Over the years, players have created Mafia variants that include additional rules. Some of these are listed here. If there are as many mafiosi as innocents in the day-phase then a mafia victory is declared immediately, under the original Mafia rules. Other variants suspend this rule, and only declare the game after every member of one faction has been eliminated: Nominees for lynching may be allowed to make a speech in their own defense.
Usually, each player must vote, can only vote once and cannot vote for themselves. But some variants have a more complicated process of selecting players to be executed. Davidoff's original 'Mafia' allowed multiple day-time executions per day , each needing only a plurality to action. Voting variants abound , but any lynching usually requires an absolute majority of the electorate, or votes cast.
So the voting is usually not by secret ballot for multiple candidates with the highest vote count eliminated; it is more usual for the voting to be openly resolved either by:. Deadlocked elections can be resolved by lot  or by killing the player with the scapegoat special role. The special case of one mafioso and one innocent remaining can be decided randomly  or be ruled a Mafia win—this is more usual in live play.
The Innocents can choose not to kill anybody during the day. Although commonly unsure of Mafia identities, the Innocents are more likely to randomly kill a mafioso than are the Mafia at night. Therefore, not lynching anyone even at random will typically favor the Mafia. Some variants require all Mafia members to choose the same victim independently for a kill to succeed. This can be achieved in the following ways:.
In some online versions of the game, a particular player the Godfather or a designated mafioso must send in the kill. Another variant requires the night-time vote to be secret and unanimous, but allows multiple players to be added to the execution queue to ensure unanimity. Multiple, independent groups of mafia or werewolves  act and win independently, giving faster game-play and the potential for cross-fire between the factions. In this variant, players are given two cards: Attributes were originally derived from roles that could apply to both Mafia and Innocent alignments such as Bulletproof cannot be killed at night , Mayor has two votes in the lynch , and Siamese Twins more commonly known as Siblings or Lovers.
The difference from a standard game of Mafia is that players are not initially assigned roles, but rather on each day are given the probabilities describing the game's current quantum state. Each player with a non-zero probability of being a seer or a werewolf performs the appropriate night actions which may not be effective if it is later determined that the player did not have that role. When a player is killed, the wave function collapses and the players are given updated probabilities. Traditional Mafia re-envisioned and heavily modified by the Copenhagen Game Collective to be played in a subway metro.
In this variation, players who are 'lynched' are kicked off the train at the next stop , and must wait in shame for the following train — a kind of 'afterlife' train — to join a second, interwoven game. A location-based mobile gaming variant for Android , designed for city center play. The two factions are: The rule-set replaces expulsions with scoring by round. Each player is assigned an individual mission each round. Some missions are critical and if one of those fails, the round goes to the Spies, but only one player knows which missions are critical.
In this standalone game published by Bezier Games, players only "sleep" and close their eyes for a single night at the beginning of the game. They then have a single day of discussion, with a single lynching. No players are eliminated as the game progresses.
There is no moderator, so everyone gets to participate as a member of the town or village. When playing this game, three more role cards are used than the number of players; when everyone is randomly dealt out their card the three extra ones placed in the middle of the table.
To begin the game one of the players, with eyes closed, will act as the "caller" on the single starting night, going through the nighttime roles once: Werewolves and Masons if in play will identify each other, the Seer will examine one player's card or two of the middle cards, the Robber will steal another player's role card and replace it with their own, the Troublemaker will blindly swap two players' role cards, the Insomniac wakes up to check if their role card has been swapped, etc. The game ends on a single lynching vote, with the villagers winning if a single werewolf is caught, and the werewolves winning if no werewolves are killed.
This game can be played with as few as three players. Play time can be as quick as five minutes per game . Mafia can also be played online. Games can be played on IRC channels , where a bot assumes the role of a game moderator and the interaction of players is conducted via textual communication.
Since , many other Mafia game sites were formed. These sites are attempts at reproducing the live Mafia games, and the duration and the mechanics of the games are about the same as when the game is played traditionally. Playing mafia-like games online opens a possibility long lasting games, such as the ones on forums.
In such games, one day in real life usually corresponds to one day within the game, so players log in each morning to see who was killed during the night phase. The online games have several advantages. There is no need to gather many people in the same room, so organizing and playing a game of Mafia is faster and more convenient. Removing the human moderator and the need for players to close their eyes removes the possibility of accidental reveals of information.
