Inquiring of God - Foundations of Talmudic & Biblical Psychology


But when Cephas came to Antioch, I opposed him to his face, because he stood condemned. For before certain men came from James, he was eating with the Gentiles; but when they came he drew back and separated himself, fearing the circumcision party. And the rest of the Jews acted hypocritically along with him, so that even Barnabas was led astray by their hypocrisy. The early church even rejected imposing certain laws written in the Torah, such as the kosher rules and circumcision, on gentile believers.

As the church spread to Greek and Roman cities and beyond, its observance of the mitzvot also diminished. There is no evidence that Christianity ever advocated the Oral Torah which eventually became the Talmud. Mason Wheeler summarized the Christian perspective on the the Talmud well. I will add that the Talmud provides a good deal of useful historical material for anyone trying to understand the origins of Christianity. The Pharisees, the scribes, and all of the Jews who followed the sect of Pharisees nullified the word of God by obeying Traditions of the Elders Matthew 15, Mark 7.

Jesus calls Traditions of the Elders as human traditions Mark 7: That is why the biggest opponents of Jesus Christ were the Pharisees and the scribes Matthew 23, Luke We also see Jesus Christ saying this - "Has not Moses given you the law? Yet not one of you keeps the law. This is also mentioned by Stephen in Acts 7: Traditions of the Elders was also known as Traditions of our Fathers Galatians 1: Rabbi Michael Rodkinson - "The Talmud, then, is the written form of that which, in the time of Jesus, was called the Traditions of the Elders, and to which he makes frequent allusions" Source - The History of the Talmud, Vol.

Histoire des Juifs d'Algérie

Jewish Women in Medieval Europe , that three factors affected how Jewish women were perceived by the society around them: There are also records of wills and other personal legal documents as well as written petitions to officials in cases of spouse spousal abuse or other conflicts between family members written or dictated by women. Although Judaism prescribes modesty for both men and women, [ citation needed ] the importance of modesty in dress and conduct is particularly stressed among women and girls in Orthodox society. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Elijah. Muslims refer to this day as Aligjyn "Ali Day" , and it is believed that Ali becomes Elias at midday.

II, page 70, Chapter IX. So like Mason Wheeler pointed out above, the scripture must be God-breathed and should be useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness, 2 Timothy 3: In a quick clarification of the answer above, that fell short in completing what JESUS said, allow me to continue to be "Specific". But do not do what they do, for they do not practice what they preach. What He clearly meant was to not break the law of order without cause, but as you read on He clearly made it known that there was trouble brewing in what He would soon confront directly when He had fully attempted to warn them to heed Him, which they chose not to do.

Also the Babylonian Talmud or Oral Traditions would later include Jesus Christ in the most derogatory manner claiming He was in hell boiling in hot excrement, as well his mother the blessed Virgin it says was the whore of carpenters. This would be the anti-thesis of everything Christian and is in fact in large part a cause of discord toward JEWISH people, many of which have little to no idea that this content even exists. It has been the cause of what many consider anti-Semitism which I would tend to partially disagree as the term anti-Semitism indicates a baseless discrimination or mistreatment, not the opposition to philosophy, or doctrine or details of Rabbis positions.

While some may claim that the Talmud is the cause of some anti-Semitism, as a matter of fact, the content within it can absolutely be considered the exact opposite The equivalent to someone claiming that they are being victimized by someone for them calling them say a Racist while the one claiming to be the victim ATTACKS others for their race. To say the Talmud causes a time-Semitism is on par with saying Diabetes causes sugar to grow.

If one is truly a Christian, they will treat even those they consider to be an enemy as they would wish to be treated. So to discriminate against, to cause harm to, or in any other way to cause harm to anyone is a violation of the faith if not strictly employed as self defense, or the defense of ones family, friends or property as the result of a crime. Any such violation would be breaking God's law. So remember this when considering reading the Talmud and realize that the content is not embraced by all JEWS, and many JEWS I know reject the content they find to be distasteful or violent, such as the last and final point that makes it incompatible with the Christian Faith which is that the Talmud says that the worship of JESUS is idolatry and as such is a crime punishable by death by decapitation.

