He followed the earlier examples of: Jude also vividly described the apostates in terms of their character and unconscionable activities Jude 1: Additionally, he borrowed from nature to illustrate the futility of their teaching Jude 1: While Jude never commented on the specific content of their false teaching, it was enough to demonstrate that their degenerate personal lives and fruitless ministries betrayed their attempts to teach error as though it were truth.
This emphasis on character repeats the constant theme regarding false teachers—their personal corruption. While their teaching is clever, subtle, deceptive, enticing, and delivered in myriads of forms, the common way to recognize them is to look behind their false spiritual fronts and see their wicked lives 2 Pet.
Outline of Jude I. Desires of Jude Jude 1: Declaration of War Against Apostates Jude 1: Damnable Outcome of Apostates Jude 1: Denunciation of Apostates Jude 1: Defenses Against Apostates Jude 1: Doxology of Jude Jude 1: Kept-Book of Jude , Jude 1: Jude foresaw the coming of mockers in the last time who would walk after their own lusts and godlessness, and having the Spirit.
And by their deeds we see clearly that they have no hope, for they rage furiously and live shamelessly and desire inordinately and persecute arrogantly and seize and grasp everything that they can plunder or steal or gain. All these things are tokens of their godlessness and despair. Like their father the devil, they are harsh toward everybody, refuse the joy and consolation of salvation, and despise every warning that might turn them from error.
They will not retain God in their knowledge. So they begin to experience already that eternal perdition that in the world to come they will fulfill eternally. Recognizing the Danger Among Us. Click here to see Vincent's original notes with no modifications. One of the brethren of Jesus; not the brother of James the Apostle, the son of Alphaeus, but of James the superintendent of the church at Jerusalem. He is named among the brethren of the Lord. We are told that Christ's brethren did not believe on him John 7: It is noticeable that James likewise avoids such a designation. Laid up and kept is the idea.
The verb signifies keeping as the result of guarding. Thus in John So Peter was delivered to the soldiers to guard him phulassein , but he was kept etereito in prison Acts Compare 1 Thessalonians 5: Mercy eleos [word study] is the outward manifestation of pity and assumes need on the part of those who are recipients of the mercy and sufficient resources to meet the need on the part of those who show it.
The idea of mercy is to show kindness or concern for someone in serious need or to give help to the wretched, to relieve the miserable. Here the essential thought is that mercy gives attention to those in misery. It follows that peace is the opposite of division or dissension. Peace as a state of concord and harmony is the opposite of war.
Peace was used as a greeting or farewell corresponding to the Hebrew word shalom - "peace to you". Peace is a condition of freedom from disturbance, whether outwardly, as of a nation from war or enemies or inwardly, as in the current context, within the soul. Peace implies health, well-being, and prosperity. Multiplied plethuno [word study] means to be made full and in the active sense it means to cause to increase or to become greater in number. Alford, I found it necessary. See agonizomai [word study].
See on Acts 6: This passage and Galatians 1: In the great majority of New Testament passages faith is clearly used in the sense of faith in Jesus Christ: This interpretation is according to the analogy of such expressions as obedience of Christ 2 Corinthians Accordingly, faith, though it becomes in man the subjective moral power of the new life, regenerated through the power of the Spirit, is regarded objectively as a power—the authority which commands submission. This interpretation is according to the analogy of the expression hearing of faith Galatians 3: Compare, also, obedience of faith Ro 1: The great majority of the best modern commentators hold that faith is to be taken as the subjective principle of Christian life though often regarded objectively as a spiritual power , and not as Christian doctrine.
Delivered paradidomi [word study]. With the whole verse compare 2 Peter 2: Ungodly asebes [word study] means lack of interest in the things of God and a behavior and lifestyle consistent with such an irreverent attitude. See the depth study of the related word ungodliness asebeia [word study]. Asebes pertains to violating norms for a proper relation to deity, and in short means irreverent lacking proper respect of God or impious.
In simple terms it is choosing to live as if God did not exist and without regard for Him.
The verb means to get in by the side, to slip in by a side-door. Only here in New Testament. See similar descriptive verb in 2 Peter 2: The kindred adjective occurs Galatians 2: The metaphor is of spies or traitors introducing themselves into an enemy's camp. The word occurs four times in New Testament. In two of these instances pro has clearly the temporal sense before Ro It seems better, on the whole, to take it here in the temporal sense, and to render written of beforehand, i.
