He warns against the passions of young and immature people. He calls for character education from a young age. He explains the role of chance and the possibility of misfortune. And in doing so, he builds his argument about human excellence and the best way to live, the good life and eudaimonia - the state or act of living this good life. It takes quite a while to read and fully understand the Ethics.
And it takes an open mind to challenge, reflect, and learn from it. But eventually, we come to appreciate listening to Aristotle teaching on the highest good for human beings, the virtues of character and intellect, and eudaimonia, even if many points are open to interpretation. The value of his ideas is gradually revealed to us, not only because his is a work of profound wisdom, but also because it gives us insights into eternal questions of human existence that still concern us today.
Public Domain W ould it be wrong to call Priam unhappy because his last years were unhappy? The Ethics is a systematic inquiry into human character. Aristotle analyzes individual excellence that for him depended on who we are as persons, on personal responsibility and agency, on practice and effort, and on the good habits we develop. And, ultimately, on how all this is expressed in the activity of eudaimonia over a lifetime. The Ethics is a systematic study into the best life. The philosopher tells us, not that we should aim for eudaimonia, but rather that we do aim at it; not that we ought to live a life of eudaimonia, but rather what this life consists in.
His is a theory of virtue ethics, composed of character and intellect, driven by rational judgement, and aiming at a good life. The path towards human excellence goes beyond theory- the philosopher intends it to be practical, relevant to our real experience and to the goals we can achieve.
And overall, individual excellence spans a whole life - until the end- in the activity of contemplation that calls on the divine element within us. Character education should start from a young age aiming not only at individual excellence but at a society in which people can live a good life. Once a person develops a good character, there is no reversal, no way back to a previous stage - a good character is stable. And this framework is intended to be closer to our real experience than other alternative theories of how we ought to live.
In the ten books of the Ethics, the philosopher analyzes: Copy of the Imperial era 1st or 2nd century lost bronze sculpture made by Lysippos. Aristotle's School, a painting from the s by Gustav Adolph Spangenberg. If you decide to read the Nicomachean Ethics, you will find that in all languages and editions, they begin with page , column a, line 1. This is the Bekker numbering used for the edition of the complete works of Aristotle in the Prussian Academy of Sciences.
August Immanuel Bekker , a classical philologist, was the editor of the works. I hope you will enjoy reading the articles that will follow on the Ethics and that you will find personal meaning in the ideas and principles the great philosopher is teaching us. Because to my mind, this is how we should listen to Aristotle in our quest for excellence and the good life - as our teacher in our personal Lyceum. Register to become part of our active community, get updates, receive a monthly newsletter, and enjoy the benefits and rewards of our member point system OR just post your comment below as a Guest.
By bringing together top experts and authors, this archaeology website explores lost civilizations, examines sacred writings, tours ancient places, investigates ancient discoveries and questions mysterious happenings. Our open community is dedicated to digging into the origins of our species on planet earth, and question wherever the discoveries might take us. We seek to retell the story of our beginnings. It was more purely conceptual than Charles' and missed the idea of natural selection. On his mother's side, Darwin's grandfather was the wealthy Josiah Wedgwood, founder of the eponymous pottery concern and a prominent abolitionist.
Darwin began training to be a physician but didn't have a taste for doctoring, so he moved on to studying for the Anglican priesthood at Cambridge. His real passion, however, was natural history. Shortly after graduation in , he signed on for an unpaid position as a naturalist aboard the Beagle , which was about to embark on a survey of South American coastlines.
During the five-year voyage Darwin collected thousands of important specimens, discovered new species both living and extinct and immersed himself in biogeography—the study of where particular species live, and why. Upon his return to England in , Darwin stayed busy, publishing scientific works on the geology of South America, the formation of coral reefs and the animals encountered during his Beagle expedition, as well as a best-selling popular account of his time aboard the ship. He married his cousin, Emma Wedgwood, in , and by the growing Darwin family was established at Down House, in a London suburb.