They are only supposed to be authoritative in the JEWISH community, but what makes this extremely dangerous in my opinion, is that under the Equal protection clause of the 14th Amendment, the now decades long existence of these courts make and set a precedent for the establishment of Sharia Law to be implemented within MUSLIM communities.

I do not advocate hate, nor discrimination or mistreatment toward any group or people, but doctrines that are inconsistent with the Supreme Law of the United States such as the implementation of foreign politically charged laws, should not be subjected upon the people of the United States.

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Would you like to answer one of these unanswered questions instead? Questions Tags Users Badges Unanswered. Why do most Christians not follow the Talmud? Tanner Swett 2 7. The Talmud is very anti-Christian. It has been placed on the Index of Banned Books. Pranaitis's The Talmud Unmasked: Mason is right, but I would also add that in the Gospels, Jesus seems to treat the Tanakh or in the Jewish idiom, "the Law and the Prophets" as Scripture and God's word.

A short history of the Talmud Jewish Law has it's foundation in the books of the Torah: For instance, Moses commanded: Jesus and the Talmud As it happens, during Jesus' time there were according to Josephus and other historians three mutually dissenting views on what constituted the Jewish Law: But Jesus roundly rejected the Oral Torah as misguided: Thus, a cup was left for the arrival of Elijah. In practice the fifth cup has come to be seen as a celebration of future redemption.

Today, a place is reserved at the seder table and a cup of wine is placed there for Elijah. During the seder, the door of the house is opened and Elijah is invited in. Traditionally, the cup is viewed as Elijah's and is used for no other purpose. Havdalah is the ceremony that concludes the Sabbath Day Saturday evening in Jewish tradition. As part of the concluding hymn , an appeal is made to God that Elijah will come during the following week.

Let him come quickly, in our day with the messiah, the son of David. The volume of references to Elijah in folklore stands in marked contrast to that in the canon. Elijah's miraculous transferral to heaven led to speculation as to his true identity. Louis Ginzberg equates him with Phinehas the grandson of Aaron [61] Exodus 6: Because of Phinehas' zealousness for God, he and his descendants were promised, "a covenant of lasting priesthood" Numbers Therefore, Elijah is a priest as well as a prophet.

Elijah is also equated with the Archangel Sandalphon , [62] whose four wing beats will carry him to any part of the earth. When forced to choose between death and dishonor, Rabbi Kahana chose to leap to his death. References to Elijah in Jewish folklore range from short observations e. It is said that when dogs are happy for no reason, it is because Elijah is in the neighborhood [65] to lengthy parables on the nature of God's justice. One such story is that of Rabbi Joshua ben Levi. The rabbi, a friend of Elijah's, was asked what favor he might wish.

The rabbi answered only that he be able to join Elijah in his wanderings. Elijah granted his wish only if he refrained from asking any questions about any of the prophet's actions. He agreed and they began their journey. The first place they came to was the house of an elderly couple who were so poor they had only one old cow.

Jesus and the Talmud

The old couple gave of their hospitality as best they could. The next morning, as the travelers left, Elijah prayed that the old cow would die and it did. The second place they came to was the home of a wealthy man. He had no patience for his visitors and chased them away with the admonition that they should get jobs and not beg from honest people.

As they were leaving, they passed the man's wall and saw that it was crumbling. Elijah prayed that the wall be repaired and it was so. Next, they came to a wealthy synagogue. They were allowed to spend the night with only the smallest of provisions. When they left, Elijah prayed that every member of the synagogue might become a leader. Finally, they came to a very poor synagogue. Here they were treated with great courtesy and hospitality. When they left, Elijah prayed that God might give them a single wise leader.

