Lutheran theology differs from Reformed theology in Christology, the purpose of Gods Law, the grace, the concept of perseverance of the saints.
Today, Lutheranism is one of the largest denominations of Protestantism, with approximately 80 million adherents, it constitutes the third most common Protestant denomination after historically Pentecostal denominations and Anglicanism. Eck and other Catholics followed the practice of naming a heresy after its leader. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term Evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, the followers of John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other theologians linked to the Reformed tradition also began to use that term.
To distinguish the two groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed. As time passed by, the word Evangelical was dropped, Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists.
In , theologians in Wittenberg defined the title Lutheran as referring to the true church, Lutheranism has its roots in the work of Martin Luther, who sought to reform the Western Church to what he considered a more biblical foundation. Lutheranism spread through all of Scandinavia during the 16th century, as the monarch of Denmark—Norway, through Baltic-German and Swedish rule, Lutheranism also spread into Estonia and Latvia.
Since , regular Lutheran services have been held in Copenhagen, under the reign of Frederick I, Denmark-Norway remained officially Catholic. Although Frederick initially pledged to persecute Lutherans, he adopted a policy of protecting Lutheran preachers and reformers. During Fredericks reign, Lutheranism made significant inroads in Denmark, at an open meeting in Copenhagen attended by the king in , the people shouted, We will stand by the holy Gospel, and do not want such bishops anymore. Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, however, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway.
Minor third — In the music theory of Western culture, a minor third is a musical interval that encompasses three half steps, or semitones. Staff notation represents the third as encompassing three staff positions. The minor third is one of two commonly occurring thirds and it is called minor because it is the smaller of the two, the major third spans an additional semitone. For example, the interval from A to C is a minor third, diminished and augmented thirds span the same number of staff positions, but consist of a different number of semitones.
The minor third is a skip melodically, notable examples of ascending minor thirds include the opening two notes of Greensleeves and of Light My Fire. The minor third may be derived from the series as the interval between the fifth and sixth harmonics, or from the 19th harmonic. The minor third is used to express sadness in music. It is also a quartal tertian interval, as opposed to the major thirds quintality, the minor third is also obtainable in reference to a fundamental note from the undertone series, while the major third is obtainable as such from the overtone series.
The minor scale is so named because of the presence of this interval between its tonic and mediant scale degrees, minor chords too take their name from the presence of this interval built on the chords root. A minor third, in just intonation, corresponds to a ratio of 6,5 or If a minor third is tuned in accordance with the fundamental of the series, the result is a ratio of 19, The TET minor third more closely approximates the limit minor third 16,19 Play with only 2.
Other pitch ratios are given related names, the minor third with ratio 7,6. The minor third is classed as an imperfect consonance and is considered one of the most consonant intervals after the unison, octave, perfect fifth, instruments in A — most commonly the A clarinet, sound a minor third lower than the written pitch. In music theory, a semiditone is the interval 32,27 and it is the minor third in Pythagorean tuning. The 32,27 Pythagorean minor third arises in the C major scale between D and F, Play It can be thought of as two octaves minus three justly tuned fifths.
It is narrower than a justly tuned minor third by a syntonic comma, musical tuning List of meantone intervals Pythagorean interval. Bachs compositions include the Brandenburg Concertos, the Goldberg Variations, the Mass in B minor and his music is revered for its technical command, artistic beauty, and intellectual depth. He is now regarded as one of the greatest composers of all time. Bach was born in Eisenach, in the duchy of Saxe-Eisenach and his father Johann Ambrosius Bach was the director of the town musicians, and all of his uncles were professional musicians.
His father probably taught him to play the violin and harpsichord, apparently at his own initiative, Bach attended St. He was the eighth and youngest child of Johann Ambrosius, who taught him violin. His uncles were all musicians, whose posts included church organists, court chamber musicians.
Meine Seele erhebt den Herren is Martin Luther's translation of the Magnificat canticle. It is traditionally sung to a German variant of the tonus peregrinus, a rather the melodic formula is used as a theme: this chorale prelude may however be Free scores of Meine Seel erhebt den Herren in the Choral Public Domain. Meine Seele erhebet den Herren (variant spellings: „Seel vs. to the name of this chorale or liturgical chant: “Tonus peregrinus” or “Magnificat toni peregrini”. . BWV Chorale Prelude for Organ (Schübler Chorale No.