Charles, plagued by poor health, settled down with a vengeance. By , he was confiding in a letter to a fellow naturalist, "I am almost convinced quite contrary to opinion I started with that species are not it is like confessing a murder immutable. He devoted eight full years to documenting minute anatomical variations in barnacles. A prolific letter writer, he sought samples, information and scientific advice from correspondents around the world. It was a young naturalist and professional specimen collector named Alfred Russel Wallace who finally spurred Darwin to publish. Working first in the Amazon and then in the Malay Archipelago, Wallace had developed an evolution theory similar to Darwin's but not as fully substantiated.
When, in , Wallace sent the older man a manuscript describing his theory of evolution, Darwin realized that Wallace could beat him into print. Darwin had an essay he had written in and Wallace's manuscript read at a meeting of the Linnean Society in London on July 1, , and published together later that summer.
Wallace, then on an island in what is now Indonesia, wouldn't find out about the joint publication until October. Carroll, a biologist and author of books on evolution. He was honored that his work was considered worthy" to be included alongside that of Darwin, whom he greatly admired. This first public airing of Darwinian evolution caused almost no stir whatsoever.
But when Darwin published his ideas in book form the following year, the reaction was quite different.
On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life soon sold out its first press run of 1, copies, and within a year some 4, copies were in circulation. Allies applauded it as a brilliant unifying breakthrough; scientific rivals called attention to the gaps in his evidence, including what would come to be known as "missing links" in the fossil record; and prominent clergymen, politicians and others condemned the work and its far-reaching implications.
In Benjamin Disraeli, later Britain's prime minister, famously decried the idea—barely mentioned in Origin —that human beings too had evolved from earlier species. I repudiate with indignation and abhorrence those newfangled theories. Darwin had anticipated such protests. But, he also said, "I look with confidence to the future, to young and rising naturalists, who will be able to view both sides of the question with impartiality.
The age of the earth was, for Darwin, a major unexplained difficulty. He recognized that a great deal of time must have been necessary for the world's diversity of plants and animals to evolve—more time, certainly, than the 6, years allowed by the leading biblical interpretation of earth's age, but more also than many scientists then accepted. In , the physicist William Thomson later Lord Kelvin calculated that the planet was unlikely to be more than million years old—still nowhere near enough time for evolution to have acted so dramatically. Further studies, including one by Darwin's son George, an astronomer, fixed earth's age at well under million years.
It wouldn't be until the s and s that geologists, calculating the rates of radioactive decay of elements, concluded that the earth was billions of years old—according to the latest studies, 4. Darwin surely would have been relieved that there was enough time for evolution to have accounted for the great diversity of life on earth. Modern geology has helped solve another puzzle that troubled Darwin—the existence of oddly similar terrestrial species on separate continents.
How, for example, to explain the emus of Australia, ostriches of Africa and rheas of South America— large, flightless, long-necked birds with the same distinctive sternums? Early evolutionists, following Darwin, invoked scenarios such as long-gone land bridges stretching thousands of miles to explain how apparently related species could wind up so far apart. The outrageous truth wasn't revealed until the s, when scientists discovered plate tectonics and confirmed that the continents, far from being permanent fixtures of land surrounded by water, were giant rafts floating on molten rock.
This discovery justified the nagging suspicion of middle school students everywhere that the continents should fit together into a giant jigsaw puzzle, as indeed they once had. In Darwin's time, the idea that once-contiguous continents shifted apart, separating sister species one from another, would have been nearly as audacious as evolution itself. Evolution explains the vast diversity of life on earth, with single species becoming many as they adapt to different environments.
Wilson, "although his masterwork was entitled On the Origin of Species , Darwin really didn't pay much attention to how one species splits and multiplies into many. But understanding the process would have to wait for the work of Wallace in the mids. Wallace, working in an area with tens of thousands of islands, showed that a single butterfly species could slowly become many as it adapted to the specific conditions encountered on each island.
But that was something that Darwin held back a little. Darwin knew that plant and animal species could be sorted into groups by similarity, such that birds clustered into songbirds and raptors, say, with each group subdivided again and again down to dozens or hundreds of distinct species. He also saw that the individuals within any given species, despite many similarities, also differed from one another—and some of those differences were passed from parents to their offspring.