At this Rabbi Joshua could no longer hold back. He demanded of Elijah an explanation of his actions. At the house of the old couple, Elijah knew that the Angel of Death was coming for the old woman. So he prayed that God might have the angel take the cow instead. At the house of the wealthy man, there was a great treasure hidden in the crumbling wall. Elijah prayed that the wall be restored thus keeping the treasure away from the miser.

The story ends with a moral: A synagogue with many leaders will be ruined by many arguments. A town with a single wise leader will be guided to success and prosperity. The Elijah of legend did not lose any of his ability to afflict the comfortable. Once, when walking a beach, he came upon a hideously ugly man—the prophet in disguise. The man greeted him courteously, "Peace be with thee, Rabbi. Is there anyone as ugly as you in your town?

Perhaps you should tell the Master Architect how ugly is this, His construction. But Elijah would not give it until the entire city had asked for forgiveness for the rabbi and the rabbi had promised to mend his ways. Elijah was always seen as deeply pious, it seems only natural that he would be pitted against an equally evil individual. This was found in the person of Lilith.

Lilith in legend was the first wife of Adam. She rebelled against Adam, the angels, and even God. She came to be seen as a demon and a witch. Elijah encountered Lilith and instantly recognized and challenged her, "Unclean one, where are you going? Her intention was to kill the woman and eat the child. Elijah pronounced his malediction, "I curse you in the Name of the Lord. Be silent as a stone! She promises to "forsake my evil ways" if Elijah will remove his curse.

To seal the bargain she gives Elijah her names so that they can be posted in the houses of pregnant women or new born children or used as amulets. Lilith promises, "where I see those names, I shall run away at once. Neither the child nor the mother will ever be injured by me. In the New Testament , Jesus would say for those who believed, John the Baptist was Elijah, who would come before the "great and terrible day" as predicted by Malachi. John the Baptist preached a message of repentance and baptism.

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He predicted the day of judgment using imagery similar to that of Malachi. He also preached that the Messiah was coming. All of this was done in a style that immediately recalled the image of Elijah to his audience.

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He wore a coat of camel's hair secured with a leather girdle Matthew 3: He also frequently preached in wilderness areas near the Jordan River. In the Nativity of St. John the Baptist in Luke, Gabriel appears to Zechariah , John's father, and told him that John "will turn many of the sons of Israel to the Lord their God," and that he will go forth "in the spirit and power of Elijah" Luke 1: Others tell him that Jesus is Elijah.

The apostles' answer includes Elijah among others. However Jesus' ministry had little in common with that of Elijah; in particular, he preached the forgiveness of one's enemies, while Elijah killed his. Miracle stories similar to those of Elijah were associated with Jesus e. During Jesus' crucifixion , some of the onlookers wonder if Elijah will come to rescue him, [77] as by the time of Jesus, Elijah had entered folklore as a rescuer of Jews in distress.

Elijah makes an appearance in the New Testament during an incident known as the Transfiguration. At the summit of an unnamed mount, Jesus' face begins to shine. Peter is so struck by the experience that he asks Jesus if they should build three "tabernacles": There is agreement among some Christian theologians that Elijah appears to hand over the responsibility of the prophets to Jesus as the woman by the well said to Jesus John 4: Elijah is mentioned four more times in the New Testament: Jesus says, "No prophet is accepted in his own country," and then mentions Elijah, saying that there were many widows in Israel, but Elijah was sent to one in Phoenicia.

He is greatly revered among the Orthodox as a model of the contemplative life. He is also commemorated on the Orthodox liturgical calendar on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers the Sunday before the Nativity of the Lord. The reasons for the replacement are unclear. It has been suggested that Elijah was chosen because of his importance to all three main religious groups in Bosnia and Herzegovina— Catholics , Muslims and Orthodox Christians. Elijah is revered as the spiritual Father and traditional founder of the Catholic religious Order of Carmelites.

