Before her career in higher education, she worked in the private sector commencing her career as a product development manager with Imperial Inns and Taverns Courage Brewery , before moving to hotel management and commissioning for a wholesale travel operator. Following this, Tracy then joined a national training company as Regional Manager for South East England, leading a team of 40 staff managing both government contracts and commercial business.
Doug is responsible for a range of Leadership Foundation open programmes as well as undertaking bespoke consultancy assignments for universities. Key interests include educational and research leadership, the leadership of professional services, strategy development and leadership for sustainability. An accomplished teacher, facilitator, coach and conference speaker, Doug has achievements across a wide range of leadership, educational and organisational development projects. People who work with Doug comment on his enthusiasm, great preparation, powerful insights, breakthrough moments and sheer inspiration.
They go away with new energy, ideas and perspectives on themselves and others. Click here to download the Higher Education Insights Flyer. We are a membership organisation of and for a sector that has some of the brightest minds in the UK. Our members are key to our strategy and form a community of higher education institutions with a clear commitment to and experience of developing leadership, governance and management capabilities at all levels.
Academic and professional services staff from member institutions contribute to our programmes, projects and research and advise on benefits and services. Find out more about Membership. Membership is open to all higher education providers and related sector organisations on an annual or three-yearly subscription basis. Access to our latest, highly-valued research, Leadership Insights, Getting to Grips series and practical development project resources.
Am I a member? This may have been because individual customers visited the shops infrequently and so donated to new campaigns every time they visited or due to a strong seasonality effect, which meant that other factors where driving the amounts fundraised. The fact that the mean number of customers in the month before Christmas was more than four times the mean number of customers in the other months suggests that the latter might be the case. In this case the AGS would be free to adopt a more flexible approach to the duration of each campaign by, for example, running multiple campaigns simultaneously or by setting fundraising targets and changing the topic when these target amounts are reached.
By changing from the current fixed term scheduling system, the AGS could pursue a more strategic approach and fundraise more for causes with higher costs. The increase in donations over time we detected, even after correcting for inflation, should be noted as a positive sign for Australian charities. Yet, our finding that this variable had more explanatory power than the characteristics of the campaign or the traits of the potential donor population show how broader socio-economic trends can be critical to dictate the outcomes of fundraising initiatives. We rejected our fourth and fifth hypotheses, because the only significant difference in donor profile was that shops in lower-income areas received higher revenue per customer Table 2.
This result contradicts previous research that found no association between donor socio-economic profile and probability of donating or amount donated [ 61 ], although it should be noted that the detected effect of income was small. Past research has also found that people with lower incomes are more likely to donate to charities with a human focus, instead of those for causes related to animals or the environmental [ 62 ]. We accept that our findings may have resulted from a limitation with our donor income metric, which was based on the characteristics of people living around the shops, rather than on the donors themselves.
This might have been compounded by our inability to distinguish donors from non-donors, which reduced the resolution of the data and might have obscured some of the underlying drivers of donations. However, it is also possible that poorer people genuinely gave higher donations, and there are examples of similar patterns from studies on charitable giving in other sectors [ 27 — 29 ].
This book provides an intellectual framework for guiding prospective major donors in giving more effectively to higher education. Provides an intellectual framework for guiding prospective major donors in giving more effectively to higher domaine-solitude.comgh most major gifts are profoundly.
Regardless, our results add to the literature that suggests donor levels depend on a range of factors whose influence varies with the cultural context, campaign focus and donor profile. It is worth noting that while the AGS may gain strategically from focusing their fundraising efforts on their own customers, as they are more likely to donate, it is also true that this focus on a self-selected subject pool limits how widely our results can be extrapolated.
While some NGO staff know that research on past fundraising campaigns can be key for informing future marketing efforts [ 63 ], there is little published research on fundraising for biodiversity conservation to inform the broader community. One way of fulfilling the need for more marketing research in the conservation NGO sector would be to promote collaborations between academics and NGOs [see 65 ]. This would give academics access to large volumes of real-world data and the ability to ensure their research remains applied, while NGOs would benefit from working with researchers with advanced analytical skills and an understanding of relevant theory [ 66 ].
