Before leaving for France, Jules Dassin had been obliged by political pressure to shoot his last English-language film of the classic noir period in Great Britain: Night and the City Though it was conceived in the United States and was not only directed by an American but also stars two American actors— Richard Widmark and Gene Tierney —it is technically a UK production, financed by 20th Century-Fox 's British subsidiary.
Elsewhere, Italian director Luchino Visconti adapted Cain's The Postman Always Rings Twice as Ossessione , regarded both as one of the great noirs and a seminal film in the development of neorealism. Others simply share narrative elements and a version of the hardboiled sensibility associated with classic noir, such as The Castle of Sand ; Japan , Insomnia ; Norway , Croupier ; UK , and Blind Shaft ; China. The neo-noir film genre developed mid-way into the Cold War. This cinematological trend reflected much of the cynicism and the possibility of nuclear annihilation of the era.
This new genre introduced innovations that were not available with the earlier noir films. The violence was also more potent. While it is hard to draw a line between some of the noir films of the early s such as Blast of Silence and Cape Fear and the noirs of the late s, new trends emerged in the post-classic era. The Manchurian Candidate , directed by John Frankenheimer , Shock Corridor , directed by Samuel Fuller , and Brainstorm , directed by experienced noir character actor William Conrad , all treat the theme of mental dispossession within stylistic and tonal frameworks derived from classic film noir.
Incidents that occurred during the war as well as those post-war, functioned as an inspiration for a "Cold War Noir" subgenre. In a different vein, films began to appear that self-consciously acknowledged the conventions of classic film noir as historical archetypes to be revived, rejected, or reimagined. These efforts typify what came to be known as neo-noir.
Pakula Klute  directed films that knowingly related themselves to the original film noirs, inviting audiences in on the game. A manifest affiliation with noir traditions—which, by its nature, allows different sorts of commentary on them to be inferred—can also provide the basis for explicit critiques of those traditions.
Based on the novel by Raymond Chandler, it features one of Bogart's most famous characters, but in iconoclastic fashion: Philip Marlowe, the prototypical hardboiled detective, is replayed as a hapless misfit, almost laughably out of touch with contemporary mores and morality. The " blaxploitation " film Shaft , wherein Richard Roundtree plays the titular African-American private eye, John Shaft , takes conventions from classic noir. The most acclaimed of the neo-noirs of the era was director Roman Polanski 's Chinatown.
Where Polanski and Towne raised noir to a black apogee by turning rearward, director Martin Scorsese and screenwriter Paul Schrader brought the noir attitude crashing into the present day with Taxi Driver , a crackling, bloody-minded gloss on bicentennial America. Hill was already a central figure in s noir of a more straightforward manner, having written the script for director Sam Peckinpah 's The Getaway , adapting a novel by pulp master Jim Thompson , as well as for two tough private eye films: Some of the strongest s noirs, in fact, were unwinking remakes of the classics, "neo" mostly by default: The Night Stalker —75 , featuring a Chicago newspaper reporter investigating strange, usually supernatural occurrences.
The turn of the decade brought Scorsese's black-and-white Raging Bull cowritten by Schrader ; an acknowledged masterpiece—the American Film Institute ranks it as the greatest American film of the s and the fourth greatest of all time—it is also a retreat, telling a story of a boxer's moral self-destruction that recalls in both theme and visual ambience noir dramas such as Body and Soul and Champion The mainstreaming of neo-noir is evident in such films as Black Widow , Shattered , and Final Analysis Among big-budget auteurs, Michael Mann has worked frequently in a neo-noir mode, with such films as Thief and Heat and the TV series Miami Vice —89 and Crime Story — Mann's output exemplifies a primary strain of neo-noir, in which classic themes and tropes are revisited in a contemporary setting with an up-to-date visual style and rock - or hip hop -based musical soundtrack.
Confidential , based on the James Ellroy novel, demonstrates an opposite tendency—the deliberately retro film noir; its tale of corrupt cops and femmes fatales is seemingly lifted straight from a film of , the year in which it is set. Fight Club is a sui generis mix of noir aesthetic, perverse comedy, speculative content, and satiric intent. Working generally with much smaller budgets, brothers Joel and Ethan Coen have created one of the most extensive film oeuvres influenced by classic noir, with films such as Blood Simple and Fargo , considered by some a supreme work in the neo-noir mode.