So the American Rev. He enumerates six forms of sensuality, three personal and three social:. See on Mark 7: It includes lasciviousness, and may well mean that here; but is often used without this notion. In classical Greek it is defined as violence, with spiteful treatment and audacity. As in this passage its exact meaning is not implied by its being classed with other kindred terms, it would seem better to take it in as wide a sense as possible—that of lawless insolence and wanton caprice, and to render, with Trench, wantonness, since that word, as he remarks, "stands in remarkable ethical connection with aselgeia, and has the same duplicity of meaning" "Synonyms of the New Testament".
Excesses of all kinds, with possibly an emphasis on sins of uncleanness. See note on Mark 4: The word is also used of desire for good and lawful things Luke Pointing especially to fleshly lusts, "the inner principles of licentiousness" Cook.
The kindred verb occurs in the Septuagint, Deuteronomy From oinos, wine, and phleo or phuo, to teem with abundance; thence to boil over or bubble up, overflow. It is the excessive, insatiate desire for drink, from which comes the use of the word for the indulgence of the desire—debauch. The remaining three are revellings, banquetings, and idolatries. Turn change metatithemi [word study] literally means to put in another place.
In the figurative sense metatithemi means to effect a change in state or condition and so to alter something as when the priesthood is changed Heb 7: Grace charis [word study] is God's unmerited favor and supernatural enablement and empowerment for salvation and for daily sanctification. On Lord, see on 2 Peter 2: In three of these instances the word is used in direct address to God; and it may be asked why the Rev. In five out of the ten occurrences of the word in the New Testament it means master of the household. Originally, it indicates absolute, unrestricted authority, so that the Greeks refused the title to any but the gods.
In the New Testament despotes and kurios are used interchangeably of God, and of masters of servants. Lord master, owner kurios [word study] describes the supreme one, one who is sovereign and possesses absolute authority, absolute ownership and uncontested power. Kurios is used of the one God to Whom a person or thing belongs, about which He has the power of deciding. The participle is to be rendered as present, and the once is not formerly, but once for all, as Jude 1: Destroyed apollumi [word study] conveys the basic meaning of describing that which is ruined and is no longer usable for its intended purpose.
Believe pisteuo [word study] means to have a firm conviction as to the goodness, efficacy, or ability of something or someone. To accept the word or evidence of. Keep tereo [word study] means to keep an eye on, keep something in view, to attend carefully, or to watch over it. It means to watch as one would some precious thing. The idea is to observe attentively and to retain in custody. From this comes a secondary meaning of sovereignty, dominion, magistracy, as being the beginning or first place of power. So mostly by Paul, as principalities Romans 8: A peculiar use of the word occurs at Acts In this passage the A.
The Jews regarded the angels as having dominion over earthly creatures; and the angels are often spoken of in the New Testament as archai, principalities; as Romans 8: Left abandoned apoleipo [word study]. For a longer form aeidios , from aei, always. Under darkness hupo zophon zophos [word study] Under carries the sense of the darkness brooding over the fallen spirits. On darkness , see on 2 Peter 2: Originally of the gloom of the nether world.
Even as just as homoios [word study]. The force of ek is out and out; giving themselves up utterly. See on followed, 2 Peter 1: Giving pareisphero [word study] means literally to bear in alongside or besides to bring to bear , and so to introduce simultaneously. This verb implies making a strong effort to provide something. Pareisphero was at times used of smuggling or of importing along byways. The phrase occurs Mark 1: Used of meats on the table ready for the guests; of a corpse laid out for burial; of a question under discussion. Thus the corruption and punishment of the cities of the plain are laid out in plain sight.
From deiknumi, to display or exhibit; something, therefore, which is held up to view as a warning. Some of the best modern expositors render are set forth as an example of eternal fire, suffering punishment. This meaning seems, on the whole, more natural, though the Greek construction favors the others, since eternal fire is the standing term for the finally condemned in the last judgment, and could hardly be correctly said of Sodom and Gomorrah.