And Darwin observed that nature had a brutally efficient method of rewarding any variation that helped an individual live longer, breed faster or leave more progeny.
The reward for being a slightly faster or more alert antelope? The lions would eat your slower neighbors first, granting you one more day in which to reproduce. After many generations and a great deal of time, the whole population would run faster, and with many such changes over time eventually become a new species. Evolution, Darwin's "descent with modification through natural selection," would have occurred.
It is starting to change in the modeling world where a law had passed in Brazil that there had to be at least 10 percent black models in modeling agencies and photo shoots. Disbelief in human descent may have been a justifiable comfort in Darwin's time, when few fossils of human ancestors had been discovered, but the evidence no longer allows it. The white race has cured and developed treatment for many diseases. The Ethics is a long text divided into ten books most probably by later editors rather than by Aristotle himself. The Nicomachean Ethics Ethics is a seminal text that has for centuries influenced the study of ethics all over the world. An Exotic Bloodline or Random Mutation? Anonymous October 23, at 5:
But what was the source of variation and what was the mechanism for passing change from generation to generation? Darwin "didn't know anything about why organisms resemble their parents, or the basis of heritable variations in populations," says Niles Eldredge, a paleontologist at the American Museum of Natural History in New York City.
In Darwin's era, the man who did make progress on the real mechanism of inheritance was the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel. While at times exogamy has allowed certain genes to spread, it only takes a few individuals to introduce beneficial genes for a sweep. But, for the most part, endogamy is preferred because it preserves who you are, the tried and tested.
Most mutts do not live to pass on their DNA, but purebreds do. For example, the Ashkenazis were able to maintain there higher IQ through endogamy. Furthermore, regarding the Salter quote, most people prefer being more closely related to their children Salter: But choosing an English spouse over a Bantu, one yields a fitness gain of 92 percent It is almost the equivalent to having twice the number of children with an English spouse.
Thus assortative mating by ethnicity can have large fitness benefits, the largest derived from choosing mates within geographic races. Look at the quote from the English mother with the man from India: She didn't mean to be rude. But it was a comment that struck me with the force of a jab to the stomach. Immediately, I was overwhelmed by a confusion of emotions. I felt protective, insulted, worried, ashamed, guilty, all at once. My lovely, wriggly, smiley baby is mixed race The truth is, whatever the label, the fact there is a label proves that my daughter's conflicting parentage matters But when I turn to the mirror in my bedroom to admire us together, I am shocked.
She seems so alien. With her long, dark eyelashes and shiny, dark brown hair, she doesn't look anything like me. I know that concentrating on how my daughter looks is shallow. She is a person in her own right, not an accessory to me. But still, I can't shake off the feeling of unease. I didn't realise how much her looking different would matter and, on a rational level, I know it shouldn't.
Evolution demands that we have children to pass on our genes, hence the sense of pride and validation we get when we see our features reappearing in the next generation. With my daughter, I don't have that But self-flagellation is not useful. I have more pressing concerns. I am now the mother of a 'black' child, even if she is more the hue of weak tea than espresso When she was born, pale but with lots of dark hair, I asked the midwife if her eyes would stay blue.
No more Brady Bunch kids for me. The midwife has been proved right and every day my baby's eyes get a little darker. In the elite world of Asian fashion, half-Asian is the new white. Is this a coincidence? What pied pipers are constantly imaging whites with acceptable presentations of miscegenation? Personally, I think mixed-race people are ugly. The refined perspective is to prefer the purebred to the mutt.
Brian writes, "Most mutts do not live to pass on their DNA, but purebreds do. If you are talking about dogs, that may be true, since the various breeds are, by definition, bred by people, but there is no analogy to humans. It does say something about your views, though. Do you honestly think you are doing badly if these are your children or if you were lucky enough to marry either of the two young ladies on the right or left? Conducted by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the National Institutes of Health, the investigation found that adolescents of mixed race were more likely to have other health problems as well.
Almost all the mixed-race people I've known have been truly messed up in the head. Everything has it's pros and cons mixing race is just one those thing that have many advantages but can have a butt load of disadvantages at the same time mental health problems is one them, People just have to be more careful when doing it. Dan, One who strives for more aristocratic norms will always prefer the purebred to the mutt. Brian, you sound like a nationalist from pre-WWI Europe. Prince Charles, one of the ugliest men ever to force his visage on the world? Even he preferred a pretty commoner to the inbred aristocrats around him.
