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This is even more surprising when we consider that 1. Data is via the National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics That means that the share of people majoring in computer science has decreased, from 3. Meanwhile, other STEM majors have grown over the same period: Several people have pointed out that was an idiosyncratic year, and that I should not rebase figures from that date.
A more full discussion would involve the impact of the dotcom bubble; see below. I consider this a puzzle because I think that people who go to college decide on what to major in significantly based on two factors: If so, why is it the only field with low growth? If so, we can see that people have been responsive to market-driven demand for jobs. Data referenced in this paragraph comes from this table. Why is the marginal student not drawn to study CS at a top school, and why would a top student not want to study CS at a non-top school, especially if he or she can find boot camps and MOOCs to bolster learning?
It bursted in ; if CS majors who went through it experienced a long period of difficulty, then it could be the case that they successfully warned off younger people from majoring in it Engineering UK people been deeply scarred by the big tech bubble? Remember, college students make irrational choices in major selection all the deters them from studying this exciting, high-wage profession?
Why do they go into math, physics, or engineering in higher numbers instead? I wonder to what extent faculties are too strict with their standards, unwilling to let just anyone enter the field, especially for those who are jobs-minded Engineering plays a vital role in the UK's economic and societal wellbeing, providing quality employment onmore employees of which in the UK.
To what extent are developers affected by power law distributions? Is it the case that the top say 25 machine learning engineers in the world as worth as much as the next best machine learning engineers together, who are worth as much as the next best ? If this is valid, how should we evaluate the positioning of the largest tech companies?
Is it enough to save all Western Civilization? Enough to save the United States? Enough to save the state of California? Were they very well aware of then market conditions, and decided that things were too risky? I wrote this out of fun on my leisure time, and invite others to study how cyclical demand for this major is, what the supply constraints are, and the quality gradient between the e more serious than me can also discuss how the NCES aggregates different majors in these categories; perhaps a more granular breakdown is more helpful Civil engineering degree on Pinterest Civil engineering jobs N e more serious than me can also discuss how the NCES aggregates different majors in these categories; perhaps a more granular breakdown is more data especially might be helpful to overlay the meantime, I invite people to keep commenting here 6 days ago - business who web also now help get pm view online c e first would how were me s services some does set under general research university january mail reviews program life know games way technology south case project same pages uk version the meantime, I invite people to keep commenting here.
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Black's counterplay based on Although h5 is not possible any more because of gxh5 when the black rook would be ready to attack from the first rank, White can simply activate his king with Removing the pawn from the vulnerable a7-square and bringing it one step closer to promotion.
In case of a more neutral strategy, the presence of the h-pawns might have made White's task more difficult than in the game, because the h4-pawn needs permanent care. However, all these aspects were probably not easy to foresee during the game. Besides, Nimzowitsch's move cannot be considered a mistake, since White cannot prove a win yet.
Nevertheless, the advance of the h-pawn can be considered a success for White, who managed ro get rid of his potentially weak pawn. Besides, the black kingside has been weakened, making a further f7 -f6 even less appealing than before. Once the pawn structure has been more or less defined, the rime has come ro improve the position of the pieces.
At this stage of the game, it is not entirely clear how important this achievement is, because the white rook is rather in its own king's way as well. At the same time, the rook is deprived of the possibiliry of lateral attacks, a detail that will make itself felt on the 49,h move. However, when playing a position withour any shadow of counterplay for the opponent bur at the same time not at all easy ro win, it is essential to take advantage of every small detail before starting to carry our the main plan. This means to play from a position of strength.
In our case, White's main plan is to transfer the king to a more active position and the black king would obviously try to interfere, if only it were allowed. Once again, Nimzowitsch defends accurately. He prevents the further advance of the white king. At the same time, in case of a neurral move such as The only way to temporarily save the a-pawn is now Please note that the e5-square is even more favourable for the rook than the f4-square was some moves ago.
After a5 and f4, the rook will again defend all the remaining weaknesses, at the same time severely restricting the enemy king. This is a perfect illustration of the fact that Chapter One: Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 19 White, based on his spatial advantage and his extra pawn, can play on both wings.
In the previous line the king aimed for b 7, while now it targets the f7- pawn. Black can do very little to prolong the fight. For instance, after Generally speaking, there are pros and cons to such a move. The pawn looks more vulnerable on a5, but as we shall see later in the game, Black has sufficient resources ro protect it. More important is the fact that the pawn restricts the white rook in its actions the b4-square is not available any more , which means that the black king can advance on the seventh rank without fearing gb7 check and gxa7.