In addition to taking their name from Mt. Carmel where the first hermits of the order established themselves, the Calced Carmelite and Discalced Carmelite traditions pertaining to Elijah focus upon the prophet's withdrawal from public life. In the 17th Century the Bollandist Society , whose declared aim was to search out and classify materials concerning the saints venerated by the Church, and to print what seemed to be the most reliable sources of information [91] entered into controversy with the Carmelites on this point.

In writing of St. Albert , Patriarch of Jerusalem and author of the Carmelite rule, the Bollandist Daniel Papebroch stated that the attribution of Carmelite origin to Elijah was insufficiently grounded. The Carmelites reacted strongly. From to a series of letters, pamphlets and other documents was issued by each side. The Carmelites were supported by a Spanish tribunal, while the Bollandists had the support of Jean de Launoy and the Sorbonne.

Since most Eastern Churches either use Greek as their liturgical language or translated their liturgies from the Greek, Elias or its modern iotacized form Ilias is the form of the prophet's name used among most members of the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Byzantine Rite. The feast day of saint Elias falls on July 20 of the Orthodox liturgical calendar for those churches which follow the traditional Julian Calendar , July 20 currently falls on August 2 of the modern Gregorian Calendar.

This day is a major holiday in Lebanon and is one of a handful of holidays there whose celebration is accompanied by a launching of fireworks by the general public. The full name of St. Elias in Lebanon translates to St. Elias the Living because it is believed that he did not die but rode his fiery chariot to heaven.

The reference to the fiery chariot is likely why the Lebanese celebrate this holiday with fireworks. Elias is also commemorated, together with all of the righteous persons of the Old Testament, on the Sunday of the Holy Fathers the Sunday before the Nativity of the Lord. The Apolytikion in the Fourth Tone for St.

The incarnate Angel, the Cornerstone of the Prophets, the second Forerunner of the Coming of Christ, the glorious Elias, who from above, sent down to Elisha the grace to dispel sickness and cleanse lepers, abounds therefore in healing for those who honor him.

O Prophet and foreseer of the great works of God, O greatly renowned Elias, who by your word held back the clouds of rain, intercede for us to the only Loving One. Starting in the fifth century, Elias is often connected with Helios , the Sun. The two words have very similar pronunciations in post-classical Greek; Elijah rode in his chariot of fire to heaven 2 Kings 2: Sedulius writes poetically in the fifth century that the "bright path to glittering heaven" suits Elias both "in merits and name", as changing one letter makes his name "Helios"; but he does not identify the two.

Saint Patrick appears to conflate Helios and Elias.

A short history of the Talmud

Since Wachsmuth , [97] the usual explanation for this has been that Elias was identified with Helios, who had mountaintop shrines. But few shrines of Helios were on mountaintops, and sun-worship was subsumed by Apollo-worship by Christian times, and so could not be confused with Elias. The association of Elias with mountaintops seems to come from a different pagan tradition: Elias took on the attributes and the locales associated with Zeus , especially his associations with mountains and his powers over rain, thunder, lighting, and wind.

When he spent forty days in a cave, it was on Mount Horeb 1 Kings When Elias confronted Ahab , he stopped the rains for three years 1 Kings Of these, the only one with a recorded tradition of a Helios cult is Mount Taleton. Among Albanians, pilgrimages are made to mountaintops to ask for rain during the summer. One such tradition that is gaining popularity is the 2 August pilgrimage to Ljuboten on the Sharr mountains.

Women in Judaism

Muslims refer to this day as Aligjyn "Ali Day" , and it is believed that Ali becomes Elias at midday. As Elijah was described as ascending into heaven in a fiery chariot, the Christian missionaries who converted Slavic tribes likely found him an ideal analogy for Perun , the supreme Slavic god of storms, thunder and lightning bolts. In many Slavic countries Elijah is known as Elijah the Thunderer Ilija Gromovnik , who drives the heavens in a chariot and administers rain and snow, thus actually taking the place of Perun in popular beliefs.

