All historieal material, largely of an encyclopedio nature, has also been assigned to the Notes. The editor wishes to express his indebtedness and grati- tude to Professors Winkler, Diekhoff, Florer, and Eggert, bf the University of Michigan, for assistance in the prepara- tion of this book; to Donald May, one of his pupils, for liis careful constniction of the map ; to Mr.
Byington of the Athenseum Press for his painstaking scrutiny and incisive criticism of the manuscript and his invalnable aid in the printing of the book. Goethe in Frankfurt, Goethe in Leipzig, xiii-xvi 3. Goethe in Strassburg, A Classification of the Di-ama Reception and Influence Ixxxiii-lxxxix IX. Goethe in Frankfurt, A study of Goethe's life necessary. And indeed this must be the case with every author, if it be true that the primary meaning of a piece of literature is more important than any beautiful or noble generalization derived from it.
If any man finds that knowledge of the antecedent circumstances which produee a work has the effect of hampering his appre- ciation of the foree and beauty of that work, he is to be pitied; for certainly no one without this knowledge can have such vital contact with the work as can one who has, in thought, entered into the life out of which it grew.
And in studying the life itself there is need of caution that we do not begin by reading into our author's y outh all that he afterward became, but by examining the forces which made him what he was. Goethe inherited from his mother a deep religious feeling, a belief in presenti- ments, the gift of imaginative improvisation. He must have observed also her tolerance of others, and her practical and natural method of rearing her children.
His father is usually regarded as a hindrance in Goethe's development, and did in fact inspire him with the spirit of revolt a. French and German civilization, Early in life Goethe came under the influence of both French and German civi- lization. His native town, Frankfurt, was fiUed with remi- niscences of medieval Germany, and inspired him with a love for the life of bis ancestors. Wben Count Thoranc, the French officer who was quartered on Goethe's father in the garrisoning of Frankfurt, imported a troupe of French actors, young Wolfgang was given a pass which enabled bim to satisfy the longing that the puppet-show at bome had aroused ; he thus became acquainted with a large number of French plays.
For Goetbe's mother the sublimest and noblest of poems was Klopstock's Messias, Wben the children came into possessio!! Goethe's father banished the book from bis house with ignominy. It is of great moment, however, that this German product of an intensely German writer, with its powerful content and beautiful language, should have been almost the first with which Goethe became acquainted. This peaceable parallel influence of French and German literature is Seen in everything the young man writes in the early Frankfurt period; the content is usually an imitation of the religious poetry of the time, and the form an imitation of the French.
His interest in French dramatic poetry, his attempt to write a drama in the French language and in the French apirit, and the criticism of his eftoTt. So he lemains loyal tti tlie Freneh type Eptay uiitil he comes to Strassborg His iiiterest in the religioiis poetry of the day B quickened by his study of the Bible, begun uiider the bidaoce of his mother. For six Semesters Goethe is a student in a town which.
Indeed, he finally chose Strassburg to complete his nniversity course, in order that there he might learn French life and manners the better. His plays Die Laune des Ver- liebten and Die Mitschuldigen reflect his great interest in the old technique of the French drama and in its old meter, the Alexandrine. His lyric poetry at this time appears manu- factured, not spontaneous — composition exercises on the traditional themes of fashionable Anacreontic poetry. The gracefuiness of Wieland's style becomes his highest aesthetic ideal. In religion he becomes a rationalist, shutting his eyes to the vigor and freshness, the life and poetry, of real re- ligion.
Although he knew the catchword of Rousseau, "Return to nature," and his antithesis of nature versus civilization, he was not yet ripe for a deeper appreciation and interpretation of the great sentimentalist. Shakespeare he knew, but it was an expurgated and conventionalized Shakespeare such as one might find in Wieland's trans- lation, or in Weisse's Romeo und Julie. At the same time there was lurking within Jinn a spirit of revolt. It was increased by bis relation to Behrisch, le of the numerona frienda whoin Goethe alwaya needed Ecrisea of his emotional life.
This man, who was living in Bipzig near Goethe's rooius as the tutor of a young noble- ki, was B, very odd geniua. In their wild life 1 "Auerbachs Keller," immortalized ia Faust, they gave hlt to theii' uontenipt for all eonventional restraint. In Die Mit- schuldigen lie gave vent to the feelings which had come to him from an insight into the immoralities and erimes of his native city. During his convalescence from a severe illness, con- tracted in Leipzig, he was unable to reconcile these differ- ences. Instead of Coming to a clearer conception of life and art and nature he came into a mystical mood in which he hoped that nature might reveal herseif to him in some mysterious manner.
It was a time in which beauty seemed to him " neither light nor darkness," but " the child of truth and untruth.
Goethe in Strassburg, Enthvsiasm for Strassburg, When his health had suffi- ciently mended, Goethe's father decided that his son should complete his study of law at Strassburg Goethe was quite willing to depart, for his father's impatience and severity had brought them into confiict and had inflicted wounds which could not be healed. At the very first moment the young man grew enthusiastic over his new home.
It was a veritable paradise to him. Pedestrian tours and horsebsick rldes became a passion. Already Seseiiheim rises up before t clothed with apeeial signifieaiice aiid j erspective. Among theae tlieie spnmg npacult of fi'ieiidship, in which the pasa- was " Friendship, love, and brotherliood. It's with everything eise as it is with Merseburger beer. It makes you shudder the first time you drink it, but after you haye drunk it a week you cannot give it up any more.
Herder had just come to Strassburg after spend- ing some very happy hours in the Company of the young lady whom he later married. He had been compelled to visit the university city because of some trouble with his eyes. He was in a state of dejection when Goethe met him.