Those cities are most truly an example of eternal fire. The participle is present, indicating that they are suffering to this day the punishment which came upon them in Lot's time. The verb means, literally, to hold under; thence to uphold or support, and so to suffer or undergo. Defile miaino [word study] means literally to dye with another color. Figuratively miaino it describes a mind and conscience that is morally contaminated, corrupted, tainted, tinged and polluted. In a ceremonial or cultic sense it means to defile or make unclean and so unacceptable.
Jude uses miaino in a physical and a moral sense of the one's flesh defiled by licentiousness and so to corrupt morally. Reject set aside, nullify atheteo [word study] means to regard as nothing, to not recognize, to spurn, to despise, to do away with what has been laid down. In Classic Greek atheteo is used to describe setting aside of a treaty or promise.
Blaspheme blasphemeo [word study] means literally to speak to harm and in general therefore means to bring into ill repute and so to slander. Kuriotes, dominion, occurs in three other passages, Ep 1: In the first two, and probably in the third, the reference is to angelic dignities. Some explain this passage and the one in Peter, of evil angels. In Colossians the term is used with thrones, principalities, and powers, with reference to the orders of the celestial hierarchy as conceived by Gnostic teachers, and with a view to exalt Christ above all these. Glories or dignities is used in this concrete sense only here and at 2Pe 2: The passages are Jude 1: This reference to Michael was said by Origen to be founded on a Jewish work called "The Assumption of Moses," the first part of which was lately found in an old Latin translation at Milan; and this is the view of Davidson, so far at least as the words "the Lord rebuke thee" are concerned.
Others refer it to Zechariah 3: Others, again, to a rabbinical comment on Deuteronomy Doubtless Jude was referring to some accepted story or tradition, probably based on Deuteronomy For a similar reference to tradition compare 2Ti 3: This conception is developed in the books written during and after the exile, especially Daniel and Zechariah. Michael Who is like God? He is mentioned three times in the Old Testament Daniel He is adored as a saint in the Romish Church. For legends, see Mrs.
This meaning seems, on the whole, more natural, though the Greek construction favors the others, since eternal fire is the standing term for the finally condemned in the last judgment, and could hardly be correctly said of Sodom and Gomorrah. The condemnation is that illustrated by the examples recorded in the following verses. Balaam already emerges as a detestable character. But the later texts have added eupaigmone, in mockery, occurring only here, though a kindred word for mockings eupaigmon is found Hebrews There never will come a time in which this prayer may not be offered for saints in the flesh.
Jameson, "Sacred and Legendary Art," i. Archangel archaggelos [word study] refers to the first or highest angel, the leader of the angels. He constantly throws between seeking to divide whether it be between a husband and wife, a child and parent, a church, etc. Resist his divisive, condemnatory accusations firm in your faith. Michael remembered the high estate from which he fell, and left his sentence to God. Rebuke epitimao [word study] means literally to put honor upon and then to mete out due measure and so then to find fault with, to censure severely, to rebuke, to express strong disapproval of, or to denounce cp the incredible example in Mt Compare phusika, natural phusikos [word study] , 2 Peter 2: To shrivel, to wither, to spoil.
It means to ruin or destroy something with the implication of causing something to be corrupt. The expression in 1 Corinthians 9: There the word is not used as an imprecation, but almost as a noun: A strong expression, indicating a reckless, abandoned devotion of the energies, like the Latin effundi. So Tacitus says of Maecenas, "he was given up to love for Bathyllus;" lit. Error plane [word study] describes a roaming or a wandering and then figuratively a going astray or a wandering out of the right way. Vincent says plane is an "error which shows itself in action It may imply deceit as accompanying or causing error".
Reward wage misthos [word study] literally refers to pay which is due for labor performed or dues paid for work. Antilogia is from anti, against, and lego, to speak. Gainsay is a literal translation, being compounded of the Anglo-Saxon gegn, which reappears in the German gegen, against, and say.
Perished apollumi [word study] means to destroy utterly but not to cause to cease to exist. Apollumi is not the loss of being per se, but is more the loss of well-being. It means to ruin so that the person ruined can no longer serve the use for which he was designed. His very existence in time and eternity is rendered useless! The water which Moses brought from the rock at Kadesh was called the water of Meribah Strife , or, in Septuagint, hudor antilogias, the water of contradiction. So rendered in A. So Homer, "Odyssey," iii.