Keeping the pawn on a7 would mean allowing White to restrict the black king while maintaining the rook on a more active position than the e4-square. The following variation will prove that refraining from.. Although the main target is the a7 -pawn, there are things to do on the kingside as well. White now has a free hand on the queenside. Winning an important tempo by threatening e6.
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Black's counterplay on the other wing has not even started yet. Besides, with his king's triangulation Akiba has created zugzwang: Black has to worsen the position of either his rook or king. It seems that White could have taken advantage of the remote position of the black king: Worse would be The slow 5 1. We7 would be even worse: We7 A passive strategy would also be hopeless: We5 Threatening ro push the king furrher back. Wc5 Afrer l"la6-f6, White would win easily since, once again, he would have all the pawns defended.
Wd4 ga I With his move, Akiba threatens ro bring his king to b2 and then capture the a5-pawn with the rook. Black must act quickly which, of course, Nimzowitsch understood perfectly. Although this pawn break weakens the g6- pawn, it is the only way ro activate the king and so generate some counrerplay. Wd2 Black would be just in time to create counrerplay, for instance: Against the trickier 5 1. Wdl Black should answer 5 1. Wf5 is bad now because the e3-pawn is defended and White can safely win the a-pawn with Retreating with the king to f!
Wb2 the white king would be prepared to supporr his a-pawn. White can abandon the e3-pawn, reaching a winning ending with However, Nimzowitsch's accurate move Afrer the exchange of pawns on the kingside, the g5-square has become available, creating a new path of invasion. Therefore, White could have considered immediately changing the roure of his king with 5 1. Wg4 Both armies have their pieces placed on optimal positions. The rooks are attacking defending the a4- and e3-pawns, while the kings keep the g5-square under observation.
Black's problem is Chapter One: Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 2 1 that i t i s his turn r o move and h e will b e forced ro worsen the position of one of his pieces. However, we cannot state yet that Black is in absolute zugzwang. This would mean that all possible conrinuations were losing, but only concrete analysis will prove the truth. Black has three basic possibilities: Wf7 c Release the pressure against the a4-pawn: The rook is prepared ro act on both wings, keeping the a4-pawn under observation and ready to harass the enemy king.
The move has a significanr drawback, however: Play might continue White would strengthen his position ro the maximum and then start the final attack, for instance Black dreams of answering 6 1. Unforrunately, even here, the intermediate Besides, if he wishes to avoid concrete calculation, White has an easy way ro avoid that with 6 U 'lf6t! It is best ro return with the rook at once. We4 and, in view of the threat l"lc5, Black has no time to take the opposition with Afrer the virrually forced Wg4 with a win for White, bur We3 l"lal Once again, Black is best advised not ro help the king advance roo far.
The king is just in time ro prevent White's further progress. White cannot make progress. WO is not ro be recommended. Control over the g5-square is probably the most important issue. Black is forced ro play Wh4 play can conrinue in a similar way ro the previous variation, with the significant difference that the black king is worse placed. Black is able ro reach a draw only with precise play.
If White keeps his rook in front of the pawn in view of a further a5-a6, he will later need the help of the king in order ro make progress.
This would leave the f4-pawn withour defence, allowing sufficient counterplay. This volunrary retreat is the only saving move. White's idea would be crowned with success after some neutral move such as The black king cannot find any shelter now, since. Wh6 can always be answered with f5. Therefore, White will be able to advance his pawn one square further, with decisive effect.
Wf3 Before executing the main plan, it is a good idea to avoid the pin along the fourth rank, thus preventing a further. Wh5 is mated by Therefore, everything is prepared for the white king's march to the queens ide. Also insufficient is This makes White's win rather easy, for instance We5 Wh5 Black's counterplay is sufficient for a draw. Also possible is White's only winning attempt would be to place his rook on aB in order to keep the enemy king busy on the kingside in view of the possible a7 and l"lhB and then try to transfer his own king to the queenside.
In this case, Black would regroup with. As we have seen, White would not have obtained a winning position by an immediate attempt to invade Black's position through the g5-square. However, Black would have been forced to take some difficult decisions and defend very accurately. We cannot know about Rubinstein's thought processes around this moment. We can only suppose that, by not yet revealing his secret intentions regarding the g5-square, he was hoping that Nimzowitsch would lose his vigilance.
This was what actually happened in the game. WS Such moves are quite unpleasant for the opponent, who has to guess in which direction the king plans to advance. We4 Rubinstein could have transposed to the variation starting with 5 1. Wf3, examined in the comments to White's 5 1 " move, by playing Black is best advised to agree to that since the attempt to reach the same position with White to move, by playing Wf7, would allow White to change plans with Wd2 it is Black who is in zugzwang.
