Cantiones sacrae, sex vocum ; Ander Theil deutscher Lieder, mit 3 Stimmen. Nine carnival plays by Hans Sachs Book 3 editions published in in English and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. A goodly dysputacion betwene a christen shomaker, and a popysshe parson: Translated out of [the] Germayne tongue into Englysshe.
At foot of title page: Cum gratia et priuilegio ad imprimandum solum. Reproduction of the original in the British Library. Drei Fastnachtspiele by Hans Sachs Book 30 editions published between and in German and held by WorldCat member libraries worldwide. In the fourth century the Gothic bishop Ulfilas or Wulfila wrote a Teutonic version of the Bible, from which only a few verses are extant, and, early in the 11 th century, Job and the Psalms were translated into Old High German by Notker Labeo of St.
A late 11 th -century prose version of the Song of Songs c. The first printed version of the Bible in High German has been traced to an anonymous 14 th -century translator. Based on the Latin Vulgate text and printed in Strasbourg, this was the model for 13 subsequent pre-Lutheran editions. The first printed version of the Bible in Low German appeared in Both German versions, of course, conformed with Roman Catholic doctrine. Luther's text injected the thought patterns of the Hebrew Bible into the German language , where the Hebrew simile and metaphor were speedily absorbed.
His magnificent version was written in the Saxon dialect, which thus became the principal vehicle of High German language and literature. This was a somewhat curious achievement, since High German was the language of predominantly Catholic south Germany, whereas Low German was spoken in the Protestant north; but the fact that German Catholics found Luther's Bible readily accessible ensured its widespread success.
The German Protestant Bible had a greater influence on the language of its readers than any other comparable work except the English Authorized Version.
It became the most widely read book in the German tongue, constituted Germany's greatest literary achievement in the 16 th century, and was of immeasurable significance in stabilizing the language. The movement gained its widest support among the Lutherans. Another Protestant, Jacob Boehme — , developed a mystical system largely inspired by the Christian Kabbalah. Martin Luther and his fellow-reformers fostered the writing of biblical plays in both Latin and German. Sixtus Birck dramatized not only episodes from the Bible — Zorobabel , Ezechias , and Joseph — but also the apocryphal tales of Susanna and Judith both A century later, Christian Weise took all the themes of his religious plays from the Old Testament, believing that the figure of Jesus ought not to appear on the stage.
Germany's first major modern poet, Friedrich Gottlieb Klopstock , who was influenced by Milton and Bodmer, is best remembered for his epic Der Messias — Gutzkow's very popular Uriel Acosta entered the Yiddish as well as the German repertoire. Friedrich Hebbel wrote Judith , about the heroine of the Apocrypha, but his outstanding "Hebraic" drama was Herodes und Mariamne , based on Josephus. Only a few Jewish writers in 19 th -century Germany and Austria dealt with biblical or later historical themes of Jewish interest. From onward there was a considerable increase in German works of biblical inspiration.
Die juedische Witwe by Georg Kaiser , based on the heroic apocryphal tale of Judith and Holofernes, was, unlike so many of these works, a comedy. Koenig Salomo und der Schuster Other 20 th -century writers were drawn to stories from the Prophets and Hagiographa. As with English and French, so in the case of German, certain biblical terms entered the language at a fairly early stage, mainly through the writings of churchmen. Luther's Bible brought a vastly increased number of words and phrases into general usage.
Some have become German idioms, including Kainszeichen the mark of Cain, Gen. Hebrew loanwords also entered German at various periods. Despite periodic "purifications" of the German language, a vast number of these Hebraisms and Yiddishisms still occur in German dictionaries and other works of reference. Heine, in his poem "Prinzessin Sabbat" Roman zero zero , , humorously alluding to Schiller's "Ode to Joy," described tcholent as "koscheres Ambrosia"; while Adelbert von Chamisso entitled his world-famous story about the man who lost his shadow Peter Schlemihls wundersame Geschichte Conversely, Heine's pathetic "Jewish" refrain in the poem "Gedaechtnisfeier" in the collection Romanzero , "Nicht gedacht soll seiner werden," is taken directly from Luther's translation of Ezek.
