Threatened Landscapes: Conserving Cultural Environments

Mountain Research and Development

The public reaction to the proposed destruction of the Newport ship shows the importance of heritage to local communities. Specific legislation is sometimes needed to ensure the appropriate protection of individual sites recognized as World Heritage Sites. While archaeological sites remain the primary focus for many CRM professional, others research historical records or on ethnohistorical projects. Public outreach also falls within their purview. These are places with cultural importance to a group that may not be either particularly historical or an archaeological site.

An example would be a location used for contemporary Native American religious events that has no archaeological remains. A phase of evaluation is considered important in assessing the significance of a possible cultural heritage site.

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This can comprise a desk-based study, interviews with informants in the community, a wide-area survey, or trial trenching. In North America, survey normally includes either walking ploughed fields in 5—metre transects or digging shovel test pits at the same intervals. If artifacts are found, the next stage of investigation is usually digging and sifting a spaced grid of test pits 1 m by 1 m trenches to determine how large or significant the site is. In the United Kingdom and Canada, all forms of development, public and private, are subject to archaeological requirements, while in the United States this work can only be undertaken in federally funded projects or those on government-owned land, except in a few states that have laws that apply also to private land.

Where archaeological requirements apply to a site of proposed development, if no significant archaeological or other cultural property sites are found in the impacted area, construction may proceed as planned, often with the requirement that archaeologists are on-site providing a watching brief. If potentially significant remains are found, construction may be delayed to allow for evaluation of the site or sites found within the impacted area. This is done to determine the archaeological site's true significance.

Site mitigation can involve avoiding the site through redesigning the development or excavating only a percentage of the site. If archaeologists determine the site contains highly significant cultural remains, the adverse development effects on the site must be mitigated through a structured programme that is often long and expensive. Mitigation can include preservation by record i.

Mitigation also includes construction techniques which ensure that archaeological remains are protected in undisturbed parts of the site or even underneath the development.

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An example of this type of mitigation is the Viking remains at York. Important sites are designated as being protected by the state so that no development at all can take place, and governments also recommend the most important sites to be recognised as World Heritage Sites. CHM has been a mixed blessing for archaeology. Preservation legislation has ensured that no valuable site will be destroyed by construction without study, but the work of rescue archaeologists is sometimes controversial.

Some academic archaeologists do not take archaeological rescue or salvage work seriously because of its emphasis on site identification and preservation rather than intensive study and analysis. Where archaeology is motivated by proposed development, the archaeological contracts are placed through a bidding process. The choice of archaeological contractor typically lies with the developer and there is little incentive to prevent the company responsible for construction selecting the bid with the lowest price estimate, or shortest investigation time, regardless of the archaeological merits of the submitted bids.

The impact of archaeological rescue and salvage work has been considerable; given the large amount of construction, and that the bulk of archaeological work in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom is developer led. Unfortunately, the large number of reports written on the thousands of sites dug each year are not necessarily published in public forums. Download to Citation Manager. Alert me when this article is cited: Traditional Culture and Biodiversity Conservation: Examples From Uttarakhand, Central Himalaya.

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Conservation Ecology 1 1: From the mid s to s the devaluation of the Brazilian real against the dollar resulted in doubling the price of beef in reals and gave ranchers a lucrative incentive to increase the size of their cattle ranches. Selected legislative, administrative, and management approaches for protecting the setting of heritage places in the United States Reap James K. While the guide has been written specifically for managing the park system in NSW, it can be applied to managing landscapes in other regions. Case presentation through historiographic approach, space urban - constructive evolution. Regulating onset or duration of harvests Controls governing the timing of resource harvests, as well as who has the right to participate in harvesting, are widespread in small-scale societies. Case studies from Central Himalaya, India.

Looking for a job? Visit the BioOne Career Center and apply to open positions across the sciences. Log in Admin Help. International Mountain Society Received: Abstract Cultural diversity in remote mountain regions is closely linked to biodiversity, as there is a symbiotic relationship between habitats and cultures, and between ecosystems and cultural identity; indeed, religious rules and rituals often strengthen this relationship and are characterized by a conservation ethic.

Introduction Beginning several decades ago, the idea that indigenous people and other small-scale societies were exemplary conservationists gained widespread currency in popular media as well as academic circles Smith and Wishnie Methodology The knowledge-based systems methodology for acquisition of local ecological knowledge suggested by Walker et al and Sinclair and Walker was adapted: Precepts of conservation inherent in cultural landscapes In analyzing the data collected on traditional knowledge-based systems in the study area, Smith and Wishnie's organization of information according to the conservation purpose of rules applied in traditional practices was used: Harvesting restraint The type of resource utilization that most clearly meets the criterion of conservation design is harvesting restraints that raise short-term production costs.

Protection or propagation of a resource species Another form of conservation involves practices designed to protect or propagate resource species. Regulating onset or duration of harvests Controls governing the timing of resource harvests, as well as who has the right to participate in harvesting, are widespread in small-scale societies. Avoidance of harmful habitat modification Some types of habitats are more sensitive to the effects of modification than others, and hence avoidance or mitigation of such habitat change can be a form of conservation.

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Sacred natural sites and the taboo system SNSs are distributed throughout the State of Uttarakhand; the prime examples of sacred forests offered within the State are Bombasing above the village of Tedang , Bhujani above the village of Martoli; Figure 2 , where sacred forests are referred to as Se-Rong Se: Characteristic features of the sacred forests With minor variants, some of the characteristic features of the sacred forests in the landscape are the following: Most are Panchayat or civil soyam forests.

Patch-switching to maximize overall return rates Pastoralists often move their herds to better grazing areas before the current area is completely depleted, because the likelihood of obtaining higher foraging returns elsewhere seems more economical Charnov ; Winterhalder ; Ruttan and Borgerhoff Mulder Dedication of forests to a deity The practice of dedicating forests to a deity is a very recent phenomenon, invariably born of the need to impede the rapid weakening of the traditional taboo system governing resource utilization, and thus to reinforce or strengthen the same.

Discussion and conclusions Anthropologists have ascribed various social functions to taboos: Institute of African Studies Research Review 14 1: Economic botany, conservation, and development: Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden Is biodiversity conserved by indigenous peoples?

Ethnobiology in Human Welfare. Evolutionary ecology and resource conservation. Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Resource Management. Mountain Research and Development 26 4: Anthropology and Contemporary Human Problems. University of California Press. Sacred groves and conservation: The comparative history of traditional reserves in the Mediterranean and in South India. Environment and History 6: Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biolology 9: The relations among threatened species, their protection, and taboos. Conservation Ecology 1 1: Ecological Applications 11 2: Conservation, small mammals, and the future of sacred groves in West Africa.

Biodiversity and Conservation 6: The Malshegu sacred grove, Ghana.

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Gender and Natural Resource Management in Africa. Religious Beliefs and Environmental Protection: Guardians of the Earth: Indigenous Peoples and the Health of the Earth. The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life. Report submitted to the Flora and Fauna Preservation Society. University of Science and Technology. Where are the people?

Hindu Survey of the Environment Indigenous knowledge for biodiversity conservation. Traditional laws and methods of conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity. Culture, Man and Nature: An Introduction to General Anthropology. Afforestation, development and religion: A case from the Himalayas. Environment, Economy and People.

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