See the line starting with 5 l. Wd I from the same comment. However, it might have induced in Nimzowitsch the feeling that the took was not well placed on a3 any more, and that he has to change his defensive plan. We shall soon see that stereotypical thinking can have fatal consequences in rook endings. Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 23 The first sensation is that White has a strong centralized position.
However, a closer look reveals that his pieces are rather cramped on the fourth rank, lacking freedom of action. If we moved every kingside pawn both colours one square to the right, the situation would be different. White would have more chance to manoeuvre and regtoup.
This natural check seems to be the losing move. Nimzowitsch defended rather well until this moment, but now he fails to understand the main danger: After the practically forced Both look rather dangerous, but both are completely sound. Wd7 The desire ro prevent lateral attacks of the rook from the c-file is quite understandable, but, as we shall see in the b-variation, Black shouldn't fear them at all. Wc5 l"lb3 This move became possible because the c5- square is not available for the white rook any more.
At the same time, the move is necessary. Black has ro prevent the king from attacking the a5-pawn. Wc7 would be bad for reasons that are nO obvious: White takes advantage of the poor position of the black king Wb5 l"lf5 Now, there is no defence for the e5-pawn and, rather surprisingly, the black king is close enough to the other pawn. Wb7 l"lb I t The other possible way is: We3 geIt Now it is roo late to return to the third rank defence.
Wf3 just as in the game. WS gfl t Moreover, it has forced it to go to the best square! In fact, it would be the other way round. Wg5 The black rook is too passive to offer an adequate defence against the attack on the kingside. Wg5 gb4 In my database, the moves end here. I suppose the game was adjourned and Nimzowitsch resigned without resuming play. Here are some possible reasons: Wd5 won't work because of White wins with either In the example that we are going to examine, the position was marked by material equality until the very end of the game.
White's win was made possible by purely positional factors.
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At the same time, the next game is probably one of the best examples of the "Akiba long-plan". Akiba Rubinstein - Alexander Alekhine Carlsbad 1 9 1 1 l. Clearly such an attacking maestro as Alekhine had little trouble in sensing the danger of such a continuation, but what about Akiba? Would the great strategist have gone for such a sharp line?
I believe there is little doubt about it: The knight's best square is d5 anyway and therefore White could have chosen the right moment to exchange it. This new indecision could have cost White half a point. For instance, the critical 3G. His rook is more active, occupying a strong position on the only open file and making pawn advances rather difficult for Black on both sides. White can push his central pawns in different ways, either to create a passed pawn or to weaken the enemy's structure. One important detail is that in most cases Black cannot exchange rooks: This is not the kind of commirral move Akiba liked to play without due preparation, but in this concrete case he must have been concerned about preventing the exchange of rooks by means of.
In the first English edition I considered 3G. Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 27 with the black king on cG: In my initial analysis I considered only The white pawns are an impressive defensive force. After finishing these lines, I showed the position to a good friend of mine who, after failing to find an improvement in the above variations, suddenly suggested The line might look more risky for White, but it also seems to yield good winning chances. Despite my initial conclusions, At first sight this is just hopeless.
I only gave the more narural but mistaken Black has managed to create a passed pawn, but after Therefore, a draw is unavoidable. This is an important resource, highlighted by Miihlberger. Black creates the potential threat of a pawn break based on. White would create a passed pawn in the centre, while the b5-pawn stops two enemy pawns. Black's only chance would be to build a fortress: Trying to deny the white king access to g5; after 3S.
Black will not be able to fight against the two passed pawns in the centre. This accurate move crushes all Black's hopes. The natural tendency is to consider the automatic recapture as the only possibiliry. Razuvaev claims to have refuted this move with Things are, nevertheless, a bit more complicated.
As compensation for the sacrificed pawn, Black has managed to unbalance the position. We already know that pushing the a-pawn too early is hopeless; on the other hand ga6 is not yet a threat. White must be concerned not only about stopping the pawn, but also about the weakness of the d-pawn. Simultaneously defending against two threats on different sides of the board is always difficult. Keeping all this in mind, let us try to make the best moves for both sides.
As we can see, Rubinstein's It was not at all rypical for him to unnecessarily rush things; he would rather delay important decisions such as advancing pawns than precIpItate matters. See, for instance, his previously mentioned game with the same opponent, where he could have captured on f3 the same square as in our discussion of the present game! However, we know already that Therefore, the real mistake has to be looked for in the previous phase of the game.
