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View more FAQ's about Ebooks. John Long received his Ph. Long has spent time in the field collecting fossils in locales stretching from Australia to South Africa to Thailand and Vietnam. The author of over scientific papers and more than 60 popular science articles, he has also written a number of scholarly books on the Antarctic and fish fossils. This extraordinary book is the first-person account of John Long's two unforgettable "summers" on the southern continent. Told in a highly accessible and entertaining style, Mountains of Madness is the account of his three-month long fossil hunt.
As the story unfolds, we learn of both the highs of scientific discovery as well as the grueling yet essential routines that must be practiced every day just to stay alive in one of the harshest environments on our planet. Alternating with the author's wonder at the intense beauty of his surroundings are his immense frustration and boredom that stem from being completely at the mercy of the elements.
Throughout the course of the expedition, danger is never far off in this inhospitable land. Despite having been trained in the art of building snow caves and practiced in the skill of traversing glaciers, Long tells of two brushes with death in just one afternoon.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. The wanderings of Odysseus as told to the Phaeacians, and the location of the Phaeacians' own island of Scheria , pose more fundamental problems, if geography is to be applied: The eBook is optimized for e-reader devices and apps, which means that it offers a much better digital reading experience than a PDF, including resizable text and interactive features when available. This parallel compares the death of the suitors to the death of Aegisthus and sets Orestes up as an example for Telemachus. The two scenes that the poet describes are Odysseus on Calypso 's island and Odysseus' encounter with the Phaeacians. Another theme throughout the Odyssey is testing. The second part recounts the story of Odysseus.
The hair-raising escape from a deep crevasse is fraught with tension-only to be followed by yet another encounter with sudden disaster when the crash of an avalanche buries Long deep in the snow. The National Academies Press and the Transportation Research Board have partnered with Copyright Clearance Center to offer a variety of options for reusing our content. You may request permission to:. For most Academic and Educational uses no royalties will be charged although you are required to obtain a license and comply with the license terms and conditions.
Click here to obtain permission for Mountains of Madness: A Scientist's Odyssey in Antarctica. The second part recounts the story of Odysseus. In the course of his seven years in captivity on Ogygia , the island of Calypso , she has fallen deeply in love with him, even though he has consistently spurned her offer of immortality as her husband and still mourns for home.
She is ordered to release him by the messenger god Hermes , who has been sent by Zeus in response to Athena's plea. Odysseus builds a raft and is given clothing, food, and drink by Calypso. When Poseidon learns that Odysseus has escaped, he wrecks the raft but, helped by a veil given by the sea nymph Ino , Odysseus swims ashore on Scherie , the island of the Phaeacians.
Naked and exhausted, he hides in a pile of leaves and falls asleep. He appeals to her for help. She encourages him to seek the hospitality of her parents, Arete and Alcinous or Alkinous. Odysseus is welcomed and is not at first asked for his name, but Alcinous promises to provide him a ship to return him to his home country. He remains for several days, and is goaded into taking part in a discus throw by the taunts of Euryalus , impressing the Phaecians with his incredible athletic ability. Afterwards, he hears the blind singer Demodocus perform two narrative poems.
The first is an otherwise obscure incident of the Trojan War, the "Quarrel of Odysseus and Achilles "; the second is the amusing tale of a love affair between two Olympian gods, Ares and Aphrodite. Finally, Odysseus asks Demodocus to return to the Trojan War theme and tell of the Trojan Horse , a stratagem in which Odysseus had played a leading role. Unable to hide his emotion as he relives this episode, Odysseus at last reveals his identity.
He then begins to tell the story of his return from Troy. Odysseus goes back in time and recounts his story to the Phaecians. After a failed piratical raid on Ismaros in the land of the Cicones , Odysseus and his twelve ships were driven off course by storms.
Odysseus visited the lethargic Lotus-Eaters who gave his men their fruit that would have caused them to forget their homecoming had Odysseus not dragged them back to the ship by force. Afterwards, Odysseus and his men landed on a lush, uninhabited island near the land of the Cyclopes. The men then landed on shore and entered the cave of Polyphemus , where they found all the cheeses and meat they desired. Upon returning home, Polyphemus sealed the entrance with a massive boulder and proceeded to eat Odysseus' men.
