Also here is the Giant Antaeus , who did not join in the rebellion against the Olympian Gods and therefore is not chained. At Virgil's persuasion, Antaeus takes the Poets in his large palm and lowers them gently to the final level of Hell.
Cocytus , the Ninth Circle of Hell. Trapped in the ice, each according to his guilt, are punished sinners guilty of treachery against those with whom they had special relationships. The lake of ice is divided into four concentric rings or "rounds" of traitors corresponding, in order of seriousness, to betrayal of family ties, betrayal of community ties, betrayal of guests, and betrayal of lords. This is in contrast to the popular image of Hell as fiery; as Ciardi writes, "The treacheries of these souls were denials of love which is God and of all human warmth.
Only the remorseless dead center of the ice will serve to express their natures. As they denied God's love, so are they furthest removed from the light and warmth of His Sun. As they denied all human ties, so are they bound only by the unyielding ice.
In "the most pathetic and dramatic passage of the Inferno ",  Ugolino describes how he conspired with Ruggieri in to oust his nephew and take control over the Guelphs of Pisa. However, as soon as Nino was gone, the Archbishop, sensing the Guelphs' weakened position, turned on Ugolino and imprisoned him with his sons and grandsons in the Torre dei Gualandi. In March , the Archbishop condemned the prisoners to death by starvation in the tower.
In the very centre of Hell, condemned for committing the ultimate sin personal treachery against God , is the Devil , referred to by Virgil as Dis the Roman god of the underworld; the name "Dis" was often used for Pluto in antiquity, such as in Virgil's Aeneid. The arch-traitor, Lucifer was once held by God to be fairest of the angels before his pride led him to rebel against God, resulting in his expulsion from Heaven. Lucifer is a giant, terrifying beast trapped waist-deep in the ice, fixed and suffering.
He has three faces, each a different color: Sayers notes that Satan's three faces are thought by some to suggest his control over the three human races: Satan is impotent, ignorant, and full of hate, in contrast to the all-powerful , all-knowing , and all-loving nature of God. He weeps from his six eyes, and his tears mix with bloody froth and pus as they pour down his three chins.
Each face has a mouth that chews eternally on a prominent traitor. Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus dangle with their feet in the left and right mouths, respectively, for their involvement in the assassination of Julius Caesar March 15, 44 BC — an act which, to Dante, represented the destruction of a unified Italy and the killing of the man who was divinely appointed to govern the world. Judas is receiving the most horrifying torture of the three traitors: According to Dorothy L.
Sayers, "just as Judas figures treason against God, so Brutus and Cassius figure treason against Man-in-Society; or we may say that we have here the images of treason against the Divine and the Secular government of the world". When they reach Satan's genitalia, the poets pass through the center of the universe and of gravity from the Northern Hemisphere of land to the Southern Hemisphere of water.
When Virgil changes direction and begins to climb "upward" towards the surface of the Earth at the antipodes , Dante, in his confusion, initially believes they are returning to Hell. Virgil indicates that the time is halfway between the canonical hours of Prime 6 a. Dante is confused as to how, after about an hour and a half of climbing, it is now apparently morning. Virgil explains that as a result of passing through the Earth's center into the Southern Hemisphere, which is twelve hours ahead of Jerusalem , the central city of the Northern Hemisphere where, therefore, it is currently 7: Virgil goes on to explain how the Southern Hemisphere was once covered with dry land, but the land recoiled in horror to the north when Lucifer fell from Heaven and was replaced by the ocean.
Meanwhile, the inner rock Lucifer displaced as he plunged into the center of the earth rushed upwards to the surface of the Southern Hemisphere to avoid contact with him, forming the Mountain of Purgatory. This mountain — the only land mass in the waters of the Southern Hemisphere — rises above the surface at a point directly opposite Jerusalem. The poets then ascend a narrow chasm of rock through the "space contained between the floor formed by the convex side of Cocytus and the underside of the earth above,"  moving in opposition to Lethe , the river of oblivion, which flows down from the summit of Mount Purgatory.
The poets finally emerge a little before dawn on the morning of Easter Sunday April 10, A. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Dante's Inferno disambiguation. This article consists almost entirely of a plot summary. It should be expanded to provide more balanced coverage that includes real-world context. Please edit the article to focus on discussing the work rather than merely reiterating the plot. November Learn how and when to remove this template message.
People by era or century. Aspects of meditation Orationis Formas , Series of woodcuts illustrating Dante's Hell, by Antonio Manetti — Dialogo di Antonio Manetti cittadino fiorentino circa al sito, forma, et misure dello inferno di Dante Alighieri poeta excellentissimo [Florence: Everything Reduced to One Plan , The Chamber of Hell , Overview of Hell , Circles Six and Seven , The Lair of Geryon , The Tomb of Lucifer , Some examples include All hope abandon, ye who enter here — Henry Francis Cary — All hope abandon, ye who enter in!