Maybe this was not Akiba's best day ever, but even so it was enough to defeat one of the most remarkable figures of the first half of the century. Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 29 Razuvaev believes that the exchange of rooks would lead to a draw: His king would have to guard the d- and f-pawns. This would allow his opposite number to capture the h-pawn and then return to support the advance of its own pawns. The black queenside majoriry does not count at all.
This leaves Black only the possibiliry of waiting tactics. For instance, ifhe would play. However, in case of waiting play from Black, White will be forced to sacrifice the pride of his position, the central pawn, in order to make progress on the kingside. This will allow Black to start counterplay on the other wing; the outcome of the game will be decided by a single tempo. And in the resulting queen endgame White will be rwo pawns up, which should guarantee him a win.
These lines were not easy to calculate and I assume that Rubinstein did not want to be distracted from his main plan. From an objective point of view his decision can be criticized, of course. If the opponent makes a mistake that should make the winning process smoother, why not take advantage of it? At the same time, given the concrete conditions of a practical game, frequent change of plans can lead to physical exhaustion and time trouble, especially if the final consequences of these plans are not easy to foresee.
A practical guideline is: If the opponent does not prevent the main plan, we should not pay too much attention to the details, unless we face an obvious blunder, of course. It seems that Akiba didn't find the right plan from the beginning, or was he just trying to understand if the pawn endgame would really have been a draw? Another reasonable hypothesis is that he was JUSt following his and many fellow grandmasters' do not hurry policy. The white king stam his journey to h4, in order to threaten decisive penetration.
Protec ed by the rook and by the pawn chain, i has almost half of the board at its disposal. Nothing can really disturb its majestic walk from one side of the board to he other. Comparatively, the black pieces have a rather narrow space at their disposal.
The difference is similar to that becween a real monarch's palace and a servant's humble room. The king returns to the centre to defend the e3-pawn, free the rook from its defensive tasks, and 0 create he decisive threat l: Once the g5-square is available again, the king changes its roure. The more natural Wxf5 h3 56Jk1 h2 A possible line would have been: We3 Eib3 would improve only Black's position! WgS fxg4 Chapter One: Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 3 1 Miihlberger pointed our that this is monger han Wxg6 and he cwo connected pawns are unstoppable.
Eihl Black has too many weaknesses a7, g6 and d5 to hope that a passive defence would give him any saving chances. Eia3 Wd6 and now the most precise way is to put Black in zugzwang 5S. Black cannot avoid the loss of either he g6-pawn or a7 the laner one with check. We5 is also hopeless. With the d-pawns missing, the position would be a draw, since the b-pawn would cost White a rook, too. The way i is, with the d-pawns on board, the black king cannot effectively supporr his pawn. Here we can see how well the white rook "happened" to be placed on the seventh rank.
Eic7 is similar to the game. It is obvious that the king can hide from checks only on fS, but the immediate WfS would allow Eixd4 and, after giving up his rook for the pawn, Black would hold the draw. Before going to fS, the king drives away the enemy rook from the fourrh rank, in order to prolong the life of his d4- pawn as much as possible.
Eie7 would complicate marcers slightly in view of White needs the slightly rricky Eixd5 in order to win. We5 and White captures the d-pawn. The black rook will be helpless against the white passed pawns. In the previous example, both positional factors that marked White's advantage were static in nature. Therefore, attributing the score of to the position was easy. In any case, it was an easier task than converring the advantage into a win.
However, not all the rook endgames are suited to such detailed treatment. Here is an example. It is obvious that in the long run the weakness of the a6-pawn could make itself felt, bur for the moment it is not easy ro attack. For the time being, the c3-pawn is more exposed and one would say that the queenside score is about 1 - 1.
Is the central passed pawn weak or strong? Depending on the future course of the game, it could be either. The only element that clearly favours White is dynamic in nature and is related to the higher mobility of his rook, bur how should we quantify this detail? In such cases, in order to avoid a nasty headache and acute time trouble, one should forget about numbers and use intuition instead. From the further course of the game, we shall understand that, all other things being about equal, the initiative developed by such a strong piece as the rook can have a decisive influence. And, surprisingly, White's win will be considerable smoother than the abstract process of evaluation.
The black kingside pawns defend the sixth rank rather well, thus ensuring the stability of the king. However, these pawns are not defended and White provokes their advance in order to create a path for the rook. The basic idea is to protect the king, but I have to admit that White has two different plans that seem to lead to a win.
White not only has the more active pieces, bur also better pawns. The kingside majority is very dangerous, especially if rooks are exchanged.