However, NGOs will have to be comfortable sharing proprietary data that may reveal strategic insights about the impact of their marketing strategies and they may have to compromise around higher academic requirements for data generation e. The present research is an example of such collaboration, with the NGO gaining insights on how to improve their fundraising strategy, while the research contributes to what is known about the drivers of conservation donations.
Red bars indicate shorter ad hoc emergency fundraisers, those that were organized in response to unforeseen natural disasters.
Lowest rank indicates higher appeal. For the projects were more than one species or life stage was represented in the marketing materials, a mean of appeal mean rank for both relevant photos was used. For the projects were more than one species or life stage was represented in the marketing materials, a mean of the percentage of respondents familiar with both relevant photos was used. The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Australian Geographic Society. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
Why do people donate to conservation?
Insights from a 'real world' campaign [Data set]. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Jan The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Received Oct 24; Accepted Jan This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Abstract Non-governmental organisations NGOs play a key role in biodiversity conservation.
Introduction Non-governmental organisations NGOs have been at the forefront of the conservation movement since the early s [ 1 ]. Open in a separate window. Location of the 34 shops of the Australian Geographic Society where flagship campaigns were run between January and June Donation data We obtained total campaign revenue by summing the donations received in each shop during each campaign and converting this amount to Australian Dollars to account for inflation.
Campaign flagship trait data For the conservation flagship trait data we focused on flagship type, body mass, appeal and familiarity, because these traits are known to influence the preferences of the public and the selection of conservation flagship by conservation NGOs [ 23 , 32 — 34 ]. Demographic and socio-economic data We obtained data from the Australian census on the gender, age, economic status, and educational profile of people living within the area surrounding each shop [ 39 ]. Data analysis We performed extensive exploratory analyses on our dataset by checking all the variables for heterogeneity of variance, residual normality and by visually inspecting them to identify potentially influential data points.
Table 1 Variables used in analysis to understand drivers of donations to fundraising campaigns run by the Australian Geographic Society. Name Definition Revenue Total revenue of a campaign, corrected for inflation using the inflation calculator of the Australian Bureau of Statistics. Continuous variable Customers Total number of transactions in a shop during a fundraising campaign. Continuous variable Shop Unique identifier for each shop. Categorical variable Campaign Unique identifier for each conservation campaign.
Categorical variable Time Order in which the fundraising campaigns took place. Continuous variable Duration Number of months a fundraising campaign lasted. Continuous variable Income Index of Economic Resources score of residents in the area where a shop was located Statistical Area 2 level of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard.
This is a measure of access to economic resources. Continuous variable Education Index of Education and Occupation score of residents in the area where a shop was located Statistical Area 2 level of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard. This is a measure of the education and occupation status of the residents. Continuous variable Age Median age of residents living in the area where the shop was located at the Statistical Area 2 level of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard. Continuous variable Gender Proportion of female residents in the area where the shop was located at the Statistical Area 2 level of the Australian Statistical Geography Standard.
Continuous variable Flagship type Topic of the fundraising campaign, divided into the following categories: Categorical variable Body mass Average individual mass of the species targeted by fundraising campaigns [ 35 , 36 ]. Binary variable Appeal If a campaign focused on an appealing species as defined as an average ranking of 5 or less, out of Binary variable as not all campaigns targeted species Location If the flagship type of a fundraising campaign existed in the Australian state where a shop was located. Results Of the 25 campaigns, 20 focused on a single species, half of which were mammals, with the remaining including birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.
Discussion NGOs are a vital component of the conservation movement [ 48 ] but their continued survival and resultant impact depends on their ability to raise money from the public. Flagship impact We tested whether conservation flagship traits influenced donations and were surprised to find that in the context of the species traits considered in this study, only body mass had an influence, albeit small, on the amount donated per customer, as documented in several prior studies [ 23 , 49 ].
Fundraising insights Our results show that campaign duration did not influence total revenue, thus rejecting our hypothesis. Expanding research on conservation marketing While some NGO staff know that research on past fundraising campaigns can be key for informing future marketing efforts [ 63 ], there is little published research on fundraising for biodiversity conservation to inform the broader community.