One uncle, Johann Christoph Bach, introduced him to the organ, Bachs mother died in , and his father died eight months later. The year-old Bach moved in with his eldest brother, Johann Christoph Bach, there he studied, performed, and copied music, including his own brothers, despite being forbidden to do so because scores were so valuable and private and blank ledger paper of that type was costly.
He received valuable teaching from his brother, who instructed him on the clavichord, also during this time he was taught theology, Latin, Greek, French and Italian at the local gymnasium.
By 3 April Bach and his schoolfriend Georg Erdmann—who was two years Bachs elder—were enrolled in the prestigious St. His two years there were critical in exposing Bach to a range of European culture. In addition to singing in the choir, he played the Schools three-manual organ and he came into contact with sons of aristocrats from northern Germany, sent to the highly selective school to prepare for careers in other disciplines.
Johns Church and possibly used the famous organ from His role there is unclear, but it probably included menial, non-musical duties, despite strong family connections and a musically enthusiastic employer, tension built up between Bach and the authorities after several years in the post. Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir and he called one of them a Zippel Fagottist. It is scored for five parts, and a Baroque orchestra including trumpets.
It is the first major composition on a Latin text by Bach. In , after taking up his post as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, for a performance at Christmas he inserted four hymns related to that feast. After publication of both versions in the 19th century, the became the standard for performance.
It is one of Bachs most popular vocal works, all of Bachs liturgical compositions in Latin were composed during his tenure as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, from until his death in Compared to Lutheran practice elsewhere, an amount of Latin was used in church services in Leipzig. An early account of Bach showing interest in liturgical practices in Leipzig dates from , at the time Johann Kuhnau was the Cantor in Leipzig. The traditional setting of Luthers German translation of the Magnificat is a German variant of the tonus peregrinus, the tonus peregrinus is associated with the ninth mode or Aeolian mode.
For the traditional setting of Luthers German Magnificat that is the mode for which the last note of the melodic formula is the tonic. In Protestantism there was no Latin text more often set to music than the Magnificat, also settings of the German text of the Magnificat were current from the early 17th century, without one form suppressing the other.
Around Bachs time there are examples by Heinichen and by Vivaldi. Also Graupners Magnificat had this split, another characteristic of Bachs Magnificat is that it is set for a five-part chorus. Cantus firmus — In music, a cantus firmus is a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition. The plural of this Latin term is cantus firmi, although the corrupt form canti firmi can also be found, the Italian is often used instead, canto fermo. The term first appears in theoretical writings early in the 13th century, the earliest polyphonic compositions almost always involved a cantus firmus, typically a Gregorian chant, although by convention the term is not applied to music written before the 14th century.
Later, the cantus firmus appeared in the voice, singing notes of longer duration, around which more florid lines. Elaborations came later, in what was to be known as the paraphrase technique, the cyclic mass, which became the standard type of mass composition around the middle of the 15th century, used cantus firmus technique as its commonest organising principle. Over 40 settings are known, including two by Josquin des Prez, and six by a composer or composers in Naples. Many composers of the middle and late Renaissance wrote at least one mass based on melody.
German composers in the Baroque period in Germany, notably Bach, in the opening movement of Bachs St Matthew Passion, the chorale O Lamm Gottes, unschuldig appears in long notes, sung by a separate choir of boys in ripieno. Many of his chorale preludes include a chorale tune in the pedal part, using a cantus firmus as a means of teaching species counterpoint was the basis of Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux, although the method was first published by Girolamo Diruta in Counterpoint is still taught routinely using an adapted from Fux.
Several writers have used cantus firmus as a metaphor, kate Gross used it for those childhood pursuits that give her happiness and define her - pursuits that she calls the enduring melody of her life. Cantus firmus in Mass and Motet, Berkeley. He composed the cantata in Leipzig for the feast of the Visitation.
It is the chorale cantata from his second annual cycle, of chorale cantatas. In , Bach was appointed as Thomaskantor in Leipzig, where he was responsible for the music at four churches and for the training and he took office in the middle of the liturgical year, on the first Sunday after Trinity. In Leipzig, cantata music was expected on Sundays and on Feast days, in his first twelve months in office, Bach decided to compose new works for almost all of these liturgical events, known as his first cantata cycle.
The year after, he continued that effort, composing chorale cantatas based on Lutheran hymns, including Meine Seel erhebt den Herren, Bach composed the cantata for the Marian feast Mariae Heimsuchung in Leipzig as the fifth cantata of his second annual cycle of chorale cantatas. Bach had composed a Latin Magnificat the year before for Visitation, at Bachs time, the German Magnificat was regularly sung in Leipzig in Vesper services in a four-part setting of the ninth psalm tone by Johann Hermann Schein.
