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About Google Book Search Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web at http: OTIS, i88i, , The text has been carefully revised, the official orthography in gen- eral use in Germany has been adopted throughout, the vocabulary and index extended so as to cover both parts, and new plates have been cast.
This manual is intended to serve as a general intro- duction to German, and consists of a brief outline of the main essentials of the grammar, with exercises and material for practice and illustration. It is therefore no new method, and whatever merit it may have consists in the manner of presentation. It is based on the con- viction, that, while a systematic though brief study of the structure of the language should form the ground- work, there should be as much practice as possible with the actual language both as talked and written.
Accor- dingly, each lesson treats of some essential of the gram- mar, and provides material for practice both written and oral. In case of those studying by themselves, or where circumstances do not allow of so much practice, the conversational and reading part of each lesson may be omitted. In the grammar outline, the aim has been to present the more essential facts as briefly and simply as pos- sible, and in the order best favoring the early practical use of the language.
Less essential facts of grammar are given in notes scattered through the lessons, which do not, however, in every case refer to the topic under con- sideration in the particular lesson. In the conversations y the arrangement is such that the question suggests the answer. As indicated, they can be still further extended at pleasure, what is given being rather suggestions for treatment by question and answer than any attempt at exhaustion of the theme.
Ac- tual communication in the new language is thus secured from the first, and the pupil enabled to realize that life which the oral use of it inspires, and to gain an impres- sion of its spirit and character. At the end of each lesson is a short and simple read- ing exercise. This is so arranged with translation or notes, that the pupil will at once see the meaning, though he may not understand the grammatical con- struction.
Indeed, the object of these readings is not grammar-drill, but to furnish material for practice and memorizing, and to gratify the natural eagerness of the beginner to see the language itself. A selection of longer pieces follows the lessons. The Roman type instead of the German has been used in the earlier lessons, because obliging the pupil to learn a strange character at the outset seems to be ad- ding unnecessarily to his task.
The selections for trans- lation have, however, been put in the German t rpe ; and when he comes to the new character, after first having made a beginning in the language, it seems less formid- able, and he becomes more readily familiar with it. Vll I have to mention my especial indebtedness to Pro- fessor Whitney's German grammar and dictionary. A synopsis of declension and conjugation has been appended for general reference, and in order to give a connected view of the grammar forms. Lists of pre- fixes and suffixes, with a statement of the analysis of compound and derived words, are also given ; the object being to aid in the acquisition of a vocabulary.
For the same reason is added also a table of consonant correspondences between German and English. Institute of Technology, Boston, June, It includes also a practical presen- tation of the subject of composition and derivation, and a statement of the relation of English to German words as indicated by Grimm's Law, with especial reference to the acquisition of a vocabulary. Most of these topics have been to a certain extent antici- pated in the First Part, but not treated formally or in detail. Such a treatment properly belongs to the work of the second year, after the student has had considerable practice in reading.
In distinction from Part I. The orthography corresponds throughout to the rules issued by the Prussian Government " Regain und Worter- verzeichnis fiir die deutsche Rechtschreibung, zum Ge- brauch in den preussischen Schulen. Single for double consonants: Single for double vowels: Omission of silent d: The Conversations relate to the physical geography, his- tory, and literature of Germany. Institute of Technology, Boston, December, It is a good plan to have the English exercise written at home, and handed in; two blank- books being kept for the purpose. The class may then be called upon to recite the pre- vious German and English exercise, the sentences in each at the same time being varied so as to introduce other forms and words.
A blackboard -exercise is very useful, and may be expeditiously and systematically conducted by prepar- ing four or five questions, and assigning corresponding numbers to those at the board. These questions would include especially the declensions, forms of the verb, or other grammar facts, an English sentence to be put into German, also the writing from memory of a certain number of proverbs, or a reading piece the title being given.