So at this time in Goethe's life Herder's person is surrounded by a halo of grandeur. The remarks f ound in Dichtung und Wahrheit are stripped ofthe enthusiasm which the Strass- burg Student displayed, therefore they give us only a moderate idea of the admiration which Herder must have inspired. It is no exaggeration, then, when he says: Before this meeting with Goethe, Herder had made a repntation as a preaeher.
In his writings he insisted on the law of growth and the nnity of nature. He thooght it absurd to imitate a dead language when there was such a vital con- nection between one's own thonght and one's own language. The common people, their speech, and their songs, were to his mind deserving of intensive study.
Just as originality and nature stood for the strong and the beautifol, so the artificial was a synonym for weakness. On his voyage f rem Eiga to Paris he dreamed of an ideal school System for his own country, schools which were to be without traditional ideas, without pedantic translations, natural in their methods, developing the perfect man, the ideal of himself. He had come under the influence of Rousseau while he was amanuensis, general servant, and bootblack in the house of that young minister Trescho who was writing the history of his own heart and a "Bible of Death" or "How to Die Cheerfully.
The man who thinka is a. Like" the common people, like the ohildren, whose life is pure and stiong, obey the primitive instincts. Tlnfold your own individuality. The faiit that Herder took an opti- mistie and Kousseau a pessiiaistie view of civilizatioo does not taJce anything away f rom Rouaaeau's influenae on Herdei'. He is, after all, a vitalizing force in, Herder's Spiritual life ; Herder learned from him the worth of the inner life and tlie rights of the individual.
Of course Kousseau did not know what Herder seemed to know, that civilization is an orgaiiie growth; that Janguage, religion, law, cu8tom8,poetry, art, are the result of accumulated impreasions made upon inasses of human beings under aimilar conditions and similar agencies ; but he did have the gift of aaying more forcibly and more eloquently than any other man that manhood must be diaentangied from the meahes of faahion and Convention.
He was well fitted to do the latter, becauae hia religion, like that of Rousseau, was based upon natural inatinct. Like bim he denounced and championed feeling and the inner nature of man. Faith, geniua, individual iom, nattire and the senttes, activity instead of reflection, totality of man's natuie, the absolute unity of thonght and feeling, theae are some of the ideaa be tai.
Before or after Herder no a haa arisen who has bad euch an aptitude for ide. Wlien he treats the folk-aong it Js no longei I n.
Before or after Herder no man has arisen who has had such an aptitude f or identifying himself with the spirit of the poets of many nations. He was an Arab with the Arabs, a Scald with the Scalds. He entered into the spirit of Moses and Job and Ossian and Shakespeare and Homer, according to their time and nature. Within the sweep of his imagination and his feel- ing the environment of each was included, the country, the climate, the religion, the mythology, the laws, the customs.
The folksong, When he treats the f olk-song it is no longer " of the rabble and f or the rabble. Homer, He found the same spirit of nature in Homer. As the Volkslied was a necessary expression of the life of the people, so Homer's poetry grew out of his life and ex- perience, and in a larger sense out of the life and experience of the Greek people.
The stories of creation, of the deluge, orvMoses, are looked upon as national songs. Ossiojt, The so-called poems of Osaian whose entire genuiDeneaa as original Gaelic songa he did not doubt , unlike the poetry of his owu day, were to hini the iiamedi- ate expreasion of the life of the common people.
He contends that Sophoclea ja froin Greece, Shakespeare ia from the north; that England taTety much unlike Greeoe in its hiatory, apirit, language,. And in a similar way Herder's essay on Ossian concludes with an apotheosis of Klopstock. We do not know for a certainty what Herder said to Goethe about Klopstock, this great creator of words, this great poet of the heart and the feelings ; we are comparatively sure that Goethe learned from him the art of coining new words, of making new word-combinations, and of lifting into a higher emotional realm experiences of a personal nature.
Poetic ex- alted language is the natural expression of original man and the basis of literature. But it is not the language which a philosopher might have invented ; the correctness of such a. How it muat have appealed to Goethe to hear Herder aay, "No poet, howevev great, can attain perfection in any language but bis own! TJnder Herder'a tutelage B poef 8 art became a serious matter to Goethe. How could it have become anything eise in his hands than the artistic and dra- matic representation of a deep and lasting life-experience? He is probably thinking of his relation to her when at the beginning of the ninth book of Dichtung und Wahrheit he quotes from a contemporary writer a significant passage about our feelings, passions, and affections.
The memory of the cruel story of the reception of Marie Antoi- nette,- and the sinister story of the curse of the dancing- master's daughter Lucinda upon the Ups of her who should kiss Goethe for the first time after her, haunts us as we go with Goethe on the road to Sesenheim. First appearance at Sesenheim. Goethe was pleased to assume the disguise of a theological student when he was introduced by his f riend Weyland to the family of the min- ister at Sesenheim. The father was a little man wrapped up within himself, the mother an intelligent, good-looking house- wife. One daughter is represented as bouncing into the room ; of the other it is said, when she made her appearance, " A most charming star arose in this rural heaven.
After Htarting it occurred to him to borrow the Simday suit of a man living at Drusenheim. The lover is able to remove the ring, liowevtir, and so regains his former size. This story hiU4 Ixuin regarded as Goethe's apology f or his later conduet. It iH moro in a! Thti rlimajr of the story.
After his return to Strassburg ho writtm to his frionds that he has spent some pleasant dayM at Hosonheini. Ho writes to Friederike and promises to uuuo again. He aeiids poeius to her on hia rn, and in fourteen days conies Ijack himaelf. The dainty conventional Lnaereontic aon ,'s give way to songa born out of the full- ness of the heart. Withal there ia a gradual progreas toward spontaneoua pasaion, elemental statcs of mind, and the em- idiment of the sou] of natuve. Hia ijaaaionate love for Friederike began i and more to trouble bim. Abaence aimply served to love more intenae and his correapondence more animated.