These men were no longer mere blots, but elements of danger and wreck. Compare Paul's words, 1Cor The word occurs only here and Jude 1: Possibly, as Lumby suggests, implying a rebuke to the Christian congregations for having suffered such practices. As clouds which seem to be charged with refreshing showers, but are borne past parapheromenai and yield no rain.
The Pulpit Commentary-Book of Jude (New Testament) - Kindle edition by H.D.M. Spence, Joseph S. Exell. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device. There is Jude the apostle, brother or son of James the martyr (Luke ; Acts 1: 13), who is also .. The Bible is a book for the people as well as for ministers.
Hence, literally, pertaining to the late autumn, and rightly rendered by Rev. Without fruit Unfruitful akarpos [word study] means barren, without fruit or unprofitable. Akarpos pictures a tree without fruit under the most favorable of circumstances. Waves, by nature untamed. The act or expression of the nature is given by the next word. It is not a feeling one has but an experience which comes to someone. Possibly referring to comets, which shine a while and then pass into darkness. Originally of the gloom of the nether world, So Homer:. Skotos is from skia a shadow thrown by an object.
Skotos is literally that sphere in which light is absent. Skotos is used as another name for the place of punishment, eternal misery and eternal separation from God the meaning of skotos here. It is quoted from the apocryphal book of Enoch, directly, or from a tradition based upon it. The Book of Enoch, which was known to the fathers of the second century, was lost for some centuries with the exception of a few fragments, and was found entire in a copy of the Ethiopic Bible, in , by Bruce.
It became known to modern students through a translation from this into English by Archbishop Lawrence, in It was probably written in Hebrew. It consists of revelations purporting to have been given to Enoch and Noah, and its object is to vindicate the ways of divine providence, to set forth the retribution reserved for sinners, angelic or human, and "to repeat in every form the great principle that the world—natural, moral, and spiritual—is under the immediate government of God. Besides an introduction it embraces five parts: A narrative of the fall of the angels, and of a tour of Enoch in company with an angel through heaven and earth, and of the mysteries seen by him.
Parables concerning the kingdom of God, the Messiah, and the Messianic future. Astronomical and physical matter; attempting to reduce the images of the Old Testament to a physical system. Two visions, representing symbolically the history of the world to the Messianic completion. Exhortations of Enoch to Methuselah and his descendants. The book shows no Christian influence, is highly moral in tone, and imitates the Old Testament myths. Ungodly asebeis asebeia [word study] —ungodly deeds ergon asebeias, lit. The evident play upon the word ungodly can be rendered but clumsily into English. The words ungodly sinners are placed in an unusual position, at the end of the sentence, for emphasis; ungodliness being the key-note of the writer's thought.
The railing, gainsaying ; the profane and vain babblings 2Ti 2: Sinners hamartolos [word study] describes those who are continually erring from the way, constantly missing God's mark, living in opposition to His good and acceptable and perfect will. Doubtless, originally, with some adaptation of sound to sense, gongustai. It is used of the cooing of doves. Lusts epithumia [word study] most often in the NT describes strong desires which are perverted and unrestrained and which originate from the Sin nature, which is corrupt and fallen. Jude concedes that those he addressed were so.
The Bible is a book for the people as well as for ministers. Knowledge is highly commendable in a Christian Romans The best of people need to have their pure minds stirred up by way of remembrance ; for memory is too often "like the sieve which holds the bran and lets the flour go. No difficulties could hinder Israel's deliverance from Egypt. Israel went down to Egypt a family, and emerged out of it a nation. This nation curried the destinies of the world in its bosom. The Lord dealt first in mercy, then afterward in judgment.
Destruction overtook the Israelites from plague, fire, serpents, earthquake, sword. The wilderness was strewn besides with the carcasses of all except those of twenty years old and under, who alone were privileged to enter the land of Canaan. This destruction was a disappointment of high hopes as well as a fall from a high position of privilege. Yet it was but partial. The stock of Israel was spared. And the doom was long deferred, so as to give more than a generation of time for repentance. The Lord's judgment in this case proves that punishment cannot be averted by privileges abused.