The conversation exercise may be greatly extended by means of questions and answers based upon the reading pieces. With regard to the pronunciation at the beginning, the class may be directed to turn at once to p. In practicing the lesson at home, the pupil can refer to the Table of English Equivalents on p.
After the first nine lessons, when the pupil has ob- tained a general view of the verb, translation from the Selections may be taken up, and interchanged with the lessons. At first it would be well for the teacher to translate beforehand to the pupil. At each lesson in translation some part of speech might form a special subject of study ; at first the verb, the pupil being directed to look out and study each one.
Lerne recht 12 II. Der Esel und der Wolf 26 V. Pelz- mSrtel 31 VI. Note 13, — Participle and infinitive at the end of the sen- tenced Note Das Wasser 50 IX. Compound Tenses of haben, sein, werden. Inversion of subject and verb 54 Conversation. Vom Hunde im Wasser 57 X. Weih- nachten 65 XI.
Wie hiess das vergangene Jahr? There must be, moreover, inversion when a question is asked, and in a command or wish. Ihre Stiihle sind in meinem Zimmer. Die Vogel haben zwei Fliigel. Wie lange studiert Ihr Freund den Bergbau in Freiberg? Das war der Vater meines Freun- Ics.
Folget mir XVII. Order of the German Sentence. Die Frau und die Henne. With the Dative and Ac- cusative. Modal Auxiliaries, mttssen, sollen, lassen. Adverbs and other Particles. Historical Relation of English to German Words. Brief Sketch of the German Language.
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SBenn bie Sbgel nieberfommen. Hin Brief ; S er itutut The German Printed Character. For this reason, as well as from its being easier for the beginner, the Roman tj'pe has been employed at first. Special attention should be given to letters which resemble each other. Usage varies considerably however in this mat- ter. Small initials are used for adjectives of nationality, as englischy " English ; " also for the pronoun ich, " I. The German language as written corresponds Ear more nearly to the same as spoken than is the case in English or French, and the difficulty of learning its pronunciation is in so far much less.
The greatest difficulty in learning to pro- nounce German is presented by the new sounds; that is, those which we do not have in English. As these sounds are different from any we have in English, a great amount of practice is necessary in order to train the organs of speech to make them with accuracy and readiness.
The following descriptions and directions will aid the beginner, in addition to the assistance by imitation from the teacher. Pronunciation of the Umlaut 6. Pronunciation of the Umlaut ii. The position of the lips is similar to that in whistling. Like o, it is a pure vowel sound, and not a diph- thong. It resembles the sound of the English tc in "busy. Pronunciation of the guttural g eh.
For the second variety of the guttural, approxi- mate the back of the tongue near but not close to the back part of the mouth, being careful not to make the English k sound. Examples ; Tag, Magd, Tochter, Buck. The four consonants b, d, g, s have each I two sounds, according as they are initial or final ; [that is, according as they precede or follow the I vowel of a syllable. Initial s has a z sound ; final s has the sound of the English sharp s.
The following general rules determine the quantity in a great number of cases: See rules for syllabifica- tion, p. So far as the quantity is not determine these rules, it must be ascertained from the tionary. It is not desirable, however, to direcl attention of the beginner to the subject of quai at first. It is best learned by practice and ol vation. The following table indicates the remaii sounds: The German s initial is softer than the English b.
The German w is softer than the English v, with aj labial tendency. The pronunciation like Eng. Accent, — The accent in original German words is in general the same as in English, i. Foreign Words, — These vary greatly in their pro? Many nouns from the Latin have the accent on the last syllable. A consonant between two vowels generally goes with the latter vowel, except in compounds.
Of several medial consonants, the last goes with the second syllable. In learning to pronounce German as any new lan- guage , the attention of the beginner should be called to a distinct and forcible utterance. In this way the various organs and means of speech are brought into more energetic action than in pronouncing English, to which he has become accustomed, and the sounds of which he has been trained to make. Raising the voice and speaking loud will tend to produce this greater energy of action.