Eib6 also looks hopeless for Black. White intends to advance his pawn to a7, based on the exposed position of the black king. After that, he will simply capture the b- and e-pawns with his king. The situation is somehow similar to that examined in the notes to White's 50,h move of the game Rubinstein-Nimzowitsch line c, 5 1.
Eib3 , bur more favourable for White because of the greater number of pawns on the board and the vulnerability of the black ones. Eig7 Diverting the king from the queenside in order to win a tempo. Eib7 With the deadly threat Eib6. Eic3 Black has to counterattack. Eid6 creating the threat Eid4t, should White exchange rooks with Akiba Rubinstein's Rook Endings 33 It becomes clear now that placing the king on the g5-square is also not without drawbacks. White wins this pawn without loss of time. For the moment, the rook supports the a-pawn, while the king attacks and eliminates the enemy pawn.
Now the simplest way is: Preparing the same kind of mechanism as in the previous line, when any rook move along the a-file such as Eia6 is met with Eie2t is less clear. The position with queen versus rook and pawn might not be so easy to win. White prepares to invade the sixth rank through f6, after g5 and Ei8. For a while, Black's play is forced. Taking advantage of the fact that White released the pressure against the h7-pawn, Black gets some counterplay with EiO This move leads by force to a losing pawn ending, but the variation Eixa6 is just as hopeless.
Besides his huge spatial advantage, White has several dangerous candidates for promotion on the queenside. Of course, White should not allow Eif4t, driving away the king from its dominant position. However, the pawn ending needs some precise calculation. Although the black king is quite active, White wins thanks to his spatial advantage on both wings. The white king threatened to go either to f6 or to c4. The concrete manifestation of White's spatial advantage is that, although Black's king is closer to the enemy blockading pawn, he will need considerable more time than his opponent to promote his pawn.
The only winning move.
WffBt and we have reached a theoretical winning position. True, not everybody might wish to play such a queen endgame over the board. Recapping, both lines a and b are winning for White. The latter leads by force to a winning ending that requires patience and good technique. From a practical point of view, line a might be better, while objectively speaking, line b is more rigorous. In case of the more sophisticated Let us now follow the course of the game.
We can now answer one of the questions regarding the evaluation of the position. At least for the time being, the central black pawn is more of a weakness than a strength. White's main plan is to create a dangerous passed pawn on the c-file. Therefore, the next move might cause some confusion. The former leads, with some degree of Of course, it would not apply in positions with active counterplay for the opponent, but this is not really the case here.
The basic idea behind the last move is that on their initial squares the pawns were rather vulnerable to attacks such as. Since Black cannot use the given tempo to improve his position, it is useful to prevent such counterplay. The more active Jlf6 would fail to The black pawn is hardly a match for it. In fact, it is quite remarkable that from the initial position, the only form of static advantage we were sure about the a6-weakness persisted until the very end.
I would like to say more about this do not hurry principle. When I first saw the move Akiba Rubinstein - Efim Bogoljubow Vienna 1 Here the same modest advance of the g-pawn was dictated by a similar approach. The fact that this time it happened in a complicated middlegame does not affect the instructive character of the game. It is all about a way of thinking, irrespective of the number of pieces left on the board. White's better development guarantees him the occupation of the only open file. With each of his next eight consecutive moves, Rubinstein will improve the position of one of his pieces.
WleBt winning the bishop. And yet, this might have been a lesser evil for Black, who could have looked for saving chances in a position with opposite coloured bishops by playing The exchanges on c7 with He will lose a pawn without any compensation. This natural move has not received any attention from the commentators so far, including me in the first edition of this book. As Malfagia pointed out, the rook stands badly on d8 for several reasons. First of all, it is the dark-squared bishop that should aim for the d8-square, via f6, as Bogoljubow will discover later. Secondly, the rook is hanging on d8, enabling White to bring his knight into play on the very next move.
I believe that White should continue White has occupied all the dark squares available in Black's camp. The last move is justified tactically by the fact that after A good defensive move. Bogoljubow prepares to bring his bishop into play through d8 after the predictable 4Jxb8, l"lxb8. He could not exchange the intruder because after White has installed his army in the territory.
How many players, carried away by euphoria, would have started calculating long forced variations in order to win at once? And yet, after having moved forward eight times in a row well, in fact l"la l-cl and l"ld2- c2 are moves along the ranks, but at the same time they were the shortest way for the rooks towards more advanced positions , Rubinstein played the apparently timid His philosophy is brilliantly simple. Since Black cannot improve his position in any way, why should White refrain from making a generally useful move, avoiding any back rank Chapter One: