Make ready the way of the Lord, make his paths straight - " 4 John the Baptist appeared in the wilderness preaching a baptism of repentance for the forgiveness of sins. Have You come to destroy us? I know who You are - the Holy One of God! A new teaching with authority! He commands even the unclean spirits, and they obey Him. He is blaspheming; who can forgive sins but God alone? So long as they have the bridegroom with them, they cannot fast.
And such a very large crowd gathered to Him that He got into a boat in the sea and sat down; and the whole crowd was by the sea on the land. Behold, the sower went out to sow; 4 as he was sowing, some seed fell beside the road, and the birds came and ate it up. How will you understand all the parables?
Is it not brought to be put on the lampstand? By your standard of measure it will be measured to you; and more will be given you besides. Do you still have no faith? And no one was able to bind him anymore, even with a chain; 4 because he had often been bound with shackles and chains, and the chains had been torn apart by him and the shackles broken in pieces, and no one was strong enough to subdue him.
I implore You by God, do not torment me!
And coming out, the unclean spirits entered the swine; and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the sea, about two thousand of them; and they were drowned in the sea. And the people came to see what it was that had happened. The child has not died, but is asleep. But putting them all out, He took along the child's father and mother and His own companions, and entered the room where the child was. And immediately they were completely astounded.
Are not His sisters here with us? And He was going around the villages teaching. And when he heard him, he was very perplexed; but he used to enjoy listening to him. And he went and had him beheaded in the prison, 28 and brought his head on a platter, and gave it to the girl; and the girl gave it to her mother. But immediately He spoke with them and said to them, "Take courage; it is I, do not be afraid. Do you not understand that whatever goes into the man from outside cannot defile him, 19 because it does not go into his heart, but into his stomach, and is eliminated?
And when He had entered a house, He wanted no one to know of it; yet He could not escape notice. And she kept asking Him to cast the demon out of her daughter. Truly I say to you, no sign will be given to this generation. Beware of the leaven of the Pharisees and the leaven of Herod. Do you not yet see or understand? Do you have a hardened heart? And do you not remember? And Peter took Him aside and began to rebuke Him. And He was transfigured before them; 3 and His garments became radiant and exceedingly white, as no launderer on earth can whiten them.
And yet how is it written of the Son of Man that He will suffer many things and be treated with contempt? I told Your disciples to cast it out, and they could not do it. How long shall I put up with you?
Bring him to Me! When he saw Him, immediately the spirit threw him into a convulsion, and falling to the ground, he began rolling around and foaming at the mouth. But if You can do anything, take pity on us and help us! Have salt in yourselves, and be at peace with one another.
I loved your graph! F, "Christ in verbal and depicted imagery". Paul the Apostle , a 1st-century Pharisaic Jew who experienced a conversion to faith in Jesus , dictated letters to various churches and individuals from c. Most scholars agree that "Son of God" is the most important of these titles in Mark. After the Byzantine iconoclasm all coins had Christ on them. Archived from the original on January 18,
No one is good except God alone. But Jesus answered again and said to them, "Children, how hard it is to enter the kingdom of God! And again He took the twelve aside and began to tell them what was going to happen to Him, 33 saying, "Behold, we are going up to Jerusalem, and the Son of Man will be delivered to the chief priests and the scribes; and they will condemn Him to death and will hand Him over to the Gentiles. Are you able to drink the cup that I drink, or to be baptized with the baptism with which I am baptized? He is calling for you. Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!
Hosanna in the highest! And He entered the temple and began to drive out those who were buying and selling in the temple, and overturned the tables of the money changers and the seats of those who were selling doves; 16 and He would not permit anyone to carry merchandise through the temple. But you have made it a robbers' den. And as He was walking in the temple, the chief priests and the scribes and the elders came to Him, 28 and began saying to Him, "By what authority are You doing these things, or who gave You this authority to do these things?
He will come and destroy the vine-growers, and will give the vineyard to others. Is it lawful to pay a poll-tax to Caesar, or not? Bring Me a denarius to look at. And He said to them, "Whose likeness and inscription is this? Last of all the woman died also. Among the earliest depictions clearly intended to directly represent Jesus himself are many showing him as a baby, usually held by his mother, especially in the Adoration of the Magi , seen as the first theophany , or display of the incarnate Christ to the world at large. He is depicted dressed in the style of a young philosopher, with close-cropped hair and wearing a tunic and pallium — signs of good breeding in Greco-Roman society.
