Neural Plasticity and Disorders of the Nervous System

Clinical disorders of brain plasticity.
Neurology - Nerve Damage and Regeneration

RP is an osteopath and has been working as a clinical therapist for more than 20 years with individuals suffering from chronic musculoskeletal disorders. He is presently enrolled in a PhD program involved in research looking at neuroplastic changes in the primary motor cortex associated with chronic wrist and hand conditions including carpal tunnel syndrome and osteoarthritis. JH research interests include the study of neuroplasticity in the primary motor cortex to assess and improve upper extremity function in stroke patients utilizing Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation.

DB has performed research in the kinetic and electromyographic assessment of hand and finger function in neurological and musculoskeletal disorders. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Published online Feb Johanne Higgins 1 grid. Daniel Bourbonnais 1 grid. Received Jun 10; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Musculoskeletal rehabilitative care and research have traditionally been guided by a structural pathology paradigm and directed their resources towards the structural, functional, and biological abnormalities located locally within the musculoskeletal system to understand and treat Musculoskeletal Disorders MSD.

Discussion Increasing evidence reveals structural and functional changes within the Central Nervous System CNS of people with chronic MSD that appear to play a prominent role in the pathophysiology of these disorders. Summary Recent findings suggest that a change in model and approach is required in the rehabilitation of chronic MSD that integrate the findings of neuroplastic changes across the CNS and are targeted by rehabilitative interventions.

Musculoskeletal disorders, Chronic low back pain, Osteoarthritis, Neuroplasticity, Periaqueductal grey, Rostral ventromedial medulla, Rehabilitation, Primary somatosensory cortex, Primary motor cortex, Limbic, Pre-frontal, Pain.


Log in Register Recommend to librarian. Reorganization of cortical representations of the hand following alterations of skin inputs induced by nerve injury, skin island transfers, and experience. Experimental Brain Research, Vol. The possibility of rescuing a normal phenotype in animal models of these pathologies by manipulating levels of intracortical inhibition draws attention on the GABAergic system as an eligible candidate for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Cognitive-behavioral therapy increases prefrontal cortex gray matter in patients with chronic pain. Restoration of motor activity and function are integral to current practice in rehabilitation [ 51 , ]. Under the structural-pathology paradigm neurophysiological consequences, with the exception of damage to the nerve s , is secondary and should disappear when normal tissue properties are restored and receptor activity, sensory transmission, and perception should renormalize to reflect the state of the healed structure s.

Discussion The structural pathology paradigm is guided by the inherent belief that pain and other neurophysiological changes are secondary to local structural insult to musculoskeletal structures. Principles of experience dependent plasticity Neuroplasticity refers to changes in neuronal properties, structure and organization and is the manner in which the nervous system encodes new experiences. Neuroplastic changes in the primary somatosensory cortex and perceptual changes with MSD Studies of cortical properties and organisation within the sensorimotor areas have been performed with subjects with PFPS [ ], anterior cruciate ligament ACL deficiency and reconstruction [ 33 , - ], CLBP [ 17 - 19 , - ], cervical pain and whiplash injury [ 91 , ], rotator cuff tears [ , ], dystonia [ - ] and CTS [ - ].

Changes in primary motor cortex associated with MSD Studies that investigate changes in the properties, function and organisation within the primary motor cortex M1 of subjects with different MSD have been performed, of which the majority utilise Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation TMS. Neuroplastic changes in meso-limbic and prefrontal structures in chronic pain states Of all the areas of the CNS with documented changes occurring in association with chronic MSD, the meso-limbic and prefrontal structures are the most impressive and possibly the most important as changes in these areas demonstrate strong correlations with chronicity [ 13 ], and furthermore can be predictive and possibly even determine who will transit from acute to chronic pain [ 15 , 27 , 28 ].

Brain Plasticity and Disease: A Matter of Inhibition

Integrating CNS changes into a more comprehensive model of chronic MSD It would appear that behavioural changes and psychological processes in chronic pain subjects involve activity in the meso-limbic and pre-frontal areas that influence pain perception and behaviour. Impact of CNS plasticity in the rehabilitation of chronic MSD Restoration of motor activity and function are integral to current practice in rehabilitation [ 51 , ].