But he feit that he muat see her after hia grada- ation and explain to ber that a uiiion waa imposaibie. When he arrived he was again under the apell of her personality and eould not speak the aaving word. He left without any esplanation. To hia intereat in German aa a national langiiage, to hia atudy of the antiquities of hia oountiy from Jiatriotin motivea, ia now added alao an intenae pride in the Straaa- burg niinster. To be great, art must be inev- itable and true, i. German eonditions alone can produce German art. Through the study of the great building he came to know the genius of its architeet, Erwin Steinbach.
From him he learned what the ereative power is which lives in the soul and makes the true artist. He learned from him to depend upon his own strength. Taught by nature and not by pedagogues, he will henceforth act according to the measure of his powers. There is one sentence in the essay Von deutscher Baukunst which implies, if it does not include, all that Goethe learned and feit about the art of Steinbach. Art is the utterance, the expression, of sincere, singular, personal, independent feeling. An important fragment, Becoming more and more con- scious of his talents, Goethe made bold to emulate Shake- speare himself.
He matured plans f or a drama, Ccesar, which, though it remained a very meager fragment, is worthy of notice because it is the only play upon which Goethe was engaged in Strassburg; it is more impoi-tant because it showed that Goethe had already learned to identify himself with his hero and believed that Shakespeare had no regard for form, but was chiefly concerned with the evolution of some great character.
His father, ever solicitous for his future calling, had already marked. He insisted on the principle of right and wrong more than upon the technicalities of the law. It was no little shock to the embryo lawyer when at the very outset of his career he was rebuked for his ardor in this direction.
The essay on Shakespeare. If before this there was little in the plans of his father to attract him, this little had now become infinitesimal. The young man reverted to the genius of Homer and Shakespeare and Ossian, and to the presenti- ment which he had had of his own genius. The result was that there came a clash between his perfunctory diities as a lawyer and the stirrings within him. A spirit of unrest began to manifest itself, sometimes in the form of over-action, some- times in the form of depression. His correspondence with his Strassburg friends was almost entirely cut off, with the exception of Herder, to whom he sent a collection of SSoIfgs lieber, a translation of Ossian, and an invitation to a Shake- speare celebration.
Tliia easay, written ia Herder'a represents Shakespeare aa a man with seven-league bootB, taking gigantie strides, the greatest of joiii'iieyei'a through Hfe. It teils how Shakespeare becanie the dominant literaiy passiou of this period. My dear little Frenchman, what are yon trying to do with the Greek armor? It'a too big and heavy for you. Ah, now I have stirred up the whole lioniets' nest. Give me air, ao I can speak!
The inner history of the composition is about as foUows: We must, however, recall also Goethe's interest in the history of chivalry and the judicial System of the Middle Ages. On his return to Frankfurt his continued interest in these studies caused him to look up Pistorius in the Frankfurt library. All on fire, he hutried home with it to teil his mother about it: What great eyes the Philistines will make at the Knight with the Iron-hand! That 's glorious — the Iron-hand! The story grips him like a passion, he draws upon every resource of his genius, so that Homer and Shakespeare are neglected.
Volumen verum Germanicarum novum sive de poes imperii publica libri V. Corpus juris Germanici puhlici ac priuati ex oeiio medio. The time of general peace impresaes him aa a time of weakneas aiid decay, in whinh the free man ia oppreaaed and the prince atrengtheiied.
Still Goethe was rnueh more deeply inturested in himself, in hia own woi'ld and generation, than he was in the Ger- man paat. Thia ifi the pieture the young man began to paint upon the background of the past. This remorseful state of mind which pro- duced the Weisungen and Maria drama is best expressed in the words of Clavigo: The fire of repentance will not subside.
Despondent and helpless, he writes to his friend Salzmann: I shall probably never amount to much. Pray for me, pray for me, thou spirit i See Appendix, p. O God, what a fearful aveiigei thciu art. His in- tereat in the work becarae so keeu that he finished his manu- sci-ipt at the end of six weeka. The aecond veraioii Is a revised and altered edition of the original aketch.
The firat version was not printed untU after Goethe'a death. At the tirne of its coniposition it be- came known to Goethe'a friends in manuscript form. Merck, wbo had uaurped Herder'a place in aome measure, approved of it, its characteristic delineationa, its theine of liberty, and ita German tone. Salzmann was pleased with it; Lerse niado some auggestiona which were afterward followed. The nioat valnahle criticiam.
Between the begin- ning of DecBmber and the date of its appearance Goethe hiwi paaaed through a period of severe testing and had won to maatei'ship. In the very whirlwind of paaaion Goethe IP. To be sure, fits of gloom and desperation and depression were plentiful enough when he feit that the eurse of Cain was heavy upon him ; still, one is aware of a deep undercurrent of moderation and calm.
The essay on Steinbach a panegyric on the superman with Babel thoughts and the marriage of Lotte complete the process of purification. Then Merck, hoping to reap large returns from the publication of this brilliant play, arges its revision and publication. The reports that are sent oot from the Workshop from time to time reveal a gradual prog- ress in the revision, until after ten weeks of concentrated work and unflinching self-criticism the piece is done and appears in print in June Though it is more like its original than unlike it, yet such a transf ormation has taken place that a comparison between the two will reveal to us an interesting and unexpected measnie of self-restraint and criticism.
Goethe found two principal weaknesses in the first version: About the first error into which he feil he said: Out of the first error grew the seeond one. When the conatructive and symmet rical prineiples of art are applied to the first veraion, Adel- heid is teduced to more proper proportions.
She ia no longer so inordinately jKissioDate and anibitious. She is no longer the sublime criminal who utters tbe words " "Poiaon, poison. In vain have I sought to destroy vice with vice and disgrace with disgrace. The minor characters have also iindergone a metamorphosis. Metzler dispenses with his Ossianic ravings about the universe.