The Twin Peaks cycle, both TV series —91 and film, Fire Walk with Me , puts a detective plot through a succession of bizarre spasms. Perhaps no American neo-noirs better reflect the classic noir A-movie-with-a-B-movie-soul than those of director-writer Quentin Tarantino ;  neo-noirs of his such as Reservoir Dogs and Pulp Fiction display a relentlessly self-reflexive, sometimes tongue-in-cheek sensibility, similar to the work of the New Wave directors and the Coens.
Other films from the era readily identifiable as neo-noir some retro, some more au courant include director John Dahl 's Kill Me Again , Red Rock West , and The Last Seduction ; four adaptations of novels by Jim Thompson— The Kill-Off , After Dark, My Sweet , The Grifters , and the remake of The Getaway ; and many more, including adaptations of the work of other major noir fiction writers: The British miniseries The Singing Detective , written by Dennis Potter , tells the story of a mystery writer named Philip Marlow; widely considered one of the finest neo-noirs in any medium, some critics rank it among the greatest television productions of all time.
The Coen brothers make reference to the noir tradition again with The Man Who Wasn't There ; a black-and-white crime melodrama set in , it features a scene apparently staged to mirror one from Out of the Past. Lynch's Mulholland Drive continued in his characteristic vein, making the classic noir setting of Los Angeles the venue for a noir-inflected psychological jigsaw puzzle. British-born director Christopher Nolan 's black-and-white debut, Following , was an overt homage to classic noir.
During the new century's first decade, he was one of the leading Hollywood directors of neo-noir with the acclaimed Memento and the remake of Insomnia The film plays with an awareness not only of classic noir but also of neo-noir reflexivity itself.
With ultra-violent films such as Sympathy for Mr. Vengeance and Thirst , Park Chan-wook of South Korea has been the most prominent director outside of the United States to work regularly in a noir mode in the new millennium. The television series Veronica Mars —07 also brought a youth-oriented twist to film noir. Examples of this sort of generic crossover have been dubbed "teen noir".
In the post-classic era, a significant trend in noir crossovers has involved science fiction. In Jean-Luc Godard's Alphaville , Lemmy Caution is the name of the old-school private eye in the city of tomorrow. The Groundstar Conspiracy centers on another implacable investigator and an amnesiac named Welles.
Soylent Green , the first major American example, portrays a dystopian, near-future world via a self-evidently noir detection plot; starring Charlton Heston the lead in Touch of Evil , it also features classic noir standbys Joseph Cotten, Edward G. Robinson, and Whit Bissell. The cynical and stylish perspective of classic film noir had a formative effect on the cyberpunk genre of science fiction that emerged in the early s; the film most directly influential on cyberpunk was Blade Runner , directed by Ridley Scott , which pays evocative homage to the classic noir mode  Scott subsequently directed the poignant noir crime melodrama Someone to Watch Over Me .
David Cronenberg's Crash , an adaptation of the speculative novel by J. Ballard , has been described as a "film noir in bruise tones". The Thirteenth Floor , like Blade Runner , is an explicit homage to classic noir, in this case involving speculations about virtual reality. Science fiction, noir, and anime are brought together in the Japanese films Ghost in the Shell and Ghost in the Shell 2: Innocence , both directed by Mamoru Oshii.
The film Ex Machina puts an understated film noir spin on the Frankenstein mythos, with the sentient android Ava as a potential femme fatale , her creator Nathan embodying the abusive husband or father trope, and her would-be rescuer Caleb as a "clueless drifter" enthralled by Ava.
Film noir has been parodied many times in many manners. In , Danny Kaye starred in what appears to be the first intentional film noir parody, Wonder Man. Bob Hope inaugurated the private-eye noir parody with My Favorite Brunette , playing a baby-photographer who is mistaken for an ironfisted detective. Carl Reiner 's black-and-white Dead Men Don't Wear Plaid appropriates clips of classic noirs for a farcical pastiche , while his Fatal Instinct sends up noirs both classic Double Indemnity and neo Basic Instinct.
Noir parodies come in darker tones as well. Murder by Contract , directed by Irving Lerner , is a deadpan joke on noir, with a denouement as bleak as any of the films it kids. Taxi Driver caustically deconstructs the "dark" crime film, taking it to an absurd extreme and then offering a conclusion that manages to mock every possible anticipated ending—triumphant, tragic, artfully ambivalent—while being each, all at once. In other media, the television series Sledge Hammer!