Research Research investigating changes in S1 and M1 across a large range of MSD, including changes in responsiveness, inhibitory processes, and somatotopic organization would help elucidate the mechanisms and their presence in MSD. Summary In our opinion the present structural-pathology paradigm guiding treatment for MSD is at the very least incomplete as it fails to integrate recent findings of important neurophysiological changes associated with chronic MSD and that appear to be involved in the pathophysiology of these conditions either in isolation or co-existing with peripheral mechanisms.

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Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Cortical changes in chronic low back pain: Annular tears and disk herniation: Age-related prevalence of rotator cuff tears in asymptomatic shoulders. J Shoulder Elbow Surg. Asymptomatic degenerative disk disease and spondylosis of the cervical spine: Acute low back pain and radiculopathy: MR imaging findings and their prognostic role and effect on outcome. Discordance between pain and radiographic severity in knee osteoarthritis: Principles of experience-dependent neural plasticity: J Speech Lang Hear Res.

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Disrupted working body schema of the trunk in people with back pain. Lotze M, Moseley GL. Role of distorted body image in pain. Hodges PW, Tucker K. Moving differently in pain: Sensory and motor deficits exist on the non-injured side of patients with unilateral tendon pain and disability—implications for central nervous system involvement: Does the right side know what the left is doing?

Corticostriatal functional connectivity predicts transition to chronic back pain. Brain white matter structural properties predict transition to chronic pain. The effects of graded motor imagery and its components on chronic pain: Graded motor imagery is effective for long-standing complex regional pain syndrome: Chronic non-specific low back pain - sub-groups or a single mechanism?

Recognising neuroplasticity in musculoskeletal rehabilitation: Anterior cruciate ligament deficiency causes brain plasticity: Am J Sports Med. Work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the hand and wrist: J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Tissue pathophysiology, neuroplasticity and motor behavioural changes in painful repetitive motion injuries. Chronic repetitive reaching and grasping results in decreased motor performance widespread tissue responses in a rat model of MSD. Barr A, Barbe M. Inflammation reduces physiological tissue tolerance in the development of work-related musculoskeletal disorders.

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Preoperative back pain is associated with diverse manifestations of central neuroplasticity. Phillips K, Clauw DJ. Central pain mechanisms in chronic pain states—maybe it is all in their head. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. Pathophysiological model for chronic low back pain integrating connective tissue and nervous system mechanisms.

Brain gray matter decrease in chronic pain is the consequence and not the cause of pain. Effective treatment of chronic low back pain in humans reverses abnormal brain anatomy and function. A randomized controlled trial of intensive neurophysiology education in chronic low back pain. The efficacy of back schools: A modern neuroscience approach to chronic spinal pain: The effect of neuroscience education on pain, disability, anxiety, and stress in chronic musculoskeletal pain. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. Modulation of muscle responses evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation during the acquisition of new fine motor skills.

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Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. Functional reorganization of the rat motor cortex following motor skill learning. Effects of repetitive motor training on movement representations in adult squirrel monkeys: Motor learning-dependent synaptogenesis is localized to functionally reorganized motor cortex. Motor training induces experience-specific patterns of plasticity across motor cortex and spinal cord. The modification of cortical reorganization and chronic pain by sensory feedback.

Interactions between pain and the motor cortex: Motor consequences of experimentally induced limb pain: Cortical plasticity associated with Braille learning. Elbert T, Rockstroh B. Reorganization of human cerebral cortex: Reorganization of cortical representations of the hand following alterations of skin inputs induced by nerve injury, skin island transfers, and experience.

Topographic reorganization of somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1 in adult monkeys following restricted deafferentation. Somatosensory cortical map changes following digit amputation in adult monkeys. Long-term reorganization of human motor cortex driven by short-term sensory stimulation.

Kinesthetic imagery and tool-specific modulation of corticospinal representations in expert tennis players. A role for volition and attention in the generation of new brain circuitry. Toward a neurobiology of mental force. Rapid plasticity of human cortical movement representation induced by practice. Transcranial magnetic stimulation study of plastic changes of human motor cortex after repetitive simple muscle contractions. Sensitivity of cortical movement representations to motor experience: Functional reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation.