Difficulties soon discover the untrustful heart. Unbelievers forsake their own mercies, and are their own worst enemies. There is no folly like unbelief. The end of unbelief is utter and absolute destructions. Reasons for Resisting Evil Men Jude 1: Bright Divine anger against others. As a scribe well-instructed, Jude brings from the treasures of Old Testament truth suitable illustrations to inspire believers with becoming earnestness in the work of defending the purity of the Church, and the completeness of Christian doctrine.
They are reminded that no special relation to Jehovah - like that which subsisted between Israel and their Redeemer from the slavery of Egypt - will avail to protect men from the penalties of disobedience; and therefore many who had been delivered by miracle and by the mighty power of God were overthrown in the wilderness. There is a higher illustration adduced, which affirms that no dignity of nature such as the angels possessed, and no past perfection of adoration and service, will screen offenders from merited punishment.
The "first estate" of the angels was one of splendour - ample knowledge drawn from the unclouded revelation of God, and blessedness of emotion; but the awful righteousness of the eternal throne cast them into outer darkness, and reserves them for future condemnation and shame. The last example is drawn from the wide and hateful corruption of those who dwelt in one of the fairest and most fruitful regions of ancient Canaan. The spot, which was well watered and like the garden of the Lord, was defiled by man, whose sin drew down the flames of the Divine anger, which turned the region into desolation and made it permanent witness for the hatred of God against iniquity.
Such demonstrations of the mind of Jehovah respecting sinners and their punishment should create in believers definite impressions of the evil of disobedience, and a determination, by Christian methods, to denounce it wherever they find it active, and endeavour to check and restrain its spread and influence.
These men who crept into the Church appear to have revealed the corruption of their nature during the hours of sleep - since they were the same wicked offenders as when they were full of activity during the day, and their nature, like the "troubled sea, cast forth mire and dirt. Michael the archangel, one of the most lofty and noble among the "principalities and powers," is brought to oppose and turn aside the accusations of Satan, who is a fallen and lying spirit, and is eager, agreeably to the vision of Zechariah Zechariah 3: The Jews restored from captivity are like a half-consumed brand or branch; and Satan, as a murderer, desires the annihilation of the tribes of Israel.
He is rebuked with calm dignity, when Michael might have overpowered him with terrific and well-deserved upbraidings. The evil users of their speech and knowledge are condemned because they presumptuously venture to speak scornfully of Divine things, which, as "natural men," they cannot understand; and whereas the light and instincts of nature should guide to certain lines of conduct, even there they grossly abuse and pervert their faculties and powers to dishonourable indulgence.
These facts show the deplorable activity of sin, and should awaken the prayer for that preservation from the evil of the world, which is impressively suggested in the intercessory petitions offered by our Lord just before his sufferings and death. They are described as murmurers and complainers against the methods of providence - the rulers of countries and the claims of the gospel. They have men's persons in admiration; as Tertulius complimented Felix, who was a cruel governor, to prejudice his mind against Paul Acts They imitated the temper of Balaam, who for gain would have injured the tribes of Israel; and in the way of ambition rose up, as Korah and his company, against the solemn appointments of the Aaronic family to serve at the altar.
In the agape, or love-feast, they act as rocks at sea, upon which the ship is driven and wrecked. They are shepherds who feed themselves without restraint; clouds that promise rain, and yet distil no moisture on the thirsty soil; trees which bear no fruit; and wandering stars which guide no traveler; and hasten to deserved and eternal darkness. The ancient 'Book of Enoch' foretells their certain and inevitable doom. The Son of God - who in his own character, and in the treatment of his people, who are members of his mystical body, has endured reproach, accusation, and calumny - will come to be glorified in his saints, and take vengeance upon them that know not God, and that obey not the gospel, of which he is the Center and the Glory.
In view of the vast corruption of these men, and the fearful prospects which await them, the allusion to believers being "preserved in Christ Jesus" acquires a power and depth of meaning which could scarcely fail to awaken the ardours of gratitude to him who had kept them in times of fiery temptation. Second Example of Divine Vengeance Jude 1: Croskery This is the case of the fallen angels. It is expressly asserted in Scripture.
There is no greater moral difficulty in understanding the existence of such beings than in understanding the existence of evil men. They are spoken of as "angels that sinned" 2 Peter 2: Their revolt was a dishonour to God. An evil nature cannot endure either the joys or the holiness of heaven. It is a sin for the highest being to exempt himself from service. The angels have a habitation in heaven. There is a present punishment. They are "kept in everlasting bonds under darkness. Calvin says, "Wherever they go they drag with them their own chains, and remain involved in darkness.