Odysseus devised an escape plan in which he, identifying himself as "Nobody", plied Polyphemus with wine and blinded him with a wooden stake. When Polyphemus cried out, his neighbors left after Polyphemus claimed that "Nobody" had attacked him. Odysseus and his men finally left the cave by hiding on the underbellies of the sheep as they were let out of the cave.
While they were escaping, however, Odysseus foolishly taunted Polyphemus and revealed his true identity. Recalling that had been prophesized by appeals to his father Poseidon. Poseidon then cursed Odysseus to wander the sea for ten years, during which he would lose all his crew and return home through the aid of others. After the escape, Odysseus and his crew stayed with Aeolus , a king endowed by the gods with the winds. He gave Odysseus a leather bag containing all the winds, except the west wind, a gift that should have ensured a safe return home. Just as Ithaca came into sight, the greedy sailors naively opened the bag while Odysseus slept, thinking it contained gold.
All of the winds flew out and the resulting storm drove the ships back the way they had come. Aeolus, recognizing that Odysseus has drawn the ire of the gods, refused to further assist him. The men then re-embarked and encountered the cannibalistic Laestrygonians. All of Odysseus' ships except his own entered the harbor of the Laestrygonians' Island and were immediately destroyed. He sailed on and reached the island of Aeaea where he visited the witch-goddess Circe , daughter of the sun-god Helios. She turned half of his men into swine after feeding them drugged cheese and wine.
Hermes warned Odysseus about Circe and gave Odysseus an herb called moly which gave him resistance to Circe's magic. Odysseus forced the now-powerless Circe to change his men back to their human form, and was subsequently seduced by her. They remained with her on the island for one year, while they feasted and drank. Finally, guided by Circe's instructions, Odysseus and his crew crossed the ocean and reached a harbor at the western edge of the world, where Odysseus sacrificed to the dead.
He first encountered the spirit of Elpenor , a crewman who had gotten drunk and fallen from a roof to his death on Aeaea. Elpenor's ghost told Odysseus to bury his body, which Odysseus promised to do. Odysseus then summoned the spirit of the prophet Tiresias for advice on how to appease Poseidon upon his return home, and was told that he may return home if he is able to stay himself and his crew from eating the sacred livestock of Helios on the island of Thrinacia and that failure to do so would result in the loss of his ship and his entire crew.
Next Odysseus met the spirit of his own mother, Anticlea , who had died of grief during his long absence. From her, he got his first news of his own household, threatened by the greed of the Suitors. Finally, he met the spirits of famous men and women. Notably, he encountered the spirit of Agamemnon, of whose murder he now learned, and Achilles, who lamented the woes of the land of the dead but was comforted in hearing of the success of his son Neoptolemus for Odysseus' encounter with the dead, see also Nekuia. Returning to Aeaea, they buried Elpenor and were advised by Circe on the remaining stages of the journey.
They skirted the land of the Sirens , who sang an enchanting song that normally caused passing sailors to steer toward the rocks, only to hit them and sink. All of the sailors had their ears plugged up with beeswax, except for Odysseus, who was tied to the mast as he wanted to hear the song. He told his sailors not to untie him as it would only make him want to drown himself.
They then passed between the six-headed monster Scylla and the whirlpool Charybdis , narrowly avoiding death, even though Scylla snatched up six men. Next, they landed on the island of Thrinacia , with the crew overriding Odysseus's wishes to remain away from the island. Zeus caused a storm which prevented them leaving, causing them to deplete the food given to them by Circe. While Odysseus was away praying, his men ignored the warnings of Tiresias and Circe and hunted the sacred cattle of Helios.
Mountain Odyssey is a free bookings service for accommodation and us in the leafy village of Clarens on the long weekend of the 22nd of September The Odyssey is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer. It is, in part, . release Odysseus. Odysseus did not realise how long it would take to get home to his family. . The Cyclops then throws the top half of a mountain at him and prays to his father, Poseidon, saying that Odysseus has blinded him.