Byl NN, Melnick M. The neural consequences of repetition: Tactile acuity is disrupted in osteoarthritis but is unrelated to disruptions in motor imagery performance. Functional MRI demonstrates pain perception in hand osteoarthritis has features of central pain processing. J Biomed Graph Comput. Is pain in patellofemoral pain syndrome neuropathic? Do patients with chronic patellar tendinopathy have an altered somatosensory profile?

Widespread mechanical pain hypersensitivity as sign of central sensitization in unilateral epicondylalgia: Bilateral widespread mechanical pain sensitivity in carpal tunnel syndrome: Evidence of augmented central pain processing in idiopathic chronic low back pain. Whiplash grade II and cervical radiculopathy share a similar sensory presentation: Luomajoki H, Moseley GL. Tactile acuity and lumbopelvic motor control in patients with back pain and healthy controls.

Clinical disorders of brain plasticity. - PubMed - NCBI

Tactile thresholds are preserved yet complex sensory function is impaired over the lumbar spine of chronic non-specific low back pain patients: Neglect-like tactile dysfunction in chronic back pain. Sharma L, Pai Y. Impaired prorioception and osteoathritis. Neuroplastic changes related to pain occur at multiple levels of the human somatosensory system: Proprioceptive weighting changes in persons with low back pain and elderly persons during upright standing.

Motor control impairment of the contralateral wrist in patients with unilateral chronic wrist pain. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. Lumbosacral position sense during pelvic tilting in men and women without low back pain: Lumbar repositioning deficit in a specific low back pain population. Position sense acuity of the upper extremity and tracking performance in subjects with non-specific neck and upper extremity pain and healthy controls. Gill K, Callaghan M.

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The measurement of lumbar proprioception in individuals with and without low back pain. Predicting value of pain and analgesia: Pressure pain thresholds in chronic whiplash associated disorder: Pain sensitivity and pain reactivity in osteoarthritis. Sensitization in patients with painful knee osteoarthritis. Descending control of nociception: Engagement of descending inhibition from the rostral ventromedial medulla protects against chronic neuropathic pain.

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J Bone Joint Surg. Induction of somatosensory evoked potentials by mechanical stimulation in reconstructed anterior cruciate ligaments. Corticospinal excitability associated with unilateral knee dysfunction secondary to anterior cruciate ligament injury. Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc.

Neural Plasticity and Disorders of the Nervous System

Motor training of the lumbar paraspinal muscles induces immediate changes in motor coordination in patients with recurrent low back pain. Corticospinal excitability in patients with unilateral sciatica. Corticospinal excitability in patients with chronic low back pain. J Spinal Disord Tech. Differences in low back pain behavior are reflected in the cerebral response to tactile stimulation of the lower back. Falla D, Farina D.

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Alteration of the somatosensory cortical map in peripheral neuropathy due to capal tunnel syndrome.

Altered brain morphometry in carpal tunnel syndrome is associated with median nerve pathology. Chronic back pain is associated with decreased prefrontal and thalamic gray matter density. Affective components and intensity of pain correlate with structural differences in gray matter in chronic back pain patients. Somatosensory cortical plasticity in carpal tunnel syndrome—a cross-sectional fMRI evaluation. Preston C, Newport R. Analgesic effects of multisensory illusions in osteoarthritis. When illusion becomes reality.

Acupuncture applied as a sensory discrimination training tool decreases movement-related pain in patients with chronic low back pain more than acupuncture alone: Visual distortion of body size modulates pain perception. Differential effects of pain and spatial attention on digit representation in the human primary somatosensory cortex. Visual distortion of a limb modulates the pain and swelling evoked by movement.

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Neural Plasticity and Disorders of the Nervous System

Pain and motor control of the lumbopelvic region: Differences in electromyographic activity in the multifidus muscle and the iliocostalis lumborum between healthy subjects and patients with sub-acute and chronic low back pain. Movement disturbances of the lumbar spine and abnormal muscle electromyographic findings in recurrent low back pain. Motor skill training and strength training are associated with different plastic changes in the central nervous system.

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Vascular compression of the cochlear nerve and tinnitus: Nanotechnology in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Burst Spinal Cord Stimulation. Experimental Brain Research, Vol. Comparison of neuronal network models for tinnitus management by sound therapy. Cambridge University Press Online publication date: February Print publication year: Export citation Recommend to librarian Recommend this book. Neural Plasticity and Disorders of the Nervous System. Please enter a valid email address Email already added.

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