Mixed Bathing in Another Dimension: The Knight of Ambra. The Asterisk War, Vol. Diary Of A Radical Mermaid. Blast from the Past. These are short stories. The Stewardess's Diary - Part Seven: His Soul to Take. A Visit From the Soul-Eater: The Good Girl Part Deux.
The Stories of Haven: Only For A Boss 2: Fairies, Robots and Unicorns: A Sword Called Rhonda. Bullies and Soggy Soup Bones. The Life We Live. Requiem for the Fallen. Shadow Cave Shadows 1.
The Glyph Saga Book One: The Glyph Saga Book Four: Beast of Both Worlds. The Glyph Saga Book Three: At the Mother Station. The Glyph Saga Book Five: The function of this skull sign becomes clear when we turn to the eclipse tables of the Dresden Codex. Here, a skull, which most likely is the post-classic form of the UH -skull is used to write the word for moon, uh Figure The UH skull in the context of the eclipse tables in the Dresden Codex. All elements under or above the crossed leg signs in this particular variant of Glyph X are related to the moon or eclipses.
Glyph X-vii is extremely rare and appears only twice in the entire corpus. This is the X glyph which is required when Glyph C has a skull prefix and the coefficient of six. Glyph X-viii appears with the numbers one, two and three of the Maize God head variant of the C Glyph. In the Macri and Looper catalogue, this sign corresponds to 2M4. Visually, the mirrors with arc sign appear to be reduplication or the main sign variant of this syllable. A small sign with no identification in the glyph catalogues and no secure reading.
The lower part of the left half is the mirrors with arc sign. The two signs above probably include a stylized necklace and the syllable tu or si.
If the upper left sign indeed is a necklace, it could indicate that the mirror with arc sign probably represent jade belts or beads. The right half of the glyph includes the syllable ko and probably other syllabic signs on top. The fact that X-viii in its original form perhaps goes back to a jade pectoral can be seen in a comparison with the pectoral of the Maize God on the North Wall of San Bartolo, Pinturas Sub-1 Individual 9. The main sign is a head with Kawak markings Figure Attached to this head often is a mi sign.
The mi sign does not seem to be obligatory, since there are examples of Glyph X-ix from Chichen Itza and Piedras Negras which lack the mi prefix Figures 17, c-e, g-l. In addition to the mi prefix, there can be another small sign attached to the Kawak head.
It looks like a pu sign with other elements attached to its bottom Figures 17, b-e. Another variant of Glyph X-ix has the same Kawak head main sign, but the sky and earth signs attached to it as a prefix Figures 17, k-l. On Quirigua, Stela F Figure 18k and Yaxchilan, Hieroglyphic Stairway 3 Step 3 there is a si suffix, suggesting that the hieroglyph refers to an inalienable body part. Although the head on Glyph C cannot be recognized any more, the coefficient six, as well as the presence of the mi and Kawak signs makes it likely that this is another form of Glyph X-ix, probably including an explicit syllabic spelling of what otherwise is represented by head variants.
The corresponding cycle of eighteen lunations as expressed in the three C Glyphs with coefficients between one and six, however, is already present much earlier. The first C Glyphs appear on Uaxactun, Stela 9 8.
Once Glyph X was introduced, it quickly spread north, where it appears at Oxkintok 9. Glyph B is only present when Glyph X is present.
There are no cases of the use of Glyph B without a preceding Glyph X. The first examples of Glyph B appear at about 9. Glyph B of the Lunar Series. The teeth sign is not registered in the Thompson catalogue but is listed as HJ3 in the Macri and Looper sign catalogue Since the teeth sign never occurs independently from the goggle eyes, it must form part of a complex sign together with the eyes.
In Late Classic inscriptions and in the codices, the teeth element are usually replaced or probably covered by a ko syllable Figure 20d. However, as stated above, the teeth sign never is used as a ko syllable on its own. Sometimes the ko sign is conflated with the teeth sign, as can be seen by the lateral adornments attached to both the teeth and the ko signs.
However, apart from this unique example, the rodent bone glyph is absent in the Early Classic period and does not show up before 9. The icon of the sign is very reminiscent of Maya images of the Teotihuacan war god known from later Aztec sources as Tlaloc Schele In fact, the goggles seem to be part of a mask, very often hiding behind them a pair of human eyes. The goggled eyes, curled upper lip and prominent fangs were the most characteristic features of the Teotihuacan Storm God, who is often regarded as a predecessor to Tlaalok Tlaloc , as this rain deity was known in Nawatl Nahuatl , the language of the postclassic Aztec, who in numerous ways were the cultural inheritors of the people of Teotihuacan.
The original name of Tlaalok amongst the people of Teotihuacan remains unknown to us, although it is not impossible that the Aztec name Tlaalok , for which no good etymology can be presented yet, was inherited from Teotihuacan. Glyph A spells the number 29 or 30 and informs us about the length of the current moon. With Glyph D of the lunar series counting the days of the lunation since its first visibility, it is very likely that the last part of the Lunar Series provides information about the moon during its childhood.
In conclusion, Glyph X has to be interpreted as a series of names which were given to the moon when it appeared as a small crescent in the sky. The fact that most forms of Glyph X are based on logograms which include many idiosyncratic signs confirms the interpretation of Glyph X as a sequence of nominals.
Although we have come a little bit closer to understand the forms and functions of Glyph X, there are still important issues to be resolved. The most important question of course is: Why do two or even three sequential lunations share the same Glyph X? An explanation for the fact that several lunations have the same name might be based on the fact that the young crescent moon in these cases became visible at the same point on the horizon or in the sky.
Perhaps certain lunations were also considered related, or it was assumed that they had the same characteristics. Ultimately, however, an explanation for Glyph X can only be found in the mythological narratives of the classic period, which were much more complex and varied than commonly assumed. American Anthropologist 36 3: Latin American Antiquity 25 2: Grube, Nikolai Die Entwicklung der Mayaschrift: Grundlagen zur Erforschung des Wandels der Mayaschrift von der Protoklassik bis zur spanischen Eroberung.
Robertson, and Rafael Cobos, 2: Memoria de la Tercera Mesa Redonda de Palenque. Grube, Nikolai, and David S. Stuart Observations on T as the Syllable ko. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing 8. Center for Maya Research, Washington, D.
Young Men in Classic Maya Society. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 19 2: American Antiquity 51 1: Macri and Jan McHargue, pp.
Palenque Round Table Series The Classic Period Inscriptions. Civilization of the American Indian Series Mayer, Karl Herbert Maya Monuments: Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in Europe. Acoma Books, Ramona, CA. Sculptures of Unknown Provenance in the United States. Reflections on the Murals of Bonampak. Bryan Press, Washington, D. Research Reports on Ancient Maya Writing New Observation and Interpretations.
Stuart, David, Marcello A. Contributions to American Archaeology 1 2: Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, D.
Goodreads helps you keep track of books you want to read. Ultimately, however, an explanation for Glyph X can only be found in the mythological narratives of the classic period, which were much more complex and varied than commonly assumed. The table which he published in his article Rohark En az 0 50 karakter. Unaware of our informal publication, John Linden published a paper in the Palenque Mesa Redonda Volume where he came to the same conclusion in regard to the correlation between forms of Glyph X, and the coefficients and deity heads of Glyph C Linden
The Civilization of the American Indian Series