This makes it possible to reach different target groups residents, businessmen, tourists. In the majority of cases, the strategy is supervised by the national government, in cooperation with particular ministries e. When building a country branding programme, it is very important to have financial stability at all stages to facilitate the flow of information between stakeholders and those who support them. There are a number of guidelines that should be followed in order to succeed in creating a country branding strategy:.
The development of a Country Brand cannot be determined by short-term propositions. The strategy needs to be planned with perspective and needs to suit the brand of the country for many years. Country Branding processes cannot be treated as isolated initiatives limited only to tourism promotion. A well-designed strategy should include areas such as FDI, exports and public diplomacy. Hence, all those fields must be included in the branding process. The Country Branding process is a multi-level enterprise, which involves not only governmental representatives but also companies, public organizations, media, and so on.
Usually, a country brand is not focused, resulting in unsuccessful place branding. It is possible to successfully raise your national identity to the level of an. "Teemu Moilanen and Seppo Rainisto produced this new book which in my mind will be one of the most valuable documents in the place marketing literature He has performed several international research and development projects in place branding in national -, city- and.
The programme must be based on an identity which can be accepted by all stakeholders in order to communicate the brand across different products and markets. It must be accompanied by comparison with key competitors. Some values come to people minds naturally and spontaneously, some are created.
The aim is to develop brand essence, which captures the wholeness of a nation brand. However, brand essence is not an equivalent with a tagline from promotional campaign. On that basis, the communication strategy must be elaborated in order to launch the brand. At this level, financial support is extremely significant. Key aspect is to concentrate not only on advertising.
In fact, stakeholders can do more for the brand interactive media, direct marketing than any particular promoting campaign. The objectives of the plan must be measurable so that it gives justification for more investments and an explanation of the benefits for the country. To get a better perspective of the project, it is recommendable to hire a company or consultant that can provide objective and professional advice.
There is no standard length of time for a country branding campaign but the timeline should be in accordance with the political cycle because the objectives and the financing of the strategy are usually very dependent on the political body in power. For this reason, the only way to look at the result of the country branding strategy is by setting the GDP growth and economic objectives. Country Branding is not a quick fix. A country needs a sustainable development model to be able to attract investment and tourism and to portray a good image of itself to the rest of the world.
Specific objectives should be set at the beginning of the strategy building. Different target audiences, different needs, and different institutions.
There is never going to be a common agreement. If there is, then you have the problem from my previous point: He states, "The conundrum of accountability can be especially problematic when working on projects with elected government officials. Obviously, elected leaders want to remain in office as long as possible.
They will be keen to show their potential voters that they have achieved quick results from place branding projects. This is one reason why campaigns based around logos and slogans are so appealing at first glance. It is because they offer something concrete for people to focus on, giving the appearance of success. However, there are two relatively broad definitions that exist: Country Branding - specific to countries A country is defined by its political location containing all of the regions, cities and geographic locations within its political boundaries.
A country is a self-governing political entity and has its own political system that separates it from being a nation. Country Branding is therefore the way the political location is branded using its image, regions, cities and cultural assets to demonstrate its overall attractiveness to the public. Nation Branding - specific to nations A nation is very similar to a country, however it is defined as a group of people or a community who share a common culture.
This differs to a country, which is separated by its political location and political identity. Nation branding is specific to branding each of these communities, focusing on the people as a whole. A place is usually defined as a location of inhabitants such as a town, city or a point of interest. Place branding is the process of communicating the image of the nations, regions and cities in the particular place to a target market in order to compete for people, resources and business with other places. Geographical Branding - specific to geographical locations Geographical Branding takes into account the area of the world specifically rather than the country, nation, or city itself.
It includes an area of land, a set of features and the inhabitants in that area. Geographical branding is most relevant in wine branding. Region Branding - specific to regions Regions are specific areas within a country and are defined by their physical characteristics, the local people and the environmental positioning. Amazing Thailand iPhone application screenshot May What is more, applications relating to products and services bear highly different functions to those for tourist destinations, but they are indeed applicable to the tourist sector.
For instance, the Talk To Me application focuses on an instant text and audio translation function and has characteristics such as voice recognition in fifteen languages. The Word Lens application similarly operates as a simultaneous translator for printed text from one language rendering it in another. These private commercial applications can be extremely useful when travelling to countries with a different language, thereby making them a highly advantageous complement to the various official applications developed for tourist destinations as this would provide tourists with a highly practical functionality.
Another application relating to products and services is the Pizza Hut app which allows users to order food to be delivered to their home addresses. This application offers customers a highly novel system of interaction: With regard to link structure , three of the Spanish destination applications analysed may be considered centripetal, two can be classed as centrifugal and one, namely the Turismo de Santiago de Compostela application, can be deemed mixed. This application combines two link structures, meaning that to see destination images the application redirects us to the location website, while general information is incorporated into the application itself.
An Internet connection is not even required in order to use the Visit Dublin app, offering a clear advantage welcomed by many tourists, which they consider fundamental to avoid roaming data usage. The Geoportal Comunitat Valenciana application reserves a virtual space for interaction between the user and the application, as well as having information spaces. With regard to the model author , the mobile applications we reviewed are created by official tourist organisations from each of the destinations featured; therefore, they are the parties addressing the user.