In Estonian folklore Elijah is considered to be the successor of Ukko , the lightning spirit. In Georgian mythology , he replaces Elwa. Once Jesus , the prophet Elijah, and St. George were going through Georgia. When they became tired and hungry they stopped to dine. They saw a Georgian shepherd and decided to ask him to feed them. First, Elijah went up to the shepherd and asked him for a sheep. After the shepherd asked his identity Elijah said that, he was the one who sent him rain to get him a good profit from farming. The shepherd became angry at him and told him that he was the one who also sent thunderstorms, which destroyed the farms of poor widows.

After Elijah, Jesus and St. George attempt to get help and eventually succeed. Elias has other pagan associations: The Church teaches that the Malachi prophecy of the return of Elijah was fulfilled on April 3, , when Elijah visited the prophet and founder of the church, Joseph Smith , along with Oliver Cowdery , in the Kirtland Temple as a resurrected being. This experience forms the basis for the church's focus on genealogy and family history and belief in the eternal nature of marriage and families. In Latter-day Saint theology , the name-title Elias is not always synonymous with Elijah and is often used for people other than the biblical prophet.

The spirit of Elias is first, Elijah second, and Messiah last. Elias is a forerunner to prepare the way, and the spirit and power of Elijah is to come after, holding the keys of power, building the Temple to the capstone, placing the seals of the Melchizedek Priesthood upon the house of Israel, and making all things ready; then Messiah comes to His Temple, which is last of all. People to whom the title Elias is applied in Mormonism include Noah , the angel Gabriel who is considered to be the same person as Noah in Mormon doctrine , Elijah, John the Baptist , John the Apostle , and an unspecified man who was a contemporary of Abraham.

Detractors of Mormonism have often alleged that Smith, in whose time and place the King James Version was the only available English translation of the Bible, simply failed to grasp the fact that the Elijah of the Old Testament and the Elias of the New Testament are the same person. The names Elias and Elijah refer to one who prepares the way for the coming of the Lord. This is applicable to John the Baptist coming to prepare the way for the Lord and His baptism; it also refers to Elijah appearing during the transfiguration to prepare for Jesus by restoring keys of sealing power.

Elijah's narrative in the Qur'an and later Muslim tradition resembles closely that in the Hebrew Bible and Muslim literature records Elijah's primary prophesying as taking place during the reign of Ahab and Jezebel as well as Ahaziah. While neither the Bible nor the Qur'an mentions the genealogy of Elijah, some scholars of Islam believe he may have come from the priestly family of the prophet Aaron.

Elijah is mentioned in the Quran , where his preaching is recounted in a concise manner. The Quran narrates that Elijah told his people to come to the worship of God and to leave the worship of Baal , the primary idol of the area. The Quran states, "Verily Elijah was one of the apostles. When he said to his people: The Quran makes it clear that the majority of Elijah's people denied the prophet and continued to follow idolatry.

However, it mentions that a small number of devoted servants of God among them followed Elijah and believed in and worshiped God. The Quran states, "They denied him Elijah , and will surely be brought to punishment, Except the sincere and devoted Servants of God among them. And We left his memory for posterity. Peace be upon Elijah! This is how We reward those who do good. He is truly among our believing servants. Abdullah Yusuf Ali says, "The third group consists not of men of action, but Preachers of Truth, who led solitary lives.

Zachariah was the father of John the Baptist, who is referenced as "Elias, which was for to come" Matt Muslim literature and tradition recounts that Elijah preached to the Kingdom of Israel , ruled over by Ahab and later his son Ahaziah. He is believed to have been a "prophet of the desert—like John the Baptist ".