German attitudes toward the Jews, shaped by religious, economic, and social factors, were clearly mirrored in German literature. The earliest recorded Old High German literature, largely written by Christian clerics, depicted Jews as simultaneously God's chosen people and as the "people accursed. Medieval German drama, from the primitive mystery plays dealing with the life and death of Jesus to the spectacular passion plays staged at Easter, presented a cruel and abhorrent image of the Jew. In these plays Jews were shown to be far more the people of Judas than of Jesus.
The most famous of the passion plays — that of Oberammergau, Bavaria — has been performed roughly once every ten years since It was banned for a time in the 18 th century and, strangely enough, during the Hitler era, the Nazis evidently allowing anti-religious policy to outweigh their hatred of the Jews. In a few textual modifications were made on the recommendation of the Catholic Church in order to remove offensive anti-Jewish passages.
Folktales and folksongs also spread the legend that Jews habitually engaged in the crucifixion of Christian boys to provide blood for the Passover ritual. Upon the earliest literary image, which had its source in religion, was superimposed another, which had its source in economics: Usury was defined by the Church as the lending of money at interest.
Since Christians were forbidden to engage in such moneylending, Jews had a virtual monopoly until the Lombards arrived on the German scene. In the sermons of Berthold von Regensburg c.
Easter plays included a comic interlude: As an object of ridicule, the Jew also made his entry into the Fastnachtsspiele Shrovetide plays. In another farce, a student seduces a Jewess and then mocks her parents and her religion. In the first published version of the Faust legend — the anonymous Faustbuch of — Faust borrows money from a Jew, who accepts one of his legs as security.
Faust saws off the leg, but when he comes to redeem his pledge the Jew cannot return it and has to pay compensation. The dominant literary image of the Jew throughout the 16 th and 17 th centuries was characterized by hostility and ridicule. Not until the 18 th century was a major breach made in this portrayal. The hero of this philosophical drama, a wise and benevolent Jew, was the mouthpiece for the writer's doctrines of religious tolerance and universal brotherhood.
From the late 18 th century German Jews and Christians mingled in Berlin salons and influenced each other's religious, philosophical, and literary expression. Jewish salon hostesses inspired German poets and were mirrored in German novels, creating the image of the educated, dignified, and freethinking Jewess. The Romantic movement, which succeeded the Enlightenment, was also ambivalent in its portrayal of Jews. On the other hand, some writers — especially those in the Berlin circle of Bettina's husband, Achim von Arnim — regarded Jews with enmity and disdain.
Editorial Reviews. About the Author. Geboren am in Nürnberg als Sohn eines Drei Fastnachtsspiele (German Edition) by [Sachs, Hans]. Buy Kindle on Prime Day and get % back on your eBook purchases between July 1stst as Amazon Pay Balance See More.
Arnim himself perpetuated the idea of the Jew's dual nature as eternal witness and repulsive merchant in his drama, Halle und Jerusalem The intensification of German nationalism during the struggle against Napoleon led writers to depict Jews as outsiders and eternal wanderers. It encouraged virulent antisemitism at a time when Jewish intellectuals were straining toward complete integration in German society, baptism being accepted by many as a corollary of assimilation and as in Heine's sardonic phrase "a ticket of admission to German culture.
As the leaders of Jung deutschland "Young Germany" , a liberal literary movement, they paved the way for the Revolution of and both were outspoken champions of Jewish emancipation.
During the 19 th century Jewish themes increasingly infiltrated German drama and fiction. In her novella Die Judenbuche , Annette von Droste-Huelshoff told a grim tale of the avenging of the murder of a Jew, even inserting a cryptic Hebrew phrase into her story. Franz Grillparzer , Friedrich Hebbel, and Otto Ludwig extolled the Jewish past and presented biblical and Jewish historical characters quite different from the old stereotypes.