If you guessed I am mixed race, you would be right. Like most Americans, I am a mutt. The funny thing is, we American mutts have been outbreeding our European 'purebred' counterparts for years running. We American mutts continue to outbreed our European counterparts to this day, and the difference is dramatic.
Many of our purebred counterparts are facing demographic disaster. Dan Hess "Consider the worldwide dominance of Brazilian supermodels and the fact that Brazilians tend to be racially mixed. Most of the models that Brazil are known for come from German and Italian immigrant communities in the south of Brazil. These immigrants have remained homogenous. There are pockets of communities all over Brazil of people that have immigrated from their native countries in Europe to create whole towns and societies where their native tongues are spoken.
These small towns are usually tobacco farms, or farmers of different crops in the North and South of Brazil. It is starting to change in the modeling world where a law had passed in Brazil that there had to be at least 10 percent black models in modeling agencies and photo shoots. This still is not the real world of modeling in Brazil where at least 60 percent of the models found come from small German and Italian villages in the country side of Brazil. Finding the right mix of a girl is an art to some.
The mix of German and Italian is ideal, but some Russian is fine.
The importance to find models would create a whole new life outside the farms they know. But the white german models in Brazil is an export the world sees everyday. Scouts say over 70 percent of models are from three states. The goal, he and other model scouts say, is to find the right genetic cocktail of German and Italian ancestry, perhaps with some Russian or other Slavic blood thrown in.
Such a mix, they say, helps produce the tall, thin girls with straight hair, fair skin and light eyes that Brazil exports to the runways of New York, Milan and Paris with stunning success. Please remember how those Africans got to Brazil. Abraham Lincoln deported tens of thousands of freed slaves. That's the only reason he wanted to free them in the first place, so he could get them out of North America!
As a mother, I can tell you that being genetically close to your children is important. A white mother of a mixed child would have to feel estranged from the child that looks nothing like her. I could pretend to care for a mixed race child but deep down I could never care for it as I could for my own, same-race closely related children. As a hopeful future mother, I agree. I would honestly rather adopt a white baby than have a halfblack baby of my own.
Neither is good but the mixed race child would be impossible to love or identify with. On a global scale, different European ethnicities cluster very closely together on the genetic level: In other words, even an ancient Israelite ancestor lacking the European admixture would likely be much more genetically similar to the Europeans in Mr. Hess' background than to Bantus. You are overlooking the very obvious fact that even a blond white and brown-haired white are still very closely related on a genetic level.
A brown-haired brit will be around times more closely related to a blond Dane than to a Sub-Saharan black. As a white woman, I'm turned off by all black men, and so are all the other white women I know. If you look at the white women who actually go for black men, they're white trash: I too have noticed how many mixed-race people aren't right in the head, esp. Black-white mixes will look black and identify as black But it's the white-Asian mixed kids that seem to be more confused about their identity And no one will want to marry a white-Asian mixed person or anyone that cannot identify completely within one race, especially when they are not mixed race themselves.
Because they are seen as untrustworthy and more likely to cheat in a marriage due to their ambiguity. Sometimes these people have to work hard to identify with one race only so that way those that aren't mixed will trust them easily. Better yet, we should have children with our siblings. Keep the love in the family. I'm a half-black, half-white woman and my comment is available here. From the age - nothings is Dumper than a White Girl. They grew up with Cinderella and Snow White! Then there is Tyree or Jerome! His big Trophy in life is knocking up a Blonde! Of Course "Romey" dosent have it in him to Provide!
It's not in his DNA- look at the Data! Look how many single Black Mothers there are! Stupid White Girls never see this coming! They want to prove they aren't Prejudice-so they spread legs. Avoid her like the Plaque! She would be better off with a Felony!
One of my good female friends got pregnant by a black guy the "worst mistake of her life" she now says because she like an idiot didn't get an abortion. The baby looks black and she can't even identify with it at all.