Order Journal Personal subscription Institutional subscription. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year e. View More on Journal Insights. Publishing your article with us has many benefits, such as having access to a personal dashboard: This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus.
Researcher Academy Author Services Try out personalized alert features. Nonlinear Analysis - Special Issues. Of course z-adjacency means that there does not exist another equilibrium U such that Uj ik and Uj , Uk are z-adjacent. As a final question to this subject, let's look at an even broader picture: The writer Enzensberger compared mathematics with a fortress whose drawbridge is closed.
Is this a correct comparison? The drawbridge has opened a little bit. Hans Magnus Enzensberger has a very positive attitude towards mathematics, yet he does not spare mathematicians in his criticism.
Models and Designs Conjoint research CA and discrete selection experimentation DCE are instruments utilized in advertising, economics, transportation, health and wellbeing, tourism, and different components to strengthen and alter items, prone, regulations, and courses, particularly ones that may be defined when it comes to attributes. Thirdly, contemporary soft computing techniques in water resources engineering such as artificial neural network [ 60 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 ] were not coupled with EEMD in our study. A future work should, therefore, explore the deeper mechanisms of multi-scale oscillations and explain the reasons for the spatial differences in variation trends and turning points of precipitation.
Importantly, future efforts can focus on the development of a hybrid model by incorporating EEMD for hydrological time series forecasting [ 65 , 66 , 67 ], which will be helpful for effective water resources management. Bin Guo and Zhongsheng Chen carried out the calculation, result analysis and drafted the manuscript, which was revised by all authors.
Applied mathematics is a central connecting link between scientific observations and their theoretical interpretation. Nonlinear analysis has surely contributed. The book contains a collection of 21 original research papers which report on recent developments in various fields of nonlinear analysis. The collection covers .
All authors gave their approval of the version submitted for publication. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Mar Find articles by Feng Liu. Find articles by Kangli Liu.
Yu-Pin Lin, Academic Editor. Received Dec 3; Accepted Mar This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons by Attribution CC-BY license http: Abstract Changes in precipitation could have crucial influences on the regional water resources in arid regions such as Xinjiang.
Introduction Climate change is significantly affecting water resources, industrial activities, crop production, natural systems [ 1 ] as well as public health [ 2 , 3 , 4 ], and these effects are particularly intense in arid regions [ 5 , 6 , 7 ]. Materials and Methods 2. Study Area Description Xinjiang Province, consisting of northern, southern and eastern parts, is located in northwestern China.
Open in a separate window. Data Description In this study, the annual precipitation data of 53 meteorological stations in Xinjiang during the period of — were collected from China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System [ 40 ]. Table 1 Information of the meteorological stations used in this study. EEMD Algorithm The EMD method is an efficient and adaptive tool for decomposing nonlinear and non-stationary signals into a series of intrinsic mode function components IMFs through the sifting process [ 32 ].
For a given data x t , the EMD procedure is as follows [ 32 ]: The energy density of the i th IMF component E i can be defined as follows [ 31 ]: Under the null hypothesis no abrupt turning point , the normally distributed statistic S l can be defined as: Variance Contribution Rate VCR The variance contribution rate VCR illustrates the effects of the frequency of the fluctuation and amplitude at different scales on the overall characteristics of the original signal [ 24 , 36 ].
Results and Discussion 3. Inter-Annual Variation of Precipitation The precipitation time series for Xinjiang during — is shown in Figure 2. The precipitation time series during — in Xinjiang.
The Variance Contribution Rate of IMFs and Trend Component The effect of the frequency of the fluctuation and amplitude at different scales on the overall characteristics of the original signal can be represented by the variance contribution rate [ 36 ]. Spatial Distribution of Variation of Precipitation The annual precipitation series for each meteorological station in Xinjiang during — were also decomposed into four IMFs and one trend component using the EEMD method.
Spatial distribution of the types of variation trends in precipitation in Xinjiang. Spatial distribution of the turning points of annual precipitation in Xinjiang. Variation Characteristics of Precipitation in Different Regions of Xinjiang The variation characteristics of precipitation in the north, south and east parts of Xinjiang were also analyzed.
Table 3 The periods and variance contribution rate of each IMF for precipitation in different regions of Xinjiang. Conclusions We analyzed the multi-scale characteristics of regional precipitation change in Xinjiang during — using the EEMD method. Author Contributions Bin Guo and Zhongsheng Chen carried out the calculation, result analysis and drafted the manuscript, which was revised by all authors.
Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. Interdecadal trend turning of global terrestrial temperature and precipitation during — The association between extreme precipitation and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, — Associations between extreme precipitation and childhood hand, foot and mouth disease in urban and rural areas in Hefei, China. A method for screening climate change-sensitive infectious diseases.
Global perspective on hydrology, water balance, and water resources management in arid basins. Recent and future climate change in northwest China.
Will climate change exacerbate water stress in Central Asia? The Physical Science Basis. Detection of intensification in global-and continental-scale hydrological cycles: Temporal scale of evaluation.
Constraints on future changes in climate and the hydrologic cycle. Climate change and changes in global precipitation patterns: What do we know? Global warming and changes in the probability of occurrence of floods in bangladesh and implications.
Your field address will As dislike typed. Climate change and changes in global precipitation patterns: The association between extreme precipitation and waterborne disease outbreaks in the United States, — If you do not already have an account you will need to register here. First, all local maxima and minima of x t must be identified. UK, in in the download Beyond Quantum of century goals.
Spatial-temporal precipitation changes — and their implications for agriculture in China. Spatial and temporal variability of precipitation concentration index, concentration degree and concentration period in Xinjiang, China. Spatial and temporal trends of climate change in Xinjiang, Xhina. Changes in annual maximum number of consecutive dry and wet days during — in Xinjiang, China. Nonlinear trends, long-range dependence, and climate noise properties of surface temperature. Prediction of climate nonstationary oscillation processes with empirical mode decomposition.
Long-term prediction of precipitation and hydrologic extremes with nonstationary oscillation processes. Non-linear trends and low frequency oscillations in annual precipitation over Argentina and Chile, — The application of ensemble empirical mode decomposition method in multiscale analysis of region precipitation and its response to the climate change. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition: An adaptive method for noise reduction.
Global surface temperature change. Why does the temperature rise faster in the arid region of northwest China? On the time-varying trend in global-mean surface temperature. Spatiotemporal precipitation variations in the arid Central Asia in the context of global warming. A noise-assisted data analysis method. The empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert spectrum for nonlinear and non-stationary time series analysis. Period identification in hydrologic time series using empirical mode decomposition and maximum entropy spectral analysis. Trend, periodicity and abrupt change in streamflow of the East River, the Pearl River basin.
The regional features of temperature variation trends over Xinjiang in China by the ensemble empirical mode decomposition method. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition for analyzing phenological responses to warming. Ensemble empirical mode decomposition for tree-ring climate reconstructions. Climate change and human activities: A case study in Xinjiang, China.
New techniques for the detection and adjustment of shifts in daily precipitation data series. On the trend, detrending, and variability of nonlinear and nonstationary time series. A confidence limit for the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert spectral analysis. A study of the characteristics of white noise using the empirical mode decomposition method. Statistical significance test of intrinsic mode functions. Hilbert—Huang Transform and Its Applications. World Scientific; Singapore, Singapore: A nonparametric trend test for seasonal data with serial dependence.
Effects of climate fluctuations on runoff in the headwater region of the Kaidu River in northwestern China. Quantifying the effects of climate variability and human activities on runoff for Kaidu River Basin in arid region of northwest China. Nonparametric tests against trend. Charles Griffin; London, UK: Interannual precipitation variations in the mid-latitude Asia and their association with large-scale atmospheric circulation.
Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Global patterns of ENSO-induced precipitation. Cross-spectral analysis of sunspots and monthly mean temperature and precipitation for the contiguous United States. The effect of solar activity on the annual precipitation in the Beijing area. Multi-scale feature of climate and climate shift in Xinjiang over the past 50 years. A hybrid model coupled with singular spectrum analysis for daily rainfall prediction.
A comparative study of population-based optimization algorithms for downstream river flow forecasting by a hybrid neural network model. Methods to improve neural network performance in daily flows prediction. Artificial neural network simulation of hourly groundwater levels in a coastal aquifer system of the Venice lagoon. Modeling of groundwater level fluctuations using dendrochronology in alluvial aquifers. Improving forecasting accuracy of medium and long-term runoff using artificial neural network based on EEMD decomposition.
Support Center Support Center.