Supporting information S1 Fig Gantt chart illustrating in black the timeline of the fundraising campaigns by the Australian Geographic Society included in this study. DOCX Click here for additional data file. S1 Table The appeal of species used by the Australian Geographic Society as flagships for their fundraising campaigns, measured as mean rank across respondents. S2 Table The familiarity of species used by the Australian Geographic Society as flagships for their fundraising campaigns, measured as percent of respondents who recognise a given species.
Acknowledgments The authors would like to acknowledge the support of the Australian Geographic Society. The spectacle of nature in the global economy of appearances: Anthropological engagements with the spectacular mediations of transnational conservation. Protect, transform, inspire— Annual Report. Change agents or counting the change: Social Change in the 21st Century , Carseldine: Queensland University of Technology; Dolnicar S, Lazarevski K.
Marketing in non-profit organizations: Market orientation and marketing in nonprofit organizations. Indications for fundraising from Victoria. Challenges in managing nonprofit organizations: Int J Volunt Nonprofit Org. Toward a systematic approach for identifying conservation flagships. Stakeholder perceptions of potential flagship species for the sacred groves of the north Western Ghats, India.
Evaluating conservation flagships and flagship fleets.
Using a systematic approach to select flagship species for bird conservation. Physical attractiveness of an animal species as a decision factor for its preservation. Curtin P, Papworth S. Increased information and marketing to specific individuals could shift conservation support to less popular species. Human preferences for species conservation: Animal charisma trumps endangered status. Ben-Akiva M, Morikawa T. Estimation of switching models from revealed preferences and stated intentions. An examination of the disparity between hypothetical and actual willingness to pay using the contingent valuation method: The case of red kite conservation in the United Kingdom.
Can J Agr Econ. A field experiment involving cash and hypothetical charitable donations. How fundraising is carried out in US nonprofit organisations. Human D, Terblanche N. Cause-Related Marketing in South Africa: Springer International Publishing; Vamstad J, von Essen J. Charitable giving in a universal welfare state—charity and social rights in Sweden. Nonprof Volunt Sec Q. Richardson L, Loomis J.
The total economic value of threatened, endangered and rare species: Beauty and the beast: Preferences for animals in Australia. Schlegel J, Rupf R. Attitudes towards potential animal flagship species in nature conservation: A survey among students of different educational institutions. Responses to different charity appeals: Shelley L, Jay Polonsky M. Do charitable causes need to segment their current donor base on demographic factors?: Lwin M, Phau I. Characteristics of charitable donors in Australia In: Having less, giving more: J Pers Soc Psychol.
Birds as tourism flagship species: A Case Study on Tropical Islands. The Animal Diversity Web. Loureiro ML, Ojea E. Valuing local endangered species: The role of intra-species substitutes. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Census of population and housing A protocol for data exploration to avoid common statistical problems.
Model selection and multi-model inference: Scaling regression inputs by dividing by two standard deviations. R package version 1. Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences. Fishing degrades size structure of coral reef fish communities.
This color scheme will create a sense of cohesion and professionalism throughout your entire web presence. The second contained only time and had a marginal R 2 value of 0. Encouraging supporters to volunteer at or attend your next fundraising event. Set up child campaigns. For the projects were more than one species or life stage was represented in the marketing materials, a mean of appeal mean rank for both relevant photos was used. Decide what type of event you want to throw and set a date. Some gifts cannot be accepted; an example would be gifts not available to underrepresented minorities.
A language and environment for statistical computing. Linear mixed-effects models using Eigen and S4. R package version , 1 7. Larsen PB, Brockington D. Rethinking the boundaries of conservation NGOs In: Larsen PB, Brockington D, editors. The anthropology of conservation NGOs. Flagship species on covers of US conservation and nature magazines. Increased conservation marketing effort has major fundraising benefits for even the least popular species. The use of willingness-to-pay approaches in mammal conservation.
Public preference for endemism over other conservation-related species attributes. Hibbert S, Horne S. Consumer psychology in behavioral perspective: Using advertising constructs and methods to understand direct mail fundraising appeals.