Practice in reading aloud and committing to memory are fruitful aids in accomp- lishing the desired object of training the organs of speech. I I Exercise i.
Ende gtit alles g7it. End good all good. Was dii lemsty das leme reditu What thou learnest, that learn rightly, Was du machst, das macli nicht schlecht. What thou makest, that make not badly. What thou leamest, learn well, What thou doest, do not badly. The declension of the article is specially im. There are four cases: The nominative, genitive, and accusative correspond in general to the English subjective, possessive or "of" case , and objective, respectively.
In German, as in French, nouns without sex may be masculine or feminine. The following facts of declension in general are to be noted: J is not the ending of the plural, but generally of the genitive singular. The dative plural always ends in n. In the feminine and neuter, both singular and plural, the nominative and accusative are the same. Le des Mannes, of the mafu klein, small, short. Inflection of the Present Tense of sein, to be. Sie sie sind, they you arei ' Exercise 2.
Der Mann und die Frau. Der Garten und das Haus. Das Kind des Mannes. Der Vater ist alt. Der Hund ist gross. Das Wasser ist weiss. Das Kind ist klein. Die Toch- ist jung. Ist der Mann alt? Er ist gross, FiHgHah. The father and the mother. The son and the daughter. The man and the child. The house of the son. The wife of the man. The man is old. The house is white. The child is good.
The dog is small. The gar- den is fine. The daughter is young. Is the horse white? Is the bread old? Is the child small. Is the house old.? I9i,yes, nein, no, nicht, not. Neini ich spreche nicht Russisch, I. Der Deutsche spricht Deutsch. Der Engldnder spricht Englisch, I.
Der FranzSse spricht Franzosisch. Der ItaliMer spricht Italihiisch, I. Der Russe spricht Russisch. Der Dane spricht DdniscK Etc. Eile tnit Weile, Hasten with delay. For happiness is always there. Wilt thou constantly farther roam? See, the good lies so near, Learn only happiness to seize, For happiness is always present. Dieser and other words declined like der. Declension of dieser, this, ftlnsular. Like dUser are declined: Der Sohn dieses Mannes.
Die Tochter jener Mutter. Wel- ches Haus ist weiss? Die Schwester des Schiilers. Der Frcund dieses Mannes. Die Freundin der Tochter. That house is new. This book is handsome. This paper is red. That hat is white. Many a man is tall. Is that book small? This flower is beautiful. This paper is blue. Wo spricht man Deutsch? Man spricht Deutsch in Deutschland, I. Wo spricht man Englisch.?
Man spricht Englisch in England. Wo spricht man Franzosisch.? Man spricht Franzosisch in Frankreich. Man spricht Italiinisch in Itdlien. Wo spricht man Russisch? Man spricht Russich in RusslamL I. Wo spricht man Danisch? Man spricht Danisch in Ddnemark. Wie sprechen Sie Deutsch? Ich spreche nur ein wenig Deutsch. Ich spreche nicht geldufig Deutsch, I. Wie sprechen Sie Englisch? Ich spreche sehr geldufig Englisch, I. Ich spreche sehr gut Englisch. Wie sprechen Sie Franzosisch? Ich spreche ziemlich geldufig Franzosisch.
Ich spreche ziemlich gut Franzosisch, I. Wie sprechen Sie Italienisch. Now exults she also loudly. The article indicates the case. Ein Vater und eine Mullet. Ein Gatlew uxvdi em Bsuw. Die Rose ist eine Blume. Ein Kaufmann war mein Freund. Dieses ist nicht mein Buch. Hat die Frau eine Schwester? Ist sie eine Tochter meines Freundes? Wo ist mein Hut? Ist das Kind nicht krank? Was hat er in ider Hand?
Wir batten ein Mes- ser. War sie in der Stadt? A father and a son.
A mother and a daughter. A flower of the garden. Is the merchant your ' friend? This is my book. My hat is here. I had some paper, n. Has she a sister. She has a flower. A sis- ter of the merchant. Where is his hat? Das heisst eine Hand, Wie heisst das? Das heisst ein Finger, Wie heisst das?
