food fortification, nutritional orientation and providing supplements WHO, , as can be seen in Chart 1.
With reference to the information about the population's food consumption, the only national survey was conducted in Ferreira and Cruz, and, in recent years, information related to food consumption has been obtained through home diet studies, namely using data obtained from the Surveys on Family Budgets and by the Food Balances Almeida et al. Furthermore, materials have been developed such as the Portuguese Table of Food Composition, which are educational in nature or provide scientific support for nutritional monitoring and promotion of healthy eating Martins et al.
Reflections on progress towards attaining FS through the principal actions which were analyzed. Economic and political questions are relevant to understating countries' positions on public actions in the area of food and, as a result, those connected to FS. The processes of economic development related to diet in Brazil and Portugal occur in distinct ways, but have some characteristics in common. In Brazil, industrial growth occurred at the beginning of the twentieth century with the migration of the population from rural to urban areas, and at the end of that century, international relations increased.
Due to the country's size and distinct processes in city formation, social disparities arose and were reflected in diet and nutrition. Structural diversity characterizes the history of public policies with a focus on social vulnerability and an emphasis on hunger and malnutrition Valente, These characteristics certainly facilitate the discussion of FS in the country, aiming to guarantee food access, in principle, to satisfy nutritional needs and, more recently, healthy diet according to a human rights and health-promotion perspective Belik, In Portugal, the development process is different from that of the rest of Europe.
Keeping in mind that, before entering the European Union EU , the food production and sales sectors were not internationally well-connected, and afterwards, there was a rapid need to adjust to the competition of an open market, and access to the food standards characteristic of modern society rapidly increased. The growth of the country's industrial and economic sector was also evident, which increased the population's purchasing power. Furthermore, entrance into the EU forced the country to standardize the rules for handling, labeling and hygiene, showing a national concern with issues related to food safety, from a sanitary point of view FCNAUP, FS has come to be discussed internationally; according to the FAO , it exists when all people have uninterrupted physical, social and economic access to sufficient, secure, and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and preferences for a healthy and active life.
In Brazil, this became law in and unites the concept of establishing food as a right with the need for health-promoting dietary practices which respect cultural diversity and are environmentally, culturally, economically, and socially sustainable to guarantee FS. In , the law was endorsed with the institution of the National Policy for Food Security Brasil, c , which sought to promote universal access to adequate food and the organization of sustainable and decentralized systems from food production to distribution; institution of permanent processes for education, research and training in FS; promotion, universalization and coordination of actions aimed at traditional communities; strengthening of food and nutrition actions at all levels of health care; support for initiatives promoting the country's food independence; and monitoring of the realization of the human right to adequate food.
Nevertheless, although it is less common in Europe, discussion of FS is a reality characterized by a lack of access to food due to questions of poverty and distribution of foods with low nutritional quality. However, discussion of this topic is still in the early stages of development in Portugal.
Rodrigues and Miranda verified the connection between situations of food insecurity and unemployment and high numbers of people in the household, and showed that, initially, insecurity tends to affect the quality of foods available, and can provoke an increase in non-communicable diseases such as obesity. The nutritional policies which exist in a country point to the understanding of existing concepts surrounding FS. As for one of the most relevant nutritional deficiencies, malnutrition, despite the fact that the WHO emphasizes this topic, when compared to PNAN, the organization determined the need to establish programs protecting groups which are vulnerable or of low socio-economic levels through subsidies to acquire food, facilitated access to restaurants and other forms of social support.
Micronutrient deficiencies have already come to be a public health concern in Brazil as well as Portugal.
Considering the above discussion, food insecurity situations appear in conjunction with problems related to overweight and, as a result, require actions pertinent to this topic which also consider the whole individual and the complex casual relationship surrounding obesity. Specifically in Portugal, the Platform Against Obesity can be considered to be related to a FS policy, as it stimulates healthy eating practices to the population. Other proposals approach the context of FS, RFE allows access to food, as well as sustainability of the local economy, by using local producers to supply fruits and vegetables.
With its focus on reducing obesity, it also contributes to acquiring competencies in the areas of nutrition education and health in the school environment Portugal, This program is targeted at low income individuals or families need, representing monetary assistance, social and professional insertion Portugal, Both revolve around financial assistance and are generated by non-health areas but in Brazil, the relationship between this assistance and the nutritional improvement of the population is clear, while in Portugal there is no mention of repercussions in food access.
Another aspect to be discussed refers to the term "food security", which is widely used in Brazil but is confused with "food safety" due to the similar nomenclature. Expert in Biochemistry, Nutrition and Food Toxicology. Author of more than scientific papers. Author of various publications. Co-author of the book: PG Dip in Sports Nutrition. Registered Pharmacist and Dietitian.
Expert in Clinical Biochemistry. Speaker at various conferences and seminars on Clinical and Functional Nutrition Brazil and Portugal. Foremost expert on acid-base balance. Nutrition and Dietetics, B. PhD in Food Science.
Registered Dietician Sao Paulo, Brazil. Author of various scientific papers. Author of more than scientific papers, with more than 10, citations. Speaker at various conferences and seminars on Sports Nutrition Spain. Nutrition and Dietetics, M. Registered Dietician Brasilia, Brazil. PhD and BSc in Biochemistry. One of the leading world experts in Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Inflammation. Author of more than scientific publications.
Post-graduate Diploma in Nutrition and Pharmacology. PhD in Health Sciences Univ.