The Sun God insisted that Zeus punish the men for this sacrilege. They suffered a shipwreck as they were driven towards Charybdis. All but Odysseus were drowned. Odysseus clung to a fig tree above Charybdis. Washed ashore on the island of Ogygia , he was compelled to remain there as Calypso's lover, bored, homesick and trapped on her small island, until she was ordered by Zeus, via Hermes, to release Odysseus.
Odysseus did not realise how long it would take to get home to his family. Having listened with rapt attention to his story, the Phaeacians agree to provide Odysseus with more treasure than he would have received from the spoils of Troy. They deliver him at night, while he is fast asleep, to a hidden harbour on Ithaca.
Poseidon, offended that the Phaecians have returned Odysseus home, destroys the Phaeacian ship on its return voyage, and the city sacrifices to Poseidon and agrees to stop giving escorts to strangers to appease him. Odysseus awakens and believes that he has been dropped on a distant land before Athena appears to him and reveals that he is indeed on Ithaca.
She then hides his treasure in a nearby cave and disguises him as an elderly beggar so he can see how things stand in his household. He finds his way to the hut of one of his own slaves, the swineherd Eumaeus , who treats him hospitably and speaks favorably of Odysseus. After dinner, the disguised Odysseus tells the farm laborers a fictitious tale of himself: He further promises the men of the return of Odysseus, but his promises are wearily discounted by the men.
Meanwhile, Telemachus sails home from Sparta, evading an ambush set by the Suitors. He disembarks on the coast of Ithaca and makes for Eumaeus's hut. Father and son meet; Odysseus identifies himself to Telemachus but still not to Eumaeus , and they decide that the Suitors must be killed. Telemachus goes home first. Accompanied by Eumaeus, Odysseus returns to his own house, still pretending to be a beggar.
When Odysseus' dog who was a puppy before he left saw him, he becomes so excited that he dies. Odysseus meets Penelope and tests her intentions by saying he once met Odysseus in Crete. Closely questioned, he adds that he had recently been in Thesprotia and had learned something there of Odysseus's recent wanderings.
Odysseus's identity is discovered by the housekeeper, Eurycleia , when she recognizes an old scar as she is washing his feet. Eurycleia tries to tell Penelope about the beggar's true identity, but Athena makes sure that Penelope cannot hear her. Odysseus then swears Eurycleia to secrecy. The next day, at Athena's prompting, Penelope maneuvers the Suitors into competing for her hand with an archery competition using Odysseus' bow.
The man who can string the bow and shoot it through a dozen axe heads would win. Odysseus takes part in the competition himself: He then throws off his rags and kills Antinous with his next arrow. Then, with the help of Athena, Odysseus, Telemachus, Eumaeus, and Philoetius the cowherd he kills the other Suitors, first using the rest of the arrows and then by swords and spears once both sides armed themselves. Once the battle is won, Odysseus and Telemachus also hang twelve of their household maids whom Eurycleia identifies as guilty of betraying Penelope or having sex with the Suitors.
They mutilate and kill the goatherd Melanthius , who had mocked and abused Odysseus and brought weapons and armor to the suitors. Now, at last, Odysseus identifies himself to Penelope.
She is hesitant but recognizes him when he mentions that he made their bed from an olive tree still rooted to the ground. Many modern and ancient scholars take this to be the original ending of the Odyssey , and the rest to be an interpolation. The next day he and Telemachus visit the country farm of his old father Laertes , who likewise accepts his identity only when Odysseus correctly describes the orchard that Laertes had previously given him. The citizens of Ithaca have followed Odysseus on the road, planning to avenge the killing of the Suitors, their sons.
Their leader points out that Odysseus has now caused the deaths of two generations of the men of Ithaca: Athena intervenes in a dea ex machina and persuades both sides to give up the vendetta. After this, Ithaca is at peace once more, concluding the Odyssey. Odysseus' name means "trouble" in Greek, referring to both the giving and receiving of trouble—as is often the case in his wanderings.
An early example of this is the boar hunt that gave Odysseus the scar by which Eurycleia recognizes him; Odysseus is injured by the boar and responds by killing it. He is often described as the "Peer of Zeus in Counsel". This intelligence is most often manifested by his use of disguise and deceptive speech. When asked by other Cyclopes why he is screaming, Polyphemus replies that "Nobody" is hurting him, so the others assume that "If alone as you are [Polyphemus] none uses violence on you, why, there is no avoiding the sickness sent by great Zeus; so you had better pray to your father, the lord Poseidon".