The exception in this variable is given by the Geoportal Comunitat Valenciana app which has forty categories positioned on Google Maps. Although the content is official, it is user-generated. These users have businesses which they geolocate and advertise on a map incorporating the information they deem most suitable. In other words, the regional tourist ministry grants the companies in the sector their own voice. When it comes to the model user , the expected addressee would of course be a tourist.
However, the analysis shows that this is simply not always the case. The results can be seen in figure 7: Model user of tourist destination mobile applications analysed. Exhibition visitors and tourists. The main purpose of all the applications analysed is clearly to engage with the tourist and provide him with everything he may require relating to the destination, tourist trails, information on monuments, photo galleries, audio guides, and so on.
As a result, the tourist plays a leading role as the recipient of the application and, accordingly, the content thereof. Tenerife iPhone application screenshot May Geoportal Comunitat Valenciana iPhone application screenshot March Since we are dealing with mobile applications, user-friendliness takes on a vital role in their communicative success due to many factors such as the smaller screen size on these devices and the method of use which does not typically entail a high level of concentration on the part of users. If we analyse the sample, we can see that the user language is the only user-friendly standard met by all mobile applications, which tells us that the language used by the application systems is based on words, sentences and familiar concepts figure 8.
The iBarcelona application meets all user-friendly standards envisaged in the study.
As a result, we can describe it as an application with which users can interact easily, conveniently and in a secure manner. On the other hand, the Turismo de Santiago de Compostela application fulfils the least number of heuristic rules and offers no support function or documentation, nor does it allow the user control and freedom or system status visibility.
User-friendliness of Spanish tourist destination applications analysed.
User control and freedom. Flexibility and efficiency of use. Lastly, an interesting detail we gleaned from consultations with two communication managers from the destinations in the sample was that their applications had been available to the public since , in other words, both had been recently implemented. An initial conclusion drawn from the study is that, despite the popularity mobile applications have among experts as a current and future tool for communication, the reality concerning Spanish destinations seems to differ from this ideal scenario.
The development of these specific applications may undoubtedly become an expanding sphere in the future for destination brand communication. Moreover, very few genuinely interactive functionalities are observed —indeed, the valuation of places and the video guide function are the only ones available in the applications analysed—, illustrating the fact that there is very little relationship between the mobile applications and social networks and, accordingly, scant interaction between application and user and, in particular, among users.
In actual fact, of the six applications considered, only two iBarcelona y Tenerife provide interactive communication spaces. The predominant genre in all the mobile applications assessed is information and marketing; thus, tourist destinations convey all information available about the local area whilst promoting it.
We believe this feature provides a distinguishing value compared with the rest of the offline and online tourist guides, since it makes it possible to view a tourist trail and also provides a detailed explanation. Another point of interest to take into account following this research may be the extent to which tourist destinations depend on the operating platforms of mobile devices. When analysing the applications, one drawback was ensuring the devices incorporated the operating systems required by the applications Android , iOS and this was reflected on, whereby when launching an application a destination should value the following aspects: This guarantees they can cover a must larger market share.
The product and service applications viewed enabled us to see which types of non-tourist functions are used by other companies from a general standpoint. In this case, based on the applications Talk to me , Pizza Hut and Word Lens , we have observed that these applications do communicate with users via interaction to a greater extent.
Indeed, we could apply several functionalities used on these product and service applications to tourist destinations. One example would be to adapt the video game function incorporated by Pizza Hut to a destination such as Barcelona: This would be a fun, original way of discovering the city whilst being an element making it stand out from other applications and destinations.
Lastly, we consider that having completed the research it would be appropriate to make certain recommendations for promoting tourist destinations. Firstly, it is necessary to recall that providing information will not suffice; destination applications must allow for the creation and pooling of user-generated content, making it possible to share photographs, experiences and recommendations.
Only then will users perceive the application as being useful, lending the destination greater scope to secure tourist loyalty. Secondly, it is important to highlight the significance of creating exclusive content specifically for mobile applications so users can see the unique added value offered by the application, regardless of its nature. Thirdly, it is similarly necessary to take into account the fact that these applications are useful for local residents and not just for tourists, as the former may reap benefits from such functions as geolocation, recommendations for restaurants, leisure alternatives and suggestions for events taking place.
Finally, it is worthwhile highlighting the usefulness of the methodology proposed for future research both in analysing tourist destination applications and mobile applications in general.
Indeed, we at the CODETUR project will continue to work on reviewing and updating our template and on applying it to a much broader sample of destinations. Identity, image and reputation , Palgrave Macmillan, Hampshire, Informe anual , Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page.
How to Brand Nations, Cities and Destinations: A Planning Book for Place Branding 3. Building a country brand is an investment, with strong positive returns. Hardcover , pages. A Planning Book for Place Branding. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. John rated it really liked it May 15, Eric Rock rated it did not like it May 14, Hilde rated it really liked it Feb 17, Jani Ahola rated it it was amazing Aug 10, Sec rated it it was amazing Apr 28,