Franz is no longer permitted to fall into a swoon after uttering most fervent protestations of love, and the absence of some mystical rant about chaos and creation makes him a more rational being. Georg has been made the son of the innkeeper, and, though , a little more talkative than necessary, is nevertheless a healthy and manly counterpart of the polished but unsound Franz.
Weisungen is not exempted from this process of alteration. In his relations to Adelheid he appears less of a weakling. Unity in second version, The second weakness, that of looseness of structure, is also remedied. In his second Ver- sion the young artist is striving for greater concentration of action. A stricter causality of action is brouglit about by the introduction of two new sceries. The revolutionary chai'aeter of the aecond veraion is less obtnisive than that of the first. Everywhere the ahaip anai-chiatic remarlcs are toned down.
The blood-steeped uttei- ances of the peasants have been carefuUy modified, and the princes ai'e no longer repreaented as a consuming fire feed- ing ixpon the happineaa and toil of their subjects. Long iiarrative paaaagcs have been condenaed into rapid dialogue ; inapt phrases have been eliminated and others aubstituted, The nnmeroiis paralilea and allegoriea, for whioh Shakespeare has been held reaponaible, have been weeded oat very care- fidly.
The artist Goethe rejected also many eomparisons, simile. Jumbled together and lacking logical or even chronological sequence, nevertheless these anecdotes are not the dry-as- dust list of events which most editors would have the credu- lous reader believe.
Some commentators have been foolish enough to expect in these reports a well-ordered and well- developed story. To such the book will not disclose its charm. In the three prin- cipal parts into which the autobiography is divided there is an evident striving after arrangement. In his use of the scholastic firstly, secondly, thirdly, and so on, with which he introduces the eleven respective subdivisions of the first part, there is an almost pedantic regard for schematic order.
On this point the remarks of Hermann Grimm ai-e very apt. He only makea a pause r and theo to catch his breatJi, like a story-telier telling t'General Umitatinns. On the other hand, it must not forgotten that Jts iDfluence is limited. It cannot accouiit for the general con- stniction of the whole, ita five acta, ita exposition, climax, and catastrophe. It does not explain the broadei- historical settlng with ita descriptions of familj, conrt, jndicial, and army life, wliifb presuppose a knowledge of historical de- taila that the autobiography could not even siiggest.
The peraonality of the Biter himself and his preparation for this work would vre little or no interest for us, 1 Two cAaracterx not- fmuid in it. For two of the most im- tant and moat carefnUy delineated charactera there are tlo modeis to be f ound in the autobiography: The characterization in the drama, We must not gcto the author of the autobiography for such deep, rieh, ani- mated studies in characterization as the gentle and unselfish Maria, the sunny singing Georg, the devoted housewife Elisabeth, the soldier of fortune Selbitz, the manly diplo- matic Sickingen, the sensual Franz, the faithful Lerse, the witty and cynical Liebetraut, all giving such an impression of actuality and individuality.
Lack of arrangement in the Lebensbeschreibung, In the Xe- bensbeschreihung we have a mass of almost disconnected and unsystematized f acts with very little chronological sequence. In Dichtung und Wahrheit he teils us that he grouped his data about a certain theme. He tried to describe in his story "how in times of anarchy a right-minded honest man re- solves to take the law into his own hands, but is in despair when, to the supreme authority which he recognizes, his atti- tude appears questionable and even rebellious.
After the atory of the Lebensbeschreibung has passed through the young man's mind it is no longer like itself. It has been trans- formed into a carefully constructed plot of which the out- line is as f ollows: Here it is exposed in all its glitter and corruption. Of the passions which move the heart there is not a trace in the old trooper's yarn. What a human perspective the poet gives ns in his pictures of friendship, love, jealousy, ambition, and treachery! The larger historical atmosphere, There is in the drama also a historical atmosphere which the autobiography alone could never have suggested.
The darker agesof German history had long been the object of Goethe's study and f ood for his imagination. He studied carefully the judicial and military System of the period, for, as he him- self says, the Constitution of the courts and army gives the most accurate insight into the condition of the empire. When to all this we a4d his treatment of the army, of monasticism, and of the amateur court fool, we are forced to grant that Goethe's handling of the milieu displays a breadth and accuracy of historical knowledge which for tJie eighteenth-centuTy drama is little short of marvelous.
His disregard for the unities, hia kinetoscopic panorama of scenes, his art of individualizing every character, his emphasis npoti the chief character as the Center of interest, his choice of a national subject, are all Shakespearean, though one might heaitate to aseribe them alone. Liebetraut is a remi- — mscenee of Shakespeare's clown ; of oouise he looks also like the incarnation of that state of mind which Rousseau and Hamann were wont to pratae in Socratea. The gypsies have been regarded as the coun- terpart of the witches in Macbeth, The use of supernatural agencies, such as dreams, presentiments, prophecies, and the like, the parallelism of human and natural events, the plays on words, the hyperbole, the energy of the dialogue, the force and elaborateness of the figures of speech, have all been traced to Shakespeare.
It has already been shown how much Goethe ,owed to the study of biblical literature. Its pictures, its phrases, its language, were the principal tributaries to the mighty stream of his poetical power. No detailed list of scriptural allusions and scrip- tural quotations can be given here, they are so plentifuL Two specimens will suflfice. Young'B NigM Thoughts had preached a weariness of life which beeame the prevailing mood in the tender poems of that time.