Muslims believe that it was because the majority of people refused to listen to Elijah that Elisha had to continue preaching the message of God to Israel after him. Elijah has been the subject of legends and folktales in Muslim culture, usually involving his meeting with Khidr, and in one legend, with Muhammad himself. One hadith reported that Elijah and Khidr met together every year in Jerusalem to go on the pilgrimage to Mecca. He then translated the supplication in Arabic to a group of visiting scholars:. Will I find that you punish me although you know that I rub my face on Earth to worship you?

Will I find that you punish me although you know that I give up sins for you? Will I find that you punish me although you know that I stay awake all night just for you?

Yair Caspi (Author of Inquiring of God - Foundations of Talmudic & Biblical Psychology)

Although most Muslim scholars believed that Elijah preached in Israel , some early commentators on the Qur'an stated that Elijah was sent to Baalbek , in Lebanon. Scholars who reject identification of Elijah's town with Baalbek further argue that the town of Baalbek is not mentioned with the narrative of Elijah in either the Qur'an or the Hebrew Bible. That ravens fed Elijah by the brook Chorath has been questioned. The Hebrew text at 1 Kings Alternatives have been proposed for many years; for example Adam Clarke d. The parallelism with the incident that follows, where Elijah is fed by the widow, also suggests a human, if mildly improbable, agent.

John Gray chooses Arabs , saying "We adopt this reading solely because of its congruity with the sequel, where Elijah is fed by an alien Phoenician woman. And the word of Jehovah came to Elijah saying, Go hence and turn eastward and hide thyself in the Wadi Chorath east of the Jordan, and it shall be that thou shalt drink of the wadi, and I have commanded the Arabs to feed thee there.

And he went and did according to the word of Jehovah and went and dwelt in the Wadi Chorath east of the Jordan. And the Arabs brought him bread in the morning and flesh in the evening and he would drink of the wadi. In the Gospel of John , Jesus says: Traditionally Christianity interprets the "Son of Man" as a title of Jesus, but this has never been an article of faith and there are other interpretations.

Further interpreting this quote, some Christians believe that Elijah was not assumed into heaven but simply transferred to another assignment either in heaven [] or with King Jehoram of Judah. The question of whether Elijah was in heaven or elsewhere on earth depends partly on the view of the letter Jehoram received from Elijah in 2 Chronicles 21 after Elijah had ascended. Some have suggested that the letter was written before Elijah ascended, but only delivered later. Elijah's name typically occurs in Jewish lists of those who have entered heaven alive. Centuries after his departure the Jewish nation awaits the coming of Elijah to precede the coming of the Messiah.

For many Christians this prophecy was fulfilled in the gospels, where he appears during the Transfiguration alongside Moses Matthew Commentators have said that Moses' appearance represented the law, while Elijah's appearance represented the prophets. The Nation of Islam believes Elijah returned as Elijah Muhammad , black separatist religious leader who claimed to be a "messenger", not a prophet.

This is considered less important than their belief that Allah himself showed up in the person of Fard Muhammad , the founder of the group. It differs notably from most beliefs about Elijah, in that his re-appearance is usually the precursor to a greater one's appearance, rather than an afterthought. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the prophet. For other uses, see Elijah disambiguation. Raising of the son of the widow of Zarephath. Russian Icon of the Prophet Elijah 12th century, Pskov school.

Tretyakov Gallery , Moscow. Prophets in the Quran. Listed by Islamic name and Biblical name. Stories of the Prophets The Three Messengers. Jews, Christians and Muslims prophets Abrahamic prophets. The Oxford Bible Commentary. The Chosen People 5th ed. In Jane Dammen McAuliffe. Arnold 1 October The Face of Old Testament Studies: A Survey of Contemporary Approaches. Great Ages and Ideas of the Jewish People. The History of the Religion of Israel. Baker Book House, Since he is your lord, bow to him; the people of Tyre will sue your favor with gifts.

A History of Ancient Israel and Judah. Westminster John Knox Press, In Singer, Isidore ; et al. Keter Publishing House , Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion. Oxford University Press,