Garrison Keillor 's radio program A Prairie Home Companion features the recurring character Guy Noir , a hardboiled detective whose adventures always wander into farce Guy also appears in the Altman-directed film based on Keillor's show. Firesign Theatre 's Nick Danger has trod the same not-so-mean streets, both on radio and in comedy albums.
Cartoons such as Garfield's Babes and Bullets and comic strip characters such as Tracer Bullet of Calvin and Hobbes have parodied both film noir and the kindred hardboiled tradition—one of the sources from which film noir sprang and which it now overshadows. In their original canon of film noir, Raymond Borde and Etienne Chaumeton identified twenty-two Hollywood films released between and as core examples; they listed another fifty-nine American films from the period as significantly related to the field of noir. For instance, The Night of the Hunter , starring Robert Mitchum in an acclaimed performance, is treated as a film noir by some critics, but not by others.
To support their categorization of certain films as noirs and their rejection of others, many critics refer to a set of elements they see as marking examples of the mode. The question of what constitutes the set of noir's identifying characteristics is a fundamental source of controversy. For instance, critics tend to define the model film noir as having a tragic or bleak conclusion,  but many acknowledged classics of the genre have clearly happy endings e.
Others, observing that there is actually considerable stylistic variety among noirs, instead emphasize plot and character type. Still others focus on mood and attitude. No survey of classic noir's identifying characteristics can therefore be considered definitive. In the s and s, critics have increasingly turned their attention to that diverse field of films called neo-noir; once again, there is even less consensus about the defining attributes of such films made outside the classic period. Characters' faces may be partially or wholly obscured by darkness—a relative rarity in conventional Hollywood filmmaking.
While black-and-white cinematography is considered by many to be one of the essential attributes of classic noir, the color films Leave Her to Heaven and Niagara are routinely included in noir filmographies, while Slightly Scarlet , Party Girl , and Vertigo are classified as noir by varying numbers of critics. Film noir is also known for its use of low-angle , wide-angle , and skewed, or Dutch angle shots. Other devices of disorientation relatively common in film noir include shots of people reflected in one or more mirrors, shots through curved or frosted glass or other distorting objects such as during the strangulation scene in Strangers on a Train , and special effects sequences of a sometimes bizarre nature.
Night-for-night shooting, as opposed to the Hollywood norm of day-for-night , was often employed. In an analysis of the visual approach of Kiss Me Deadly , a late and self-consciously stylized example of classic noir, critic Alain Silver describes how cinematographic choices emphasize the story's themes and mood. In one scene, the characters, seen through a "confusion of angular shapes", thus appear "caught in a tangible vortex or enclosed in a trap. Film noirs tend to have unusually convoluted story lines, frequently involving flashbacks and other editing techniques that disrupt and sometimes obscure the narrative sequence.
Framing the entire primary narrative as a flashback is also a standard device. Voiceover narration, sometimes used as a structuring device, came to be seen as a noir hallmark; while classic noir is generally associated with first-person narration i. Bold experiments in cinematic storytelling were sometimes attempted during the classic era: Lady in the Lake , for example, is shot entirely from the point of view of protagonist Philip Marlowe; the face of star and director Robert Montgomery is seen only in mirrors. In their different ways, both Sunset Boulevard and D.
Latter-day noir has been in the forefront of structural experimentation in popular cinema, as exemplified by such films as Pulp Fiction , Fight Club , and Memento. Crime, usually murder, is an element of almost all film noirs; in addition to standard-issue greed, jealousy is frequently the criminal motivation. A crime investigation—by a private eye, a police detective sometimes acting alone , or a concerned amateur—is the most prevalent, but far from dominant, basic plot. In other common plots the protagonists are implicated in heists or con games , or in murderous conspiracies often involving adulterous affairs.
False suspicions and accusations of crime are frequent plot elements, as are betrayals and double-crosses. David Slocum, "protagonists assume the literal identities of dead men in nearly fifteen percent of all noir. Film noirs tend to revolve around heroes who are more flawed and morally questionable than the norm, often fall guys of one sort or another.
The characteristic protagonists of noir are described by many critics as " alienated ";  in the words of Silver and Ward, "filled with existential bitterness". Among characters of every stripe, cigarette smoking is rampant. Of the twenty-six National Film Registry noirs, in only four does the star play a private eye: Just four others readily qualify as detective stories: Film noir is often associated with an urban setting, and a few cities—Los Angeles, San Francisco, New York, and Chicago, in particular—are the location of many of the classic films. In the eyes of many critics, the city is presented in noir as a "labyrinth" or "maze".