The study of Ilamlet, the favorite among the plays of Shakespeare, so encouraged thia feeling of dissatisfaction that it beeame tha fashion to imi- tate the melancholy Prinee of Denmark. His wife no longer recognizes him in his melancholy despondeney. Life has no value, his roots are eilt away and his strength is totteriug to the grave. Notiee first the OsBianii! He revels in the suffering of his enemy. He leads the wif e of his enemy to the tower where her husband has been tortured to death with others and says, " Lay your ear against the wall here and you will hear them moan ; they are resting upon dead men's bones in the vault near by.
Their sufPering is only a breath of air in the springtime. He lay in the deep dungeon, and his comrades with him. I came at night and leaned my ear against the wall. I heard them wailing. I called and they did not hear me. I came f or three nights, scratched the wall with my nails and tore it with my teeth.
On the fourth night I heard nothing more. No cry, no groan. I listened f or the groan, I listened f or the ery, as a maiden for the voice of her lover. Death was silent I threw myself upon the ground, dug it up with my hands, threw myself into the brambles and cursed tili the morning came, curses hot as hell against thismurderous race. Let their souls rise with the morning mist. Blow, winter wind, blow. After Herder had prepared Goethe for the appeal which the SSolfSlieb makes to the instinct for sim- plicity and truth, and his experience with Friederike made him appreciate its realism and passion, his own songs became simpler, f resher, and more sincere.
But he did not stop with the songs which echo the rapture he feit in the presence of Friederike; songs must also be introduced into his drama to add fervor of feeling and color. And besides there was a chance f or personal bravery ; to-day it is a matter of hurling soul- less masses against each other, thus to decide the fate of peoples. In this way all diversity and individual perfec- tion, which alone can make a nation great, is suppressed. Moser also held to a patriarchal ideal of Community life — believed in men of action rather than men of learning.
All thB details of the contrast between the free knight who is dubbed a robber and the lawyer trained in the Eoman law who robs under the protection of justice ; the great regard with which the courts look upon the lawyer, his van- ity, his stupidity, his praise of the Roman law as the pan- acea for all ills ; even to the Suggestion of the court f ool, these are all found in von Hutten's The Rohhers. The worldly biahop, the independent knight who reGogni2es no mastec but the emperor, the motto vive llbertas, the referenco to hunting as a tit vocation for retired soldiers, are touehea which Goethe could easUy have tranaferred to hia drama.
One is iuelined to believe in this the more beeause in Gtifa: Turning to the text, we find Goethe working with the idea of nature in still another way, namely, with the Rousseauic contrast between nature and civilization, which emphasized, first, the original goodness of nature and the corruption of civilization; second, the animal life, the lif e of instinct, versus the life of reflection ; third, the nat- ural development of the individual soul as opposed to the restraining influences of an artificial civilization.
The primitive child of nature is good; he possesses the true instinct of sincerity, honesty, and loy- alty. The gypsies in tlie book are referred to as wild fellows, stubborn and faithful. So we are dealing on the one hand with men, real men, sound, clean, unspoiled, and on the other hand with decadents corrupted by civilization. It, is tlie wealth of the patriaixths of the Eible aiid Homer. Man ia good with the Impulses that the Creator has given him, Aocordingly, Urother Martin rlaima that these cannot be fenced in by the three monkish vows of cbastity, poverty, and obedience ; monastic eelf-mortififMitJon is not the pathway to perfection ; true religion ia being oue's eelf, attaining fullneaa of physical and apiritual develop- it ia health, succeaa, atrength, pride, the aenae of - not the contempiative aacetic type, but the active, ictical, useful life aought after by the robber knight est far life.
To pledge one'a eelf to rerty, chastity, and obedience ia to atnltify one'a manhood, B-to eommit murder upon the very impulsea through whicb we live and move and have our being. When later he focused in himself storm-and- stress, classic, and romantic periods of German literature, he was realizing in a wonderful way what Faust wished to experience: This will to live is only another word for the instinct of man. So we find a return to the natural appetites. Eating and drinking, most elemental instincts, are eulogized as constituting the basis of life.
The sluggish digestion induced by fasting causes a depression of the mental powers and generates morbid and dangerous desires. Natural sleep is preferable to the vigil of the monk. Happy the man who can throw himself upon his bed unharnessed and Stretch out his limbs in sleep! Brawn, the strength of the Shoulders to bear the coat of mail, the strength of the arm to unhorse the enemy, bravery, the vigor of life unaffected by fatigue, are worth more than the hand which Swings the censer and the voioe that sings "Ave" and " Hallelujah. The poet glorifies the wholesome- ness of the marital relation and decries celibacy.
Beside Weisungen, abject slave of an unscrupuloas woman, and cringing courtier at the residence of a self-indulgent, ignorant, ligbt-miiided priest, Stands the free and independent knight. From this uonception of natura grew tbe cultoral and pedagogical ideals of Goethe. V Senn nrit tbnnen bie Sm'otx nai unfeiem Sinne nic t formen: The ped- gy whic. The natural man uaea a natural language. How natural is this prose! How life-like that each character should speak his own vernacular! Country llfe, There is a glorification of isolated and idyllic country lif e in the words of Weisungen to Maria: But, alas, he is all too soon rendered ansemic by the tainted atmosphere of official life!
From Herder he had learned and devel- oped the idea of historical evolution. In his political and social ideals he takes into account both of these factors, and so favors a return to old national German conditions. Conservatism prepared, Perhaps Goethe's breeding was also an important factor in making him apathetic to the modernizing of institutions. Brought up in easy circum- stances, encouraged by his father in a self-conscious and patrician pride, he must needs regard with indifference, if not with contempt, the ideals of democracy.
But does the drama itself strike us like the anticipation of a social upheaval? Are we not rather Struck, as has already been suggested, by the political conservatism 1 P. Had not other men better realized the Situation and painted the obstacles in the way of an honest man at court? Had not others attaeked more zealously the profligaey and depravity of the German princes? Had not others more strikingly con- trasted rural simplieity and innocenee with the corruption and extra vagance of court life? In Emilia Galotti Lessing gave us a terrible pieture of the corrupt and vicious aristocrat who treats his subjeets as the rightfui prey of his unrestrained lust.
Book after book placed before us the machinery of Machiavellian intrigue and high-handed bru- tality and princely libertinism. The stress is laid upon a more human relar tion, not a new relation, between master and subject. He ahould like to aee the princes serve the emperor aa he is striving to do. He condemns the court ife with itB flirtations, with its strutnpeta and mistresses, its themes of divorce and adulteiy, ita lazy emptinesa ; he deplores ita ayoophancy ; he denounces the priiices for their cruelty, for throwing their aubjecta into the tower, there to let them rot alive, for their want of feeling for the Bubjects who are nothing but fuel for the fire of their aelfiahneaa, tor their hatred of their neighbora.
But the race of excellent prinnes ia not dead. Still there ia iii the play a reaching out after emancipation in the upriaing of the peaaanta, which threatena to subvert the foundationa of civic order. But they do not hear, they do not feel. Our auperiora, our maatera, are like a consuming fire whith feeda upon the happineaa of the multitude, the blood aud aweat of their aubjecta, and ia never satiafied.
We can hardly expect him to approve of the revengefui spirit which cries out with a ferocious snarl: I shall dip my hands in their blood for relief from this fire of vengeance. Winter wind, tear them to pieces — rage for a thousand years and still an- other thousand years until the world burns, and then hurl them into the midst of this eonflagration.
He aeeepted the captaincy only on condition of moderation, and he is sure that after his death people will know that he had nothing in common with these dogs. Nothing is spared to impress the individual German with the responsi- bility of his individual position. Goethe concentrates his interest on the personal; as in Faust, social salvation is made to rest upon individual redemption. The spirit of revolt was in the air; it burst forth with unforeseen might not much later in the French Revolution.
In Germany this revolution stood for an emancipation of German life, and the liberation of the individual from the fetters of dry reason and conventional ethics. Law haa never luade a great man j it ia fruedoin that hatuhea out colosai and extremes. In Germany, however, the move- ment ia more a break with literary ti'aditiona than any- thing eise. It is a seourging, first, of the deaolate, lifeleaa Enligbtenment achool wbicb taught tbat literature waa a product of the reason and not of the heart, a thing that could be learued by rote in school apart from any aoul-esperienoe ; the Stoi'in and Sti-eas ' men, of whom Goethe ia the chief, poured out tlie cup of wrath upon tbis achool as it waa found in France and Germany, acorning ita membera aa empty heada and awkward fellowa, atupid and ridiculona.
It reaches Jta climax in au outspoken revolt against French I lasaiciam, wbicb had drawn ita inspiration from Latin liter- irure, a second-hand source, and not from the original iiiJTature of the Greeks. They feit that the time was fulfilled when genius no longer needed a saddle to ride the horse of poetry. Then there came a wholesale deelaration oi war against the traditional hero, against the old teehnique, against the stereotyped diction and meter. One may well imagine the commotion and consternation when Goethe feil like a levia- than into the duckpond of a timid and imitative literatore!
Goethe's revolutionary tendencies be- gan in Leipzig. In Strassburg, where he was in immediate contact with French life and eivilization, he tumed against it in his dithyrambic essay upon the Strassburg minster. He had grown tired of its antiquated eulture, and was on the point of giving himself up to savage nature.
His love for the barbaric irregularities of Shakespeare and of Gothic arehitecture, and for the unconventional passion and warmth and power of Homer, Ossian, and the folksong, attests his mutinous disregard for the accepted Standards of French poetry. Pelhtiitl iu her Tranton diaregard for eonventional moi-ality, 1 bis love for individual fi'eedom. The doctrine of the return to na- luve wbon applied to peraonality meant the natural develop- iiient of the individual soul. The iudividuality haa innate oi- natural rights wbich must be respected.
Tbere is a ] a3sage in Goethe'a wi'itings wbieh States this doctrine of the free iudividuality so suo- einctly that it inight serve as a motto for the drama: But it ia not iiierely the free personality, tut the great peraonality, which is glorified. Goethe himself was endowed with an attractive personality. One eould not be long in his presence without loving him. The leader of the gypsies was Struck by the nobility of his speech and bear- ing before he knew who he was.
The gypsies were ready to sacrifiee themselves for him. Lerse sought him out in Order that he might be with him and serve him. Martin was extravagant in his admiration and respect for him. He knew at once that he was in the presence of a great man. Goethe makes him the incamation of real greatness, he is great without striving to be great,' he does not need to command nor to obey to be great. Martinas dream of greatness is passionate and sincere, even though it be nn- availing. Weislingen's striving is impotent but still am- bitious. Sickingen is looking to the Station of Elector, he 1 P.
George is the ideal man, and bis prayer is chai-acteriatic of tliB atriving of all of theae men: George, make me great and strong.
This tendency to self-expanaion ia au exultant, often arrogant expressioii of the oonviction that the indiyidual man ia, after all, above all forma, laws, inati- tutions, eonventiona, Bibles, religions. In ita worst form it turna into human egotiam and ita fruitage in literature 13 the poetry of seif-intoxieation. Adelheid ia the best illua- ti'ation in the drama. Goethe makea her ao attrac- tive that even the pure Georg ia made to admit that ahe ia Ijeantifol,' an admiaaion which carriea more wejght tliaii the ehameterization of Franz, her fanatical lover: After ahe haa won Weialingen ahe haa no acruples in Casting him aside, for, aa sho aaya, "The ambitions of my bosom are too great" if you try to hinder me, "my way goes over you.