Sayers Abandon all hope, ye who enter here — John Ciardi Abandon every hope, you who enter. Singleton No room for hope, when you enter this place — C. Sisson Abandon every hope, who enter here. Durling Verbatim, the line translates as "Leave lasciate every ogne hope speranza , ye voi that ch' enter intrate. Its popularity assures that Dante would have had access to it. Jacques Le Goff , Goldhammer, Arthur , tr. Dante held that Christ died after having completed 34 years of life on this earth — years counted from the day of the Incarnation.
Luke affirms that the hour of His death was the sixth — that is, noon. If this is the case, then Malacoda is referring to a time which is 7 A. Sayers , Hell , notes on page Note on Inferno I. In Robert and Jean Hollander, trans. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto I. The Cambridge History of Italian Literature 2nd ed. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto XI, pg. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto V, pg. Sayers , Hell , notes on Canto VI. Archived from the original on October 18, The Divine Comedy of Dante Alighieri.
Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St.
Peter to John Paul II. Retrieved 8 March Translated by Mark Musa. The Inferno of Dante Alighieri. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto XI. Sayers, Hell , notes on Canto XV.
Sayers , Hell , notes on Canto XX. Retrieved 7 March De vulgari eloquentia De Monarchia Eclogues. Inferno Purgatorio Paradiso Cultural references. Contrapasso Dante Encyclopedia Enciclopedia Dantesca.
Latin was considered the language for all time—the language that would last forever. Dante and Virgil arrive at the base of the City of Dis in the region of nether Hell reserved for those who consciously lived in the negation of God. Italian Catholic students discuss their experience of Dante's "Inferno.
The burning tombs in the sixth circle will only be closed after the final judgment. These are the creators of sects—the heretics. Soon Dante and Virgil approach the brink of the abyss and survey the vista of the next circle of Hell. Along the path to the seventh circle, Dante and Virgil come upon the Minotaur blocking their advance.
Coming into the ring, they see a river of boiling blood filled with the sinners who were violent against their neighbors. Scholars discuss the important symbols in "The Divine Comedy. Dante and Virgil enter a forest where the souls of the suicides are punished by being transformed into trees.
Scholars discuss Dante's literary style, his poetic language, and his prodigious simplicity in describing such a grandiose experience. In a desert of flaming sand, blasphemers, sodomites, usurers endure fiery flakes raining from the sky. Here Dante meets Brunetto Latini, one of Dante's great teachers. Dante gives him honor and pity even in this horrific place—an intrusion of Dante's human values into the place of the damned.
The fraudulent—those guilty of deliberate, knowing evil—reside in a circle named Malebolge "Evil Pit" , divided into ten ditches, with bridges spanning them. Dante meets Ulysses and sees him as his double—a twin flame with whom he can sympathize. The funnel of Hell ends in an ultimate well. The ninth circle consists of a frozen lake reserved for traitors. Count Ugolino pauses from gnawing on the head of his rival Archbishop Ruggieri to describe how Ruggieri imprisoned and starved him and his children.
Dante and Virgil arrive at the central point of Hell where Lucifer, a gigantic being, is fixed up to his waist in the frozen lake. He has three heads and six wings and devours traitors in each mouth. Virgil and Dante clamber over Lucifer and cast their eyes upwards. From this deepest pit, the travelers see the path of their ascent up Mount Purgatory. From here they will extricate themselves from the horrors of Hell and ascend into the light, just as mankind should extricate itself from its state of sin and embrace the light of God.
For additional digital leasing and purchase options contact a media consultant at press option 3 or sales films. In the Middle Ring, the poet sees suicides who have been turned into trees and bushes which are fed upon by harpies. But he also sees here profligates, chased and torn to pieces by dogs. In the Inner Ring are blasphemers and sodomites, residing in a desert of burning sand and burning rain falling from the sky. The Eight Circle of Hell is resided by the fraudulent. Dante and Virgil reach it on the back of Geryon, a flying monster with different natures, just like the fraudulent.
This circle of Hell is divided into 10 Bolgias or stony ditches with bridges between them. In Bolgia 1, Dante sees panderers and seducer. In Bolgia 2 he finds flatterers.
In the distance, Dante perceives high towers that resemble fiery red mosques. The lake of ice is divided into four concentric rings or "rounds" of traitors corresponding, in order of seriousness, to betrayal of family ties, betrayal of community ties, betrayal of guests, and betrayal of lords. Sayers writes that "the surrender to sin which began with mutual indulgence leads by an imperceptible degradation to solitary self-indulgence". The complex relationship between Virgil and Dante emerges. Part of a series on.
After crossing the bridge to Bolgia 3, he and Virgil see those who are guilty of simony. After crossing another bridge between the ditches to Bolgia 4, they find sorcerers and false prophets. In Bolgia 5 are housed corrupt politicians, in Bolgia 6 are hypocrites and in the remaining 4 ditches, Dante finds hypocrites Bolgia 7 , thieves Bolgia 7 , evil counselors and advisers Bolgia 8 , divisive individuals Bolgia 9 and various falsifiers such as alchemists, perjurers and counterfeits Bolgia The last Ninth Circle of Hell is divided into 4 Rounds according to the seriousness of the sin though all residents are frozen in an icy lake.
Those who committed more severe sin are deeper within the ice. Each of the 4 Rounds is named after an individual who personifies the sin.