The climaxes of a substantial number of film noirs take place in visually complex, often industrial settings, such as refineries, factories, trainyards, power plants—most famously the explosive conclusion of White Heat , set at a chemical plant. A substantial trend within latter-day noir—dubbed "film soleil" by critic D.
Holm —heads in precisely the opposite direction, with tales of deception, seduction, and corruption exploiting bright, sun-baked settings, stereotypically the desert or open water, to searing effect. Film noir is often described as essentially pessimistic. The films are seen as depicting a world that is inherently corrupt. In author Nicholas Christopher 's opinion, "it is as if the war, and the social eruptions in its aftermath, unleashed demons that had been bottled up in the national psyche. Film noir is often said to be defined by "moral ambiguity",  yet the Production Code obliged almost all classic noirs to see that steadfast virtue was ultimately rewarded and vice, in the absence of shame and redemption, severely punished however dramatically incredible the final rendering of mandatory justice might be.
A substantial number of latter-day noirs flout such conventions: The tone of film noir is generally regarded as downbeat; some critics experience it as darker still—"overwhelmingly black", according to Robert Ottoson. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the Carly Simon album, see Film Noir album.
To support their categorization of certain films as noirs and their rejection of others, many critics refer to a set of elements they see as marking examples of the mode. Both must navigate a meddling, racist adoption agent and the shock, awe and disappointment of their family members as they venture into parenthood for the first time—and yet, somehow the film never feels heavy or depressing, despite the seriousness of the topics. Mary's comin' through the back door. Edit Did You Know? Bonello trusts his audience to know the difference. And the film aches with this sentiment, that no matter what we accomplish, we will always miss out on something equally worth accomplishing: After a tragic accident, two stage magicians engage in a battle to create the ultimate illusion while sacrificing everything they have to outwit each other.
Two silhouetted figures in The Big Combo The film's cinematographer was John Alton , the creator of many of film noir's stylized images. Whoever went to the movies with any regularity during was caught in the midst of Hollywood's profound postwar affection for morbid drama. From January through December deep shadows, clutching hands, exploding revolvers, sadistic villains and heroines tormented with deeply rooted diseases of the mind flashed across the screen in a panting display of psychoneurosis, unsublimated sex and murder most foul.
Angelo Badalamenti has scored most of David Lynch 's noir-related work. Nominated for 1 Oscar. Learn more More Like This. Unter deutschen Betten Return to Paradise In the Bedroom A happily married woman falls for the artist who lives across the street. A boy blackmails his neighbor after suspecting him to be a Nazi war criminal.
Check in with Time Out's definitive list of the best French movies From recalling 'Scent of a Woman' as Driss opens Philippe's eyes to new of a Woman), following the trajectory of its door-to-door salesman until. If you want to discover what's happening in French cinema right now, from timely This French drama's opening scenes are a series of real-time . up in a cupboard (along with the telephones), the doors are kept locked and.
Notes on a Scandal Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Edit Details Official Sites: Edit Did You Know? Trivia Isabelle Huppert was 63 years old when she made this film. A woman her age playing a sex-oriented role would have been considered obscene in any era prior to the s.
What did you see in him? It was just one of those things. I wanted to get laid. Worse than that even. Connections Referenced in De slimste mens ter wereld: Soundtracks Piano Concerto No. Add the first question.
Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Audible Download Audio Books. American History X The Green Mile Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Driss Anne Le Ny Fatou Absa Diatou Toure Ami de Philippe Christian Ameri Edit Storyline In Paris, the aristocratic and intellectual Philippe is a quadriplegic millionaire who is interviewing candidates for the position of his carer, with his red-haired secretary Magalie. Sometimes you have to reach into someone else's world to find out what's missing in your own.
Edit Details Official Sites: Edit Did You Know? Goofs When the police car first appears behind Driss, you can hear a short burst of the siren, which is clearly an American-inspired tone also used in UK etc.
This is not possible, because the French police only use one very recognizable tone. When the pursuit begins, the police car has the recognizable and correct French siren tone.
Quotes [ first lines ] Driss: Frequently Asked Questions Q: Is this film based on a book? Was this review helpful to you?