Herder aaw iiis, and derived fi'om his obaervatioii a theory of idioayn- ,. Before Herder, Wood had t. This mle was heeded by Goethe, but not suflBleiently, for Herder later points out, in the words " Shakespeare has spoiled you com-. Genius, The dogma of genius, a development of the doo- trine of the return to nature or of the doctrine of the inde- -pendent personality, seems not to have materially affected -the fabric of the drama itself. Yet this spirit which leads and guides man is introduced into the drama itself only in -the sense of an attendant spirit.
My good -genius, recognizing the dangers which awaited me, tried to. Control over us is given to evil spirits. They longed tn get away from the dead learning of books iuto the life of practioal activity. They longed to read the praotical niessage of life in the book of nature and the book of men. Karl Moot loathes the ink-spattering Century of scholara beeause they do nothing, Martin, the nionk in Gote, finds idlers intol- erable ; he cannot rest, his auperior aends him wherever any- tking ja to be accompliahed.
Hia time and hJa frienda espeoi great thinga of him. But iie ia prevented from doing theni: He triea to imagine that reat is a pleaaant thing, but wJthout avail. He roshes on like a hailstorm, molding fate and emperor to serve his ends. He is already of a quieter nature than suits his f ather ; and Maria intends to make a priest of him. Feelixg Ardor of emotion.
This longing for a practical exploita- tion of one's individuality was in general only a longing, a glow of contemplative transport. After all it was the soul-life in the character that was most important. Fiunz is indined to be lachry- raoae. It tran- scenda the tortures of hellto be allowed to enjoy thia happi-. Half a night with you is wortb inore tban a thousand yeai-s, How I hate the day.
See how he is overeome by the l. He is like a druiiken man in her presence, like au entranced religioua mystie. The friendship motif was prominent in literature. Nationalism Goethe has been subjected to severe criticism because of his alleged lack of patriotism and national feeling. It is not necessary here to enter intp a discussion of this subject pro and con; it would probably not lead to any very satisfao- tory result.
Faith in Germany revived, " The first true and really vital material of a higher order came into German poetry through Frederick the Great and the deeds of the Seven Years' War. But the impulae toward a national poetry was more far-reaching thaii that ; honorable mention ought to be made also of aJl the young men and patriots who at this time revived theii' faith in atrengtli, in men and deeds, and in tlie German national genius.
Klopstock, assTimiug leaderahip of these men with new literary ideals, denianded in hia odea and national 'dramas a turning away from the French. When Herder in his new proclaniation demande. Nationaliam won a great victory wlieji Goethe was converted from his piejndieea against Gothic architenture and prociaimed the good newa 3 a8 ijl beult 5e Sftutunfl, unfeie 99aufunft; but the greatest victory was woQ when thia youugater with hia new ideal of German taste and feeling dramatized the story of the "noblest of Gennana.
Thoroughly German, So the di'ama recommends a re- turn to German strength, truth, and vigor of manhood. It is not too much to say that it is the first thoroughly German work of modern German literature, perhaps of all German literature. It certainly is the most German work of Goethe. Lessing had found it an especially pleasant occupation to remove the stain of reproach from the fair name of deserving men.
Young Herder performed the same task. Goethe's diama is also a Konfession' the acknowledgioent of a fault or wrong for the pnriiose of obtaining abaolution. Like llouaseau, the great esponent of autopsychography, who laid Viare bis soul-Ufe to the world, loethe found Ilterature a meana of unburdening hia con- iiience of ita feeling of guilt. Atid so Maria and Weisungen I j I- the reault of aome peuitent refleetions oii hia relations to l''riederike von Brion. With a feeling of superiority and a smile lipon bis face the young iconofilast destroya tbe imagea whiuh the French aehool has set up, But he goes farther tban tbat.
He attaflks tbe ohurch lieeauae it triea to come into the preaenee of God by an enforeed and uncalled-foj' suppi'oaaion of natural instincts. In them our individu- ality, the assumed freedom of our will, clashes with the course of the whole.
The defects of the fitst version still cling to the second. He feit that Shakespeare, the great master whom he was imitating, did not wish to write so 1 This passage is taken from the first version, p. Aiid so Giiiz haa becoine a mass of irregularities, wild, unrestrained, imcouth; a rapid succeasioii of tableaux, a gallery of loosely-related picturea, with no intensity and acceleration of movement even at the close of tbe composi- tion wliere one would expect au onward rusb toward the catastropbe.
Not in aecord with tradition. From the viewpoint of tbe French classic drama GSts von Berlichingen haa no right to tbe name of " drama. It employs [loetry and prose in the aamo play. It doea not make use of. Uexaudrine verse, It portmys a wouian wbo claiina the right to be wieked and iinmodest. All of wbich ia not in aecord with the holy tiuditiona of the Frencb drama. Tbis type of play can never be as touehing, aa thrilling, or as stirriug in ite effecta aa the "action" drama of Schiller; 1 tfais is hardly a eogent reasoii for withholding the name ' from tbe aoul-struggle of a aignificant charax?
Two warlds aie at war, tbe free, simple, noble, vigorous Crennan world under the German emperors. So if we nnderstand by "historical" the spirit of history and not meiely its capiir cious details. For that purpose it was not necessary to give such detailed pictores of the pri- vate, judicial, military. That Goethe himself regarded it as a liistorical drama is obvious f rom his publication of Ampere's remarks on the play, which are found among the CSoethe papers entitled Kunst und Altertum.
Present and pant Mended. In those poitioiis which have hia- l;orical coloring the author ia not afraid of introducing per- sniial and modern anachronisms. The legal conditiona of the Middle Ages are explained in the light of modern corrap- t. The peaaant movement is based more ely upon a paasionate intereat in the human side of the itJon than upon an eshauative treatment of the his- 1 material.