Different from the chorale cantatas of the cycle, the base for text and music is not a Lutheran chorale. The text is based on the Magnificat and the doxology, which is added to psalms. The music is based on the 9th psalm tone, the unknown poet kept some verses unchanged, 46—48 for movement 1,54 for movement 5, and the doxology for movement 7. He paraphrased verse 49 in movement 2, 50—51 for movement 3, 52—53 for movement 4, Bach first performed the cantata on 2 July He performed it at least once more in the s, the cantata in seven movements is scored for four vocal soloists, a four-part choir, trumpet, two oboes, two violins, viola, and basso continuo.
The trumpet is used to highlight the cantus firmus and may have been a tromba da tirarsi. The main motif of the fantasia, marked vivace, stands for joy and is set in upward rhythmical propulsion. The chorus enters after 12 measures with the cantus firmus in the soprano, doubled by a trumpet, Bach treats the second verse similarly, but with the cantus firmus in the alto, because the text Denn er hat seine elende Magd angesehen speaks of the lowly handmaid. The movement is concluded by a setting without cantus firmus embedded in the music of the introduction.
Wiki as never seen before with video and photo galleries, discover something new today. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about Luther's translation of the Magnificat and its traditional setting.
For other German Magnificats, see German Magnificat. Christoph Klinger, , pp. Retrieved from " https: Human beings could learn about God only through divine revelation, he believed and he later attributed his decision to an event, on 2 July , he was returning to university on horseback after a trip home 2. John the Deacon, biographer of Pope Gregory I, modestly claimed that the saint compiled a patchwork antiphonary, unsurprisingly and he reorganized the Schola Cantorum and established a more uniform standard in church services, gathering chants from among the regional traditions as widely as he could manage 4.
The notes of the minor scale are the same as the natural minor except that the seventh degree is raised by one semitone 6. Many of these traditions have a corresponding rhythmic framework and these include, Usul in Arabian and Turkish music Tala in Indian music Bentuk in Javanese music Formula composition Matrix Modal frame 7. Charlie Clouser used D Minor for the theme Hello Zepp in the Saw and it was later used in the other movies as the ending theme The clergy and the cantors will process to the back of the church in front of an icon of the feast or saint being commemorated Fredericks son Christian was openly Lutheran, which prevented his election to the throne upon his fathers death, however, following his victory in the civil war that followed, in he became Christian III and advanced the Reformation in Denmark-Norway It is narrower than a justly tuned minor third by a syntonic comma, musical tuning List of meantone intervals Pythagorean interval Bach was dissatisfied with the standard of singers in the choir and he called one of them a Zippel Fagottist Also Graupners Magnificat had this split, another characteristic of Bachs Magnificat is that it is set for a five-part chorus Cantus firmus in Mass and Motet, Berkeley Martin Luther [videos] Martin Luther, O.
Luther as a friar, with tonsure. A posthumous portrait of Luther as an Augustinian friar. Luther's theses are engraved into the door of All Saints' Church, Wittenberg. The Latin inscription above informs the reader that the original door was destroyed by a fire, and that in , King Frederick William IV of Prussia ordered a replacement be made. Sorted by Title Chorale Melodies: Meine Seele erhebet den Herren variant spellings: From unspecified hymnals of the 17 th century:.
In Ambrosian psalmody, recitation can be found on all notes of the scale. Following the sermon the Magnificat was sung, either in Latin by the choir or in German by the congregation: Verse structure and chant. The basis of psalmody in both synagogue and Church is the dichotomic structure of its verses. No information on this obscure CT - it seems to be a paraphrase of Psalm 9. The words of the doxology are used as an appendage to the Magnificat text.
Use of the Chorale Melody by other composers: Meine Seele erhebt den Herren , 4-pt setting Meine Seele erhebt den Herren , Score and Parts. Meine Seele erhebt for 9 voice parts. Friedrich Wilhelm Zachow Meine Seele erhebt den Herrn [no further information on this reference].
Christian Heinrich Aschenbrenner Johann Gottfried Walther Johann Friedrich Doles , sr. Yoav Belinski November Freu dich sehr, o meine Seele Uploaded by: Peter und Paul Weissenau Software: Allegro from Sinfonia No. Milan Digital Audio Sample Set: Bach, issued around All six of the preludes are for an organ with two manuals and pedal, at least five of them transcribed from movements in Bach's cantatas, mostly chorale cantatas.