Grillparzer's Die Juedin von Toledo , based on the tragic romance of Alfonso vii of Castile and the Jewess of Toledo, was the forerunner of many other treatments of this theme. On the other hand, novelists who dealt with the Jewish present continued to portray the Jew as a villain. Gustav Freytag wrote a best-selling novel, Soll und Haben , which reinforced the image of the Jewish usurer, contrasting the noble, loyal, and hardworking Christian apprentice Anton with his rascally Jewish fellow-worker, Veitel Itzig, who comes to a sorry end. The setting of Kompert's tales was Bohemia and that of Franzos', Galicia.
Austrian Galicia was also the setting of many novels and stories by the non-Jewish writer, Leopold Ritter von Sacher-Masoch. Sacher-Masoch, whose later erotic works gave rise to the term "masochism," was the son of an Austrian police chief in Letoberg Lvov , and his early impressions of Jewish life there inspired his Judengeschichten , Polnische Ghetto-geschichten , and Juedisches Leben in Wort und Bild His obvious sympathy for the East European Jew's tenacious adherence to his religion and culture subjected him to considerable abuse.
When Friedrich Nietzsche wrote in in Jenseits von Gut und Boese that he had never yet met a German who was favorably inclined to Jews, he was undoubtedly exaggerating, but he correctly recognized that in Germany the age-old image of the Jew was an unflattering one.
While Nietzsche foresaw a glorious future for Jews on the world scene, another influential German philosopher, Oswald Spengler , held that Judaism had already completed its historic function and was on the verge of disappearing. In Der Untergang des Abendlandes he was at pains to stress the intense mutual hatred between Germans and Jews, and the "inevitable conflict" between a vigorous young culture rooted in the soil and a senile, overripe civilization of landless cosmopolitans.
Spengler's vaunted objectivity was soon to supply Nazi ideologists and literary racists with ammunition for their perverted theories. Nordau's tragedy, Doktor Kohn , concluded that assimilation was impossible and that a solution to Jewish misery had to be found elsewhere; while Herzl, in his utopian novel Altneuland , projected his answer into an idealized Jewish state. With few exceptions, the major non-Jewish writers sided with the Jews in their battle for self-preservation. Although Artur Dinter anticipated the Nazis with his hate-filled Die Suende wider das Blut , modern authors of the stature of Gerhart Hauptmann and Thomas Mann remained aloof from the rising tide of nationalism.
In his tragicomedy, Der rote Hahn , and in his drama, Die Finsternisse , which had to be smuggled out of Nazi Germany, Hauptmann paid tribute to the fruitful liberalism of German Jewry. There were sympathetic Jewish characters in Mann's works, too, especially in Koenigliche Hoheit and Der Zauberberg During the first third of the 20 th century, the Jewish influence on German literature reached its climax. Nazi writers fed the Germans an image of the Jew as an hereditary criminal, and branded as a fairy tale the possibility that baptism could emancipate the Jew from his criminal tendencies.
With the triumph of Nazi ideology in , all favorable images of the Jew were suppressed by literary, stage, and radio censors. Only in exile could Thomas and Heinrich Mann and other writers of non-Jewish origin present a more balanced image of the Jew. Like their Jewish fellow-writers, however, Zuckmayer, Langhoff, and Brecht were finally compelled to take refuge abroad, and it was not until after World War ii that a more dispassionate assessment of the Jewish image in German literature could be attempted.
Der Thringer Maler A. Paul Weber hat sie geschmckt. Innentitel begleiten die Handlung u. Mehr ein nutzlicher raht den jungen gesellen die so sich verheyraten wollen. Tragoedie in sieben Acten. Hardcover library bound German text.
Ex-library book with stamps and labels attached. Pages unmarked and clean.
Covers in plain cardboard with library tape binding. Covers and text in very good condition. Schumacher I 13 A. In der Reihe der Zweifusterdrucke. Schumacher I 09 A. Verlag Erich Matthes