From this, it is evident that some early Christians paid no heed to the historical context of Jesus being a Jew and visualised him solely in terms of their own social context, as a quasi-heroic figure, without supernatural attributes such as a halo a fourth-century innovation. The appearance of Jesus had some theological implications. While some Christians thought Jesus should have the beautiful appearance of a young classical hero,  and the Gnostics tended to think he could change his appearance at will, for which they cited the Meeting at Emmaus as evidence,  others including the Church Fathers Justin d.
For Augustine he was "beautiful as a child, beautiful on earth, beautiful in heaven. From the 3rd century onwards, the first narrative scenes from the Life of Christ to be clearly seen are the Baptism of Christ , painted in a catacomb in about ,  and the miracle of the Raising of Lazarus ,  both of which can be clearly identified by the inclusion of the dove of the Holy Spirit in Baptisms , and the vertical, shroud-wrapped body of Lazarus.
Other scenes remain ambiguous — an agape feast may be intended as a Last Supper , but before the development of a recognised physical appearance for Christ, and attributes such as the halo , it is impossible to tell, as tituli or captions are rarely used. There are some surviving scenes from Christ's Works of about from the Dura Europos church on the Persian frontier of the Empire. During the 4th century a much greater number of scenes came to be depicted,  usually showing Christ as youthful, beardless and with short hair that does not reach his shoulders, although there is considerable variation.
Jesus is sometimes shown performing miracles by means of a wand,  as on the doors of Santa Sabina in Rome — He uses the wand to change water to wine , multiply the bread and fishes , and raise Lazarus. The wand is thought to be a symbol of power. The bare-faced youth with the wand may indicate that Jesus was thought of as a user of magic or wonder worker by some of the early Christians.
Some scholars suggest that the Gospel of Mark , the Secret Gospel of Mark and the Gospel of John the so-called Signs Gospel , portray such a wonder worker, user of magic, a magician or a Divine man. Another depiction, seen from the late 3rd century or early 4th century onwards, showed Jesus with a beard, and within a few decades can be very close to the conventional type that later emerged. According to art historian Paul Zanker, the bearded type has long hair from the start, and a relatively long beard contrasting with the short "classical" beard and hair always given to St Peter, and most other apostles ;  this depiction is specifically associated with "Charismatic" philosophers like Euphrates the Stoic , Dio of Prusa and Apollonius of Tyana , some of whom were claimed to perform miracles.
After the very earliest examples of c. Equally attempts to relate on a consistent basis the explanation for the type chosen in a particular work to the differing theological views of the time have been unsuccessful. From the middle of the 4th century, after Christianity was legalized by the Edict of Milan in , and gained Imperial favour, there was a new range of images of Christ the King ,  using either of the two physical types described above, but adopting the costume and often the poses of Imperial iconography.
These developed into the various forms of Christ in Majesty. Some scholars reject the connection between the political events and developments in iconography, seeing the change as a purely theological one, resulting from the shift of the concept and title of Pantocrator "Ruler of all" from God the Father still not portrayed in art to Christ, which was a development of the same period, perhaps led by Athanasius of Alexandria d.
Another depiction drew from classical images of philosophers, often shown as a youthful "intellectual wunderkind " in Roman sarcophagii; the Traditio Legis image initially uses this type. The Good Shepherd, now clearly identified as Christ, with halo and often rich robes, is still depicted, as on the apse mosaic in the church of Santi Cosma e Damiano in Rome, where the twelve apostles are depicted as twelve sheep below the imperial Jesus, or in the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia at Ravenna. Once the bearded, long-haired Jesus became the conventional representation of Jesus, his facial features slowly began to be standardised, although this process took until at least the 6th century in the Eastern Church , and much longer in the West, where clean-shaven Jesuses are common until the 12th century, despite the influence of Byzantine art.
But by the late Middle Ages the beard became almost universal and when Michelangelo showed a clean-shaven Apollo-like Christ in his Last Judgment fresco in the Sistine Chapel —41 he came under persistent attack in the Counter-Reformation climate of Rome for this, as well as other things. French scholar Paul Vignon has listed fifteen similarities "marks", like tilaka  between most of the icons of Jesus after this point, particularly in the icons of "Christ Pantocrator" "The all-powerful Messiah".