Online play also allows role mechanics which would be too cumbersome to use in a physical version of the game. A drawback of online play is the lack of direct face-to-face communication, which many consider the most important aspect of Mafia. Some sites organize Mafia games with web cams, so that the face-to-face communication is preserved.
The long lasting online mafia games that are usually played via online forums do not necessarily have this drawback. It is merely a correlation that people who communicate via forums usually do not know each other in real life. In a traditional Mafia game, all of the players are in one room. There is no way to communicate with another player in private.
With online games, this is not the case. Many Mafia game forums and game sites have rules that mandate that only one channel of communication must be used for all game related discussion. These rules are obviously only declarative as there is no way of enforcing them efficiently. It is especially difficult to enforce such prohibiting rules during long games on players that communicate with each other in person in real life. All forums support different kind of game setups, so it is feasible to organize a forum game without the restrictions on private messaging.
Private communication problem comes to light especially in trying to prevent "dead" players from participating in the game. Most online games consider this a breach of rules. Since, in general case, this breach of rules cannot be proven, the gameplay of most sites depends heavily on players' honesty and integrity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the video game, see Mafia video game. This section needs additional citations for verification.
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Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. There was a problem filtering reviews right now. Please try again later. A great explanation on how to become successful in various organizations and institutions. A good companion to the book "Good is Not Enough" by Keith Wycth which focuses on life in the corporate world. Assassin is particularly popular on college campuses; several universities have a dedicated "Assassins' Guild" society, which organizes games for their members.
Gameplay occurs at all hours and in all places unless otherwise disallowed by the rules. Since an elimination attempt could occur at any time, successful players are obliged to develop a degree of watchful paranoia. The Assassin game has several published variants, such as the Steve Jackson rules book Killer: The Game of Assassination ,  first published in ,  and different guilds tend to create their own sets of rules and procedures.
As such, the specific style of play is likely to vary between one group and the next.
Game hosts also called umpires or referees begin by advertising that a game is being set up and instruct potential players to send in their personal details. Once enough players have signed up, the game host assigns targets to the players. A player is usually told the personal details of their target as collected by the game host. The aim of the game is for players to track down and eliminate their targets until only one player remains.
When a player eliminates their target, they get the victim's target s. Only one assassin can kill a target at a time. If only one player remains, the game is over. Oxford University plays by a ruleset where the game runs for a week and the players respawn, usually after 12 hours; the aim of the game is to collect as many points from kills as possible.
The respawn means events are organised during the game to capture specific points. Eliminations "kills" remove a target from the game. What constitutes an elimination depends upon the particular rules set up by the game host. Eliminations might include hitting the target with an airsoft gun , striking them with a toy plastic lightsaber , or putting a dash of hot sauce "poison" in the target's food.
Some rules establish safe-zones. A safe-zone is a place that protects a player from elimination. Safe-zones are declared by game hosts. At a university, safe zones might include classrooms during class periods. Under some rulesets, the presence of witnesses or the presence of witnesses above a certain number will either invalidate the kill or expose the killer to "penalties", like additional assassins being dispatched to target him or her.
Game hosts might assign certain items to be worn or actions to be performed that protect the wearer or performer from elimination. These items or actions are called safeties. The safety can last for one specific day or for the duration of the game.
Some games have "police forces", sometimes composed of eliminated players, whose job is to track down rule breakers. Some have time limits on eliminations and penalize players who are behind schedule in killing their targets. Often, in games with a small number of players, the game hosts will designate one player as the "assassin" whose job it is to "kill" all other players without being identified.
The assassin wins if they successfully kill all players without being identified and other players win by correctly guessing the assassin before they are killed. However, if a player guesses the wrong player, they are automatically eliminated. Those who are killed are not allowed to tell other players who the assassin is, but this variant is almost never played with a prize for winning to avoid accusations of cheating in this way.
Generally, elimination is carried out using items and methods that cause no actual damage and, in many cases, cannot be mistaken by bystanders for real weapons or acts of violence. The most common ranged weapons are water pistols , NERF -type weapons, and rubber band guns.
Other weapons include tennis balls, balled-up socks ,  blue pens, or rubber bands fired by hand. Some rulesets simply make "water" a weapon, whether splashed with bare hands, conveyed by water balloon, or fired from a water gun. Basilisk rules count simply looking in the eyes of the target as a successful assassination.