Das heisst zwei Hdnde. Ich habe zwei Hdnde. Hat jedermann zwei Hande? Wie heisst dieser Finger?
Das heisst der Daiimen. Das heisst der Zeigefinger. Das heisst der Mittelfinger. Wie heisst dieser Finger. Das heisst der kleine Finger. Ich Aaie swei Dattmen. Hat jedermann zwei Daumen? Heisst das der Daumen oder der Zeigefinger? Ubung macht den Meister. Practice makes the master. Das ist der rechte Lebenslauf. That right course of life. That is the right way of living.
Kein and thb Possessivb Pronouns decuned ukb ein. Declension oimein, "my," "mine. Ace meinen, meine, mein, my. Like mein are declined kein, " noj' "none," and the remaining possessive pronouns, as follows: Iw viel, much, viele, many. The connec- tion must determine in each case what the meaning is. Inflection of the Present and Preterit Tenses of werden, to become.
If more than one of such persons be addressed, e plural ihr is used. Er hat viele Tiere. Wir haben eine Rose. Unser Pferd ist jinig. Unsere Freunde haben einen Garten. Meine Schwester und ihrfe Freundin waren hier. Du ' bist sehr gut, mein Bruder. Meine Kinder, habt ihr eine Rose? Ich habe Tinte, aber keine Feder.
Es slnd keine Messer auf dem Tische. Wo sind ihre Stiihle? Ihre Stiihle sind in meinem Zimmer. Das Pferd wira alt. Die Kinder wurden sehr gut. Das Kind is hiibsch. We have a chair. Has he a chair? Is not this my hat. Have you " a flower, my son? They have my hat. Our chairs are in the room. Your' ink is blue. Where are the knives and forks? I have a knife, but no' spoon, n. These are not our children. He is growing old. The apples are growing ripe.
Wie viele Finger sind das? Das sind drei Finger, I. Wie viele Zeigefinger hat man an jeder Hand? Man hat nur einen Zeigefinger an jeder Hand, Etc. In his time a valiant hero. The verbs of the Old or strong Conjuga- tion, though few in number, are primitive words in common use.
In the New Conjugation the preterit is formed by an addition to the root ; in the Old Conjugation there is no addition, but a change in the vowel of the root, called Ablaut, 5. The root of a verb is that part which remains after dropping the infinitive ending -en. Tht ptindipal parts of a verb are three, the infinitive, preterit, and past participle. The New Conjugation will be taken up first, simpler, since the verbs belonging to it follow. The present participle is formed in both con- jugations by adding -d to the infinitive. The following endings are added in both conjugations to the root to form the present tense: The e in parenthesis is omitted unless there ivould result thereby such a combination of conso- nants as would be difficult to pronounce.
Final t in the third person singular is dropped. Before te of the preterit ending, e is inserted, when the root ends in a letter that cannot easily be pronounced before te. In the Imperative, the singular is formed by adding e to the root, and the plural is the same as the second person plural of the Present Indicative. Us Kind, the child. Ich liebe meinen Bruder. Wil- helm kaufte ein Buch. Ich lernte meine Auf- gabe. Wir wohnten in jener Strasse. Mein Onkel lebte in Amerika. Mein Nachbar baute ein Haus.
Ich kaufte ein Haus. Der Lehrer lobt den Schuler. Du lerntest deine Aufgabe nicht gut. Ich horte die Musfk. Mein Freund horte diese Oper in Berlin. Die Musfk war reizend. Ich lebte einst in London. He loves his brother. Where do' you live'. I bought a piece of soap. He is learning ' Eng- lish. They were ' playing ' in the garden. He was learning his lesson. The teacher praised the scholars. I heard the opera. He said noth- ing. Our friends live in Paris. I bought a book. December 13, Sold by: Related Video Shorts 0 Upload your video.
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