He claims that these are due to the availability of the Image of Edessa which he claims to be identical to the Shroud of Turin , via Constantinople  to the artists.
Certainly images believed to have miraculous origins, or the Hodegetria , believed to be a portrait of Mary from the life by Saint Luke , were widely regarded as authoritative by the Early Medieval period and greatly influenced depictions. In Eastern Orthodoxy the form of images was, and largely is, regarded as revealed truth, with a status almost equal to scripture, and the aim of artists is to copy earlier images without originality, although the style and content of images does in fact change slightly over time.
As to the historical appearance of Jesus, in one possible translation of the apostle Paul's First Epistle to the Corinthians , Paul urges Christian men of first-century Corinth not to have long hair. AD — ca. Not only was this dishonoring to them, but it was also an incitement to fornication.
Jesus was a practicing Jew so presumably had a beard. By the 5th century depictions of the Passion began to appear, perhaps reflecting a change in the theological focus of the early Church. The depiction with a longish face, long straight brown hair parted in the middle, and almond shaped eyes shows consistency from the 6th century to the present. Various legends developed which were believed to authenticate the historical accuracy of the standard depiction, such as the image of Edessa and later the Veil of Veronica.
Through Mark's Eyes invites you into the Jesus story―to walk the dusty roads, to row the boats on the Sea of Galilee, to witness healings, to stand in the Temple. that the outline of Mark's Gospel parallels remarkably with Peter's sermon at the book geographically, we come up with an outline according to where Jesus The center verse of the book – the books bulls-eye is
Partly to aid recognition of the scenes, narrative depictions of the Life of Christ focused increasingly on the events celebrated in the major feasts of the church calendar , and the events of the Passion, neglecting the miracles and other events of Jesus' public ministry, except for the raising of Lazarus , where the mummy-like wrapped body was shown standing upright, giving an unmistakable visual signature.
The period of Byzantine Iconoclasm acted as a barrier to developments in the East, but by the 9th century art was permitted again. The Transfiguration of Jesus was a major theme in the East and every Eastern Orthodox monk who had trained in icon painting had to prove his craft by painting an icon of the Transfiguration. The 13th century witnessed a turning point in the portrayal of the powerful Kyrios image of Jesus as a wonder worker in the West , as the Franciscans began to emphasize the humility of Jesus both at his birth and his death via the nativity scene as well as the crucifixion.
After Giotto , Fra Angelico and others systematically developed uncluttered images that focused on the depiction of Jesus with an ideal human beauty, in works like Leonardo da Vinci 's Last Supper , arguably the first High Renaissance painting. However Michelangelo was considered to have gone much too far in his beardless Christ in his The Last Judgment fresco in the Sistine Chapel , which very clearly adapted classical sculptures of Apollo , and this path was rarely followed by other artists. The High Renaissance was contemporary with the start of the Protestant Reformation which, especially in its first decades , violently objected to almost all public religious images as idolatrous, and vast numbers were destroyed.
Gradually images of Jesus became acceptable to most Protestants in various contexts, especially in narrative contexts, as book illustrations and prints, and later in larger paintings.
Protestant art continued the now-standard depiction of the physical appearance of Jesus. Meanwhile, the Catholic Counter-Reformation re-affirmed the importance of art in assisting the devotions of the faithful, and encouraged the production of new images of or including Jesus in enormous numbers, also continuing to use the standard depiction. By the end of the 19th century, new reports of miraculous images of Jesus had appeared and continue to receive significant attention, e.
Secondo Pia 's photograph of the Shroud of Turin , one of the most controversial artifacts in history, which during its May exposition it was visited by over 2 million people. A very early image which is believed to be an early anti-Christian graffito is the Alexamenos graffito , a unique piece of wall graffiti near the Palatine hill in Rome. The inscription has been ascribed dates ranging from the 1st to the 3rd centuries AD. The caption reads, in Greek , "Alexamenos worships [his] God", while the image shows a man raising his hand toward a crucified figure with a donkey's head.
This seems to refer to a Roman misconception that the Jews worshipped a god with the form of a donkey, so that the image would be at once antisemitic and anti-Christian. A small minority of scholars dispute whether this image depicts Jesus, proposing that this image may be a reference to another deity. Conventional depictions of Christ developed in medieval art include the narrative scenes of the Life of Christ, and many other conventional depictions:.