There is a future punishment. Croskery This is the case of the cities of the plain. God often assigns the most fertile places to the greatest sinners. Sodom is compared to "the garden of the Lord. Prosperity often becomes an occasion for much wickedness and impiety. The inhabitants of these cities of the plain were guilty of fornication and unnatural crimes. They were sins against both soul and body.
No whoremonger shall enter the kingdom of God 1 Corinthians 6: They affect the family and society. The body, which is a temple of the Holy Ghost, allows its members to become those of a harlot 1 Corinthians 6: The causes of these sins were 1 fullness of bread Ezekiel There may be allusion to the rain of fire that destroyed the cities , and to the volcanic nature of the soil which underlies their present site. But that destruction is only a type of the worse destruction that overtook the guilty inhabitants. The justice of God is not abolished by his mercy.
It will be more tolerable for Sodom and Gomorrah in the day of judgment than for Capernaum and Bethsaida Matthew God shows thus his hatred of sin. His desire to prevent our ruin. The inexcusableness of those who sin in the face of such examples. We need under the gospel the restraints of fear as well as the allurements of love. The same sins recur in every age, and therefore need to be very pointedly condemned. The sins of the Sodomites are more heinous if committed in this dispensation of light and privilege. Let us be thankful to God for such warnings against sin.
Croskery Three triplets again, to correspond to the triplets of verses Mark the sins of these libertines. The early Gnosticism had an antinomian as well as an ascetic side. Sins of unchastity inflict deep dishonour on the body. They defile that body which ought to be a temple of the Holy Ghost. They lead men, into destructive error. The dominion here spoken of is not human magistracy, but the Lordship of God Almighty.
They deny the Lord Jesus; They will not have this Man to reign over them. This evil temper springs: From hatred of God. From anger at all Divine restraint in their evil actions. They rail at celestial lordships. Great is the excess of an unsanctified tongue. Fools rail at powers of whom they know nothing. It is a great sin to put dishonour on celestial beings whom God has so highly honoured. That they live in an unreal world, and have no true conception of the serious nature of sin.
That they are unconscious of the damager that threatens their immortal souls. That they are insensible to all the warnings of coming judgment. Dreaming is dangerous, for, like the hypocrite, the sinner shall fly away as a dream Job Croskery Jude then refers to an extraordinary incident not recorded in Scripture, but evidently contained in the old Jewish traditions respecting a contest of Michael the archangel with the devil. He appears as "one of the chief princes" who stood up for God's people against the Persians Daniel He appears as fighting.
He is probably the archangel whose voice is to be heard at the period of our Lord's descent to judgment. He is probably at the head of the good angels , as the devil is represented as at the head of the evil angels. High as he is in rank, he is most active in dutiful service to God. The incident here referred to occurred necessarily after Moses' death. The dispute did not arise, as some think, from the effort of type devil to prevent the concealment of the body of Moses , whom God buried that no man might know the place of his sepulture. The reason usually assigned for the secrecy of the burial is that the Israelites might have worshipped the body of their great lawgiver.
But there is no evidence that the Israelites ever at any time showed a disposition to worship dead men's bones. Their inclination was rather to worship the powers of nature. An ingenious and plausible explanation has been given of this strife in this wise. They are called "two men. Does not the similarity of statement imply that Moses was likewise in the body? God buried him, and the archangel watched over him that he should not see corruption. But why should the devil interfere with the archangel's watch?
Is it that the devil has "the power of death" Hebrews 2: Is it that he has an interest in the corruption of our bodies, as the completion of that physical death which enters into the wages of sin? The contest may have arisen from the effort of Michael, on the one side, to secure the body of Moses from corruption till the moment when he, with his angels, would carry it into heaven, and from the effort of the devil, on the other side, to inflict the last stigma of death upon the great Israelite.
This explanation seems more plausible than any other that has been suggested of this mysterious conflict between the heads of the principalities of the spirit-world. The conflict suggests that: It would have been inconsistent with angelical perfection to rail against the devil. There is no cowardice in Michael not daring to sin. W hat is wrong for angels cannot be right for men to do. Michael left the decision of the strife absolutely in God's hands. The thought that we have a God into whose hands we may commit our cause ought to make us patient, forbearing, and forgiving.