As he sails away from the island of the Cyclopes, he shouts his name and boasts that nobody can defeat the "Great Odysseus". The Cyclops then throws the top half of a mountain at him and prays to his father, Poseidon, saying that Odysseus has blinded him. This enrages Poseidon, causing the god to thwart Odysseus' homecoming for a very long time.
The Odyssey is written in dactylic hexameter. It opens in medias res , in the middle of the overall story, with prior events described through flashbacks or storytelling.
The first four books of the poem trace Telemachus ' efforts to assert control of the household, and then, at Athena's advice, his efforts to search for news of his long-lost father. Then the scene shifts: Odysseus has been a captive of the beautiful nymph Calypso , with whom he has spent seven of his ten lost years. Released by the intercession of his patroness Athena , through the aid of Hermes , he departs, but his raft is destroyed by his divine enemy Poseidon , who is angry because Odysseus blinded his son, Polyphemus.
In return, he satisfies the Phaeacians' curiosity, telling them, and the reader, of all his adventures since departing from Troy. The shipbuilding Phaeacians then loan him a ship to return to Ithaca , where he is aided by the swineherd Eumaeus , meets Telemachus, regains his household by killing the Suitors, and is reunited with his faithful wife, Penelope. All ancient and nearly all modern editions and translations of the Odyssey are divided into 24 books. This division is convenient, but it may not be original. Many scholars [ who? In the Classical period , moreover, several of the books individually and in groups were given their own titles: Odysseus' narrative, Book 9, featuring his encounter with the cyclops Polyphemus, is traditionally called the Cyclopeia.
Book 11, the section describing his meeting with the spirits of the dead is known as the Nekuia. Books 9 through 12, wherein Odysseus recalls his adventures for his Phaeacian hosts, are collectively referred to as the Apologoi: Book 22, wherein Odysseus kills all the Suitors, has been given the title Mnesterophonia: This concludes the Greek Epic Cycle , though fragments remain of the "alternative ending" of sorts known as the Telegony.
Telegony aside, the last lines of the Odyssey , corresponding to Book 24, are believed by many scholars to have been added by a slightly later poet. For more about varying views on the origin, authorship and unity of the poem see Homeric scholarship. The events in the main sequence of the Odyssey excluding Odysseus' embedded narrative of his wanderings take place in the Peloponnese and in what are now called the Ionian Islands. The wanderings of Odysseus as told to the Phaeacians, and the location of the Phaeacians' own island of Scheria , pose more fundamental problems, if geography is to be applied: Scholars have seen strong influences from Near Eastern mythology and literature in the Odyssey.
Martin West has noted substantial parallels between the Epic of Gilgamesh and the Odyssey. On his voyage to the underworld, Odysseus follows instructions given to him by Circe. Her island, Aeaea , is located at the edges of the world and seems to have close associations with the sun. Like Odysseus, Gilgamesh gets directions on how to reach the land of the dead from a divine helper: Her home is also associated with the sun: Gilgamesh reaches Siduri's house by passing through a tunnel underneath Mt.
Mashu , the high mountain from which the sun comes into the sky. West argues that the similarity of Odysseus' and Gilgamesh's journeys to the edges of the earth are the result of the influence of the Gilgamesh epic upon the Odyssey. In , paleontologist Othenio Abel surmised the origins of the cyclops to be the result of ancient Greeks finding an elephant skull.
The enormous nasal passage in the middle of the forehead could have looked like the eye socket of a giant, to those who had never seen a living elephant. Similar stories are found in cultures across Europe and the Middle East. The oldest known extract of the Odyssey was found near the remains of the Temple of Zeus , on an engraved clay plaque in Olympia, Greece.
It is believed to date from the 3rd century AD.
An important factor to consider about Odysseus' homecoming is the hint at potential endings to the epic by using other characters as parallels for his journey. Upon Agamemnon's return, his wife Clytemnestra and her lover, Aegisthus kill Agamemnon. Agamemnon's son, Orestes , out of vengeance for his father's death, kills Aegisthus.