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Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Ratings and Reviews 0 0 star ratings 0 reviews. The eventful twelfth century was, in many ways, a veritable paradox. On the one hand, it saw a sudden surge in academic works and universities in western and southern Europe that sought to bridge the worlds previously thought entirely incommensurable and usher in an age of scholasticism that would eventually lead to the fourteenth- to seventeenth-century Renaissance.
For this reason, it has been a staple of mediaevalist scholarship to describe those thorough-going changes as the 'renaissance of the twelfth century'. On the other hand, the same century also reads as a striking catalogue of most violent acts and disasters: Might it not be more appropriate, then, to characterise this period as an age of profound crisis, in which the true contours of a 'persecuting society' were drawn? The translation of texts from other cultures, especially ancient Greek works, was an important aspect of both this Twelfth-Century Renaissance and the latter Renaissance of the 15th century , the relevant difference being that Latin scholars of this earlier period focused almost entirely on translating and studying Greek and Arabic works of natural science , philosophy and mathematics , while the later Renaissance focus was on literary and historical texts.
In Bergen and Novgorod the league had factories and middlemen. The era of the Crusades brought large groups of Europeans into contact with the technologies and luxuries of Byzantium for the first time in many centuries. In the mid 13th century, the " Pax Mongolica " re-invigorated the land-based trade routes between China and West Asia that had fallen dormant in the 9th and 10th centuries. While the accounts of Carpini et al were written in Latin as letters to their sponsors, the account of the later Italian traveler Marco Polo, who followed his father and uncle as far as China, was written first in French c.
Apart from depopulation and other factors, most classical scientific treatises of classical antiquity , written in Greek or Latin , had become unavailable. Philosophical and scientific teaching of the Early Middle Ages was based upon the few Latin translations and commentaries on ancient Greek scientific and philosophical texts that remained in the Latin West , the study of which remained at minimal levels.
Only the Christian church maintained copies of these written works, and they were periodically replaced and distributed to other churches. This scenario changed during the renaissance of the 12th century. For several centuries, popes had been sending clerics to the various kings of Europe. Kings of Europe were typically illiterate.
Literate clerics would be specialists of some subject or other, such as music, medicine or history etc. As such, these clerics would become part of a king's retinue or court, educating the king and his children, paid for by the pope, whilst facilitating the spread of knowledge into the Middle Ages. The church maintained classic scriptures in scrolls and books in numerous scriptoriums across Europe, thus preserving the classic knowledge and allowing access to this important information to the European kings.
In return, kings were encouraged to build monasteries that would act as orphanages, hospitals and schools, benefiting societies and eventually smoothing the transition from the Middle Ages.
The increased contact with the Islamic world in Muslim-dominated Spain and Sicily , the Crusades , the Reconquista , as well as increased contact with Byzantium , allowed Western Europeans to seek and translate the works of Hellenic and Islamic philosophers and scientists , especially the works of Aristotle. Several translations were made of Euclid but no extensive commentary was written until the middle of the 13th century.
This scenario changed during the renaissance of the 12th century. From then on, these texts were studied and elaborated, leading to new insights into the phenomena of the universe. Those who practiced the scholastic method defended Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study and logic. Odo and Crispin do not use exactly the same references. See my comments in The Works of Gilbert Crispin , pp. Check Access Check Access.
The development of medieval universities allowed them to aid materially in the translation and propagation of these texts and started a new infrastructure which was needed for scientific communities. In fact, the European university put many of these texts at the center of its curriculum,  with the result that the "medieval university laid far greater emphasis on science than does its modern counterpart and descendent. At the beginning of the 13th century, there were reasonably accurate Latin translations of the main ancient Greek scientific works.
From then on, these texts were studied and elaborated, leading to new insights into the phenomena of the universe. The influence of this revival is evident in the scientific work of Robert Grosseteste. During the High Middle Ages in Europe, there was increased innovation in means of production, leading to economic growth. Alfred Crosby described some of this technological revolution in The Measure of Reality: Quantification in Western Europe, and other major historians of technology have also noted it.
The early 12th century saw a revival of the study of Latin classics, prose, and verse before and independent of the revival of Greek philosophy in Latin translation. The Cathedral schools at Chartres , Orleans , and Canterbury were centers of Latin literature staffed by notable scholars. John of Salisbury , secretary at Canterbury, became the bishop of Chartres. He held Cicero in the highest regard in philosophy, language, and the humanities. The exceptions were few—Tacitus, Livy, Lucretius. In poetry, Virgil was universally admired, followed by Ovid. Like the earlier Carolingian revival , the 12th-century Latin revival would not be permanent.
The nascent universities would become Aristotelean centers displacing the Latin humanist heritage  until its final revival by Petrarch in the 14th century. The study of the Digest was the first step to the revival of Roman legal jurisprudence and the establishment of Roman law as the basis of civil law in continental Europe. The Bologna University was Europe's center of legal scholarship during this period. A new method of learning called scholasticism developed in the late 12th century from the rediscovery of the works of Aristotle ; the works of medieval Muslims and Jews influenced by him, notably Maimonides , Avicenna see Avicennism and Averroes see Averroism.
The great scholastic scholars of the 13th century were Albertus Magnus , Bonaventure and Thomas Aquinas. Those who practiced the scholastic method defended Roman Catholic doctrines through secular study and logic.
Other notable scholastics "schoolmen" included Roscelin and Peter Lombard. One of the main questions during this time was the problem of the universals. The 12th-century renaissance saw a revival of interest in poetry.