The Deplorable Perversion of Knowledge Jude 1: Croskery This verse is a practical application of the historic reference to the archangel Michael. The ignorance in question is that conceited and contented ignorance of which the psalmist speaks. None are so ready to speak as the ignorant. Or, it is ignorance of things not possible for man to know in his present life, and is therefore excusable.
The sinfulness of railing at such things.
It is great wickedness ; for it is to impute evil where none may exist. It is to rejoice in the evil which may only exist in our own thoughts. How great is the sin of railing at things which are worthy! We see how corrupt affections blind the judgment. We ought to reprove known evil, and to praise what we know to be good. The range and scope of natural knowledge.
Jude refers here to the familiar objects of sense as equally obvious to both man and beast. The corruption that springs out of mere things of sense. Outward enjoyments make no man excel in beauty of character. Three Examples of Similar Ungodliness Jude 1: Croskery Another triplet, answering to the triplet of Sodom, the evil angels, the unbelieving Israelites.
In both triplets there was an outrage against nature, a contempt for Divine sovereignty, a revolt against dignities. Wickedness has its end in woes. The end of it is "death. The most fearful woes are those which are spiritual in their nature. No outward calamity is so terrible as the wrath of God, no worldly misfortune so great as a seared conscience.
The woe does not come without warning. God foretells the ruin that it may be averted, as in the notable case of the Ninevites. Ministers ought to exhibit the terrors of the Law as well as the sweet promises of the gospel. There is a threefold variety in godless transgression. There is an outrage against the laws of nature. Cain offered a sacrifice, but in a faithless spirit. It is its own punishment. Hatred led to the murder of Abel, and selfishness was stamped upon the interrogative answer to God's question: Cain begins with sacrifice and ends with murder.
There is a religious opposition to God from interested motives. Great, accordingly, is their responsibility. Thus false teachers are usually evil-workers Philippians 3: Their "minds are defiled, they are reprobate to every good work. Covetousness is idolatry; but it is something like blasphemy in a religious guide. The guide to heaven ought to be above the base love of lucre. There was an apparent concern for God's honour and the good of man; but under all was the eager lust for reward.
He that maketh haste to be rich shall not be innocent" Proverbs They ought, surely, to "press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God. There is a contempt for sacred ordinances which brings its own retribution. He was a Levite of the tribe of Levi, and cousin-german of Moses. He was, therefore, employed in an honourable department of the ecclesiastical service - " to wait upon the sons of Aaron in the service of the house of the Lord.
The conduct of Korah finds its counterpart in the seducers of Jude's day, who despised ecclesiastical ordinances, and set at naught the order of the Church. Their conduct showed a contempt for Divine order and appointment; b discontent with their existing privileges; c envy at the rulers of the Church; d ingratitude to God for his privileges. So it was with Korah. Two hundred and fifty - "famous in the congregation, and men of renown" - were drawn into the conspiracy. They, like sunken rocks, wrecked those who unsuspectingly approached them. They mingled, without fear or misgiving, in the loving fellowships of the Church.
They were designed to maintain brotherly love, and especially to refresh the poor saints. They always began and ended with prayer. They were no places for self-indulgence or gluttony. It is impossible for ministers to read the hearts of men so surely as to keep a sharp line of distinction between believers and unbelievers.
Yet the discipline of the Church ought to enforce a conformity to the terms of their profession. They feasted themselves luxuriously, regardless of the poor. Their conduct reminds one of the shepherds of Israel. Instead of being like clouds dropping refreshing rain upon the earth, they, as rainless clouds, while promising much, were profitless and disappointing to the hopes of the Church. They could not give what they had not, but they professed to have something to give. Their deluded followers "spent their money for that which was not bread, and their labour for that which satisfied not.
Yet the Lord says, "Open thy mouth wide, and I will fill it. Th ey were as unstable as clouds whirled every way by the wind. They were not "grounded and settled" because they were off the true Foundation verse At one time they were ascetic in their ideas; then self-indulgent, loose, evil. With all their changes they begin in the flesh and end in the flesh. They ought to continue in the things which they have learned 2 Timothy 3: Where is an evident climax in this picture of the godless seducers. First, they are like autumn trees, which ought to be full of fruit, yet they are without fruit, like the barren fig tree; then they are utterly dead - dead in appearance and dead in reality; then they are like uprooted trees concerning which there can be no more hope of fruit.