The language is a blending of modern and iant elenients. In spite of this lack of strict historical objectivity, there has spriing from these strongly- contrasted groups a great unified historical painting, Grer- many's first real historical drama. Shakespeare's masses in the non-English plays do not belong to the time they de- scribe, they are Englishmen of Shakespeare's time.
Goethe's Netherlanders in Egmont are not the Netherlanders of the seventeenth Century. This Sug- gestion of the tragic was, however, never fully developed in the play. Weisungen, his playmate and comrade in war, whom he expected to be his comfort and right hand, deeeives him and goes over to the enemy. His enemies close in upon him more and more. He l egins to feel that his fall is at hand. He is sure that Sickingen will share his fate. With heaviness of heart he thinks of the treachery of the imperial troops, of his im- prisoned followers, of the cruelty of Weisungen, and he begins to rail at Providence for its indifference to loyalty and fidelity.
Though used to misfortune, he cannot bear the pangs of grief and sorrow which he feels in anticipation of his down fall. An ignominious death stares him in the face, becjause of his share in the peasant insurrection. He Iias broken his word to the emperor. Weialingen, the peasants, tlie death oi' the einperor, hia wounds, drive liim to Mb death.
We leave Giitz with an impresaion of pity and of mystery. In spite of tlie pesaimiatic cloae we fee! His atyle has the aaine original qnality in Strassburg, although he has beeome conscious of hia power to ereate and to mold worda and conibinattons of words. Hitherto he has been uaing the Alexandrine, now he in- sista upon uaiiig prose. Almosfc any one of the longer passagfls i text will show bow thythmic thia prose ia.
In one scene, however, Goethe has made a conscions attempt at effeetive arrangement. The very vivid and graphic descrip- tions of medieval life indicate great descriptive power in the young writer. The language is characterized also by its power of individualization. The courtier speaks a polished language redundant with conventional phrases and foreign expressions.
The lawyer's speech is colored by legal terminology. The clergy, from whom we might expect a copious use of biblical phrases and theological terms, are best at home in a style which reminds one of the humanistic Latin. Brother Martin, true to his calling, interpolates his utterances with quotations from the Bible. It givea voice to the esubei-ance of joy and love and pasaion, deapair and jealousy ; rai'ely does it have gi'eat intelleotual strength and depth.
This aecoimts easily for its short aentenees, its anacolutha, its disregard for tbe conyentional order of worda. It ia a language made up of many cleuienta. Like a maelstrom Goethe drew everytbiiig luito himseif. One book- seller wauted a dozen raore playa like it, and said that he would ]iay a good price.
He says, "He has been fiUing intestines with sand and selling them for ropes. Herder knew its weak- nesses and criticised them severely ; he knew also that there was in it German strength and depth and truth, and wrote down in his heartfelt appreciation of Goethe's werk: In his letter to a friend he gives way to ecstatic rapture: The Knight with the Iron Hand, what a piece! I can hardly contain myself for enthusiasm.
How shaJl I thank the author for my rapture? He states his feeling in these words: EveTi Leiaewita, the disciple of Lesaing, was infeeted. The mannerisma of Goethe'a drama were copied so regularly and so abundantly tliat the young man himaelf was a little later seeu among the de- tractors of hia own work, satirizing ita weakneasea with some vehemence. A comparison between the two plays will show many points of resemblance. Both preach the gospel of humanity ; both rate freedom higher than life and honor. Suffice it to say: Walter Scott firat became acquainted with Goethe through bis ballads.
He found hei-e a life-size Ooetbti o EckennoDK. It is a broad, bold, free, and most picturesque delineation of real characters, manners, and events ; the first fruits, in a word, of that passionate admiration for Shakespeare. Scott, who thus became the invbutor ui tlie jiKjdern aovel, ruturned to Gfirmauy roany- i'old what he had leaiued froni ita best exponent of Storm and Sti'ess. Fram this time datea a. Scott became the teacher of Scheffel, Keller, and Freytag.
The an- nounueraent of the play ran as follows: We have had scruples about putting it on the stage, but finally the wishes of many friends were acceded to, and arrange- ments were made to carry out the plan as far as time and place permitted. To please the very honorable public all necessary expenditures have been made upon requisite deco- ration and new historic costumes. There is also a gyi sy ballet. A Synopsis of this play upon a Single sheet may be had at the door f or one groschen.
Opinion was divided on the gypsy scene and ballet. Some were pleased, others spat in disgust at the words "A hamster and two field-mice. After having studied the contrasts displayed in the fictional world itself, the focus will be on the narrator. However, although the novel contains two different plots which can be easily separated from each other, they are not presented in isolation. Scott neither writes documentation on the Jacobite rebellion of by limiting his narration to historical facts, nor does he write an adventure story in which the historical facts would only serve as background information.
The two plots are connected by the protagonist, since he witnesses historical events while being a fictional character. Moreover, the two plots are also connected by a common movement. Thus, Scott manages to unify historical reality with fiction. By doing this, he was the first to write in the genre of the historical novel. Since many of the characters in Waverley can be considered as foils, the contrasts and oppositions between them are to be examined in the following section.
Considering the characters in this novel, several contrasts can be found between various characters. The first contrast between these two characters becomes apparent in their political affiliation, since Sir Everard is a Tory while Richard Waverley sympathizes with the Whig party. Moreover, the opposition between these two characters becomes even more evident when we learn about their attitudes towards marriage. While Richard Waverley solely marries in order to advance his political career  , Sir Everard relinquishes Lady Emily, the woman he wanted to marry, to a rival and even supports this rival in his military career.
The oppositions presented by these two brothers prepare the reader to see the same contrasts in the characters of the Baron of Bradwardine and Fergus MacIvor. Routledge and Kegan Paul, , p. The Making of the Novelist , Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, , p. Cambridge University Press, , p. Adam and Charles Black, , p.