Common narrative scenes from the Life of Christ in art include:. Certain local traditions have maintained different depictions, sometimes reflecting local racial characteristics, as do the Catholic and Orthodox depictions. The Coptic Church of Egypt separated in the 5th century, and has a distinctive depiction of Jesus, consistent with Coptic art.
The Ethiopian Church , also Coptic, developed on Coptic traditions, but shows Jesus and all Biblical figures with the Ethiopian appearance of its members. In modern times such variation has become more common, but images following the traditional depiction in both physical appearance and clothing are still dominant, perhaps surprisingly so. In Europe, local ethnic tendencies in depictions of Jesus can be seen, for example in Spanish, German, or Early Netherlandish painting , but almost always surrounding figures are still more strongly characterised.
For example, the Virgin Mary , after the vision reported by Bridget of Sweden , was often shown with blonde hair, but Christ's is very rarely paler than a light brown. Some medieval Western depictions, usually of the Meeting at Emmaus , where his disciples do not recognise him at first Luke. In , the television series Son of God used one of three first-century Jewish skulls from a leading department of forensic science in Israel to depict Jesus in a new way. He also suggested that he would have had short, curly hair and a short cropped beard. Among the points made was that the Bible records that Jesus's disciple Judas had to point him out to those arresting him in Gethsemane.
The implied argument is that if Jesus's physical appearance had differed markedly from his disciples, then he would have been relatively easy to identify. There are, however, some images which have been claimed to realistically show how Jesus looked. One early tradition, recorded by Eusebius of Caesarea , says that Jesus once washed his face with water and then dried it with a cloth, leaving an image of his face imprinted on the cloth. This was sent by him to King Abgarus of Edessa , who had sent a messenger asking Jesus to come and heal him of his disease.
This image, called the Mandylion or Image of Edessa , appears in history in around Numerous replicas of this " image not made by human hands " remain in circulation. There are also icon compositions of Jesus and Mary that are traditionally believed by many Orthodox to have originated in paintings by Luke the Evangelist. A currently familiar depiction is that on the Shroud of Turin , whose records go back to Controversy surrounds the shroud and its exact origin remains subject to debate.
Before , devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus used an image based on the Veil of Veronica , where legend recounts that Veronica from Jerusalem encountered Jesus along the Via Dolorosa on the way to Calvary. When she paused to wipe the sweat from Jesus's face with her veil, the image was imprinted on the cloth. Warner Sallman stated that The Head of Christ was the result of a "miraculous vision that he received late one night", proclaiming that "the answer came at 2 A.
Ishaq Soliman of St. Mark's Coptic Church in Houston, on the same day, "testified to the miracles" and on the next day, "Dr. Atef Rizkalla, the family physician, examined the youth and certified that there were no traces of leukemia ". Mosaic of the 3rd century on the Vatican grottoes under St.
Mural painting from the catacomb of Commodilla. One of the first bearded images of Jesus, late 4th century. Jesus depicted on an early 8th-century Byzantine coin. After the Byzantine iconoclasm all coins had Christ on them. Characteristically, he is portrayed as similar in features and skin tone to the culture of the artist. An unusual image of Jesus as a medieval knight bearing an attributed coat of arms based on the Veil of Veronica.
The Baptism of Christ , by Piero della Francesca , Christ as Man of Sorrows by Andrea Mantegna. A traditional Ethiopian depiction of Jesus and Mary with distinctively "Ethiopian" features.
Pietro Perugino 's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater , Transfiguration of Jesus depicting him with Elijah , Moses and three apostles by Carracci , The Crucifixion of Christ, painted by Titian. Trevisani 's depiction of the typical baptismal scene with the sky opening and the Holy Spirit descending as a dove, Jesus Christ Pantocrator — ancient mosaic from Hagia Sophia. Head of Jesus by Enrique Simonet. Jesus, with crown and dove of peace, pacifies two fighting warriors, Berlin Cathedral , c. Christ the King in Portugal. Christ the Redeemer , the most famous icon in Rio de Janeiro , Brazil.
Christ in Majesty , Chartres Cathedral. Cristo de la Concordia in Bolivia , claimed to be the largest statue of Jesus ever made. Cristo del Otero , above Palencia , Spain.