There is a logical as well as rhetorical fitness in the picture. There was no fruit because there was no life in the tree. These godless persons were spiritually dead Ephesians 2: This death implies ignorance, darkness, alienation from God. The torn-up roots imply not only that there is no hope of growth, but that the world sees the secret rottenness that was at the root of such trees. They will never again be taken for fruit-bearers. The picture before us is a solemn warning to believers.
He alone can give the increase. There was a restless agitation in their life. They were "like the troubled sea, whose waters cast up mire and dirt" Isaiah As the wild waves lash themselves into foam, these seducers throw forth upon the world all the shamefulness that was buried in their wicked hearts.
Evil things come forth from "the evil treasure of the heart. It is the lot of the Church to live in the midst of these "raging waves" of wickedness and folly. The Church is most districted by enemies within her communion. The enemies of God proclaim their own shame, and bring confusion upon themselves. The saints ought ever to pray that the peace of God may dwell in their hearts.
These seducers were like stars, conspicuous by their position and their exploits. They were false lights to mislead the people into error and destruction. They were wandering stars , 1 because they kept no certain course; 2 because they blazed brightly for a moment, then went out in darkness. They threw down no light upon the world lying in darkness and the region of death. It is a fearful thing to seduce others from the way of truth.
God shows great forbearance even to seducers. He "endured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath fitted to destruction" Romans 9: Divine judgments are often in kind. The seducers who loved darkness rather than light will be plunged into still deeper darkness - "into the very blackness of darkness for ever.
Let believers be warned to seek the light - to walk in the light, to walk decently as in the day. He was a preeminently holy man, who was translated to heaven without dying. His descent is here mentioned , 1 partly to indicate the antiquity of his prophecy, as going back to the first days of man on earth; 2 partly to distinguish him from Enoch the son of Cain; 3 partly also to show the zeal of Enoch against wickedness in those early times. He was the seventh from Adam, reckoning by generations. It is the coming of Christ to judgment.
The Lord comes from heaven. It will be in the end of the world , in a day utterly unknown to man or angel. He will be accompanied by ten thousands of his saints , who will sit with him as assessors 1 Corinthians 6: This second advent is to execute judgment and convict the ungodly. The piety of the just does not exempt them from severe aspersions. Christ regards the words spoken against his disciples as spoken against himself. The habit of murmuring argues unbelief and distrust in the Lord.
When men can say, "The Lord is my Portion," they will be likely to add, "The lines are fallen to me in pleasant places. No fullness of earthly blessing can still the complaints of an unbelieving heart. The lesson of contentment is not to be learnt in the school of great prosperity. The humble believer, as he receives his blessings, says, "I am less than the least of thy mercies.
It argues a high estimate of the murmurer's worth. The lesson for murmurers is that their habit 1 cannot relieve or benefit them, 2 but rather fills their life with still deeper anxiety and unrest. The lesson for believers is 1 to cultivate a contented mind 1 Timothy 6: The lusts of men are from within. They are 1 deceitful Ephesians 4: The course of the wicked is usually very persistent.
The servitude of the sinner to lust is miserable in its end. The beast in the Apocalypse had a "mouth speaking great things" Revelation None are so ready to boast of themselves as those possessing the least merit. It is a folly to boast of ourselves. The Apostle Paul "became a fool in glorying" 2 Corinthians We should not allow swelling words to seduce us from the truth.
There are those "who with feigned words make merchandise of you" 2 Peter 2: It is right to show respect to persons worthy of honour, but wrong to show respect to persons of evil character. It is wrong to "glory in men," but above all to "think of men above what is meet," and to be puffed up for one against another. We are not to have "the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ with respect of persons" James 2: It is peculiarly base to act in this matter with a view to our personal advantage.
A Quotation from Recent Prophecies Jude 1: Croskery Jude then refers to the warnings of apostles respecting these scoffing sensualists. It is evident that Jude's Epistle was written subsequent, perhaps long subsequent, to the Epistles of Peter and Paul, to which he refers.