Taylor does so believing that Calvin's theology can serve, perhaps surprisingly, as a rich resource for understanding the theological purposes of the arts in corporate worship. Drawing on Calvin's Institutes, biblical commentaries, sermons, catechisms, treatises, and worship orders, this book represents one of the most thorough investigations available of John Calvin's theology of the physical creation—and the promising possibilities it opens up for the formative role of the arts in worship.
There will also be time for discussion and further exchange between the presenters. The Protestant Bible in Latin America, Until the Second Vatican Council and the Catholic Church's emphasis on "new evangelization" in the s and s, personal, vernacular Bible study was largely foreign to indigenous Latin Americans. Protestant missionaries, though quite unwelcome, tried to change this.
My paper analyzes the activity of Protestant missionaries between the Second Great Awakening and Second Vatican Council--a period of time in which Protestant presence markedly increased in Latin America. Specifically, I discuss how Protestant and evangelical missionaries distributed English and vernacular Bibles, New Testaments, catechisms, and creeds.
In doing so, I not only engage with how Protestant Christians challenged the institutional Catholic priesthood in Latin America, but also with what the Bible represented to the missionaries bringing them. American and British missionaries, and their societies like the American Bible Society and the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, repeatedly spoke how of the Bible's presence initiated social, religious, and political reformation amongst their indigenous subjects. The transported Bible encouraged new dress, behavior, and diplomacy among foreign audiences.
Through analysis of Bible society annual reports and missionary recordings, I attempt to unearth the presence and meaning of the Protestant Bible in Latin America and address a gap in the historiography of Latin American Christianity. In particular, the presentation will focus on the ways in which Jennens utilized the words of scripture alone primarily The King James Version combined with the power of a particular artistic medium to refute the rising trend of Deism, which carried with it an insistence on a detached vision of the divine.
This presentation will argue that the work of Jennens would not have been possible without the Protestant Reformation and its emphasis upon the dissemination of the Bible in the vernacular. However, the presentation will also focus on what I will argue is a characteristic of praxis that was propagated by people who themselves were products of the English Reformation—namely the use of and reliance on beauty art, poetry, music in conjunction with scripture as a viable form or apologetics as well as exegesis and even translation.
The thrust of the presentation will be to insist upon a reclamation of beauty as an integral piece of our engagement with the scriptures, which is a concept that is lacking in much of the Protestant world but which is very much at home in the work of Charles Jennens, as evident in his contribution to one of the greatest oratorios ever composed. Specifically, the focus will be on the striking divide evident during the latter half of the twentieth century and into the present day between devout Catholic and faithful evangelical literary artists, with the former i.
Catholic writers excelling in the writing of prose narrative--both novels and short fiction--while the latter i. Protestant writers have taken the lead in the composition of lyric. Moreover, even among the preeminent Protestant writers of fiction--Marilynne Robinson and Wendell Berry are two ready examples--prose styles, when at their best, are often described as "lyrical. On a personal level, Luther himself was an accomplished musician who possessed a fine voice, played the lute with finesse, and even tried his hand at advanced musical composition.
Christianity Today, 31 October , 18 Luther himself brought out a hymnbook with twenty-four hymns of which he was the author and supervised the publication of six additional hymnals between and The Reformers as Fathers of the Church: Luther and Calvin in the Thought of Karl Barth This paper will examine what it might mean to designate the Reformers as Church Fathers, a term usually reserved for significant figures of the Patristic period.
To examine this claim, the significance of Martin Luther and John Calvin in the theology of Karl Barth, and his own estimation and explication of their Reformation discovery, will be addressed. In Barth's re-appropriation of the Evangelical tradition, the term "Father of the Church" takes on not only new significance but new meaning, and this is not unrelated to the manner in which the Reformers themselves thought about apostolic succession and ecclesial authority. This paper will conclude with how Luther and Calvin should be viewed in our day, and what contribution the Evangelical i.
The Bible, History, and Fr. The advent of the Council and its workings had a history. Part of that history consisted of the engagement with the rather new historical-critical method of interpretation developed by Protestant biblical scholars. Liturgical and spiritual renewal arose from a renewed study of Patristics, with the work of the Church Fathers set in new translations. In a bit of a contrast at the time, the work of the biblical scholars reflected a more ecumenical endeavor.
Ordained a priest in , Fr. Raymond Brown held a doctorate in Theology from St. His education prepared him well for his career in seminary teaching, academic leadership, and more popular lectures. The document on Ecumenism affirmed his lived experience in the academy. Brown began his teaching career at Union Theological Seminary in , became a permanent faculty member in , and continued teaching there until his retirement in at this historically Protestant institution.
Brown authored nearly forty books and numerous articles. In , shortly before his death, this biblical scholar published An Introduction to the New Testament. With this book Fr. Brown wanted to help general readers understand mainline biblical scholarship. The basic contention, as he saw it, centered on history.
At one end of the spectrum one can identify biblical fundamentalists who hold that the Bible offers a literal history of the people of Israel and the life of Jesus. At the other end, Fr. For this he was castigated by Catholic traditionalists, suggesting that he had abandoned biblical inerrancy. And, scholars at the other end of the spectrum argued that he found too much history in the text.
At the same time, his does his scholarship in the context of the Christian faith, and at the service of that faith. His work should be rightly understood as biblical theology, faith informing reason. For this very reason an examination of the work of Fr. Raymond Brown can assist in the ongoing ecumenical endeavors to understand Sacred Scripture. To that end, this paper will provide a brief sketch of the work for Fr. Specific attention will be given to his text, The Virginal Conception and the Bodily Resurrection of Jesus with particular regard for his approach to the historicity of these events.
The paper will conclude with observations concerning the value of Fr. The Church and Art History: German Reformation Art Revisited This paper deals with the question, why and how has the Reformation been for the most part, left out of or maligned in the most widely used college art history survey texts here in the United States? Some might think this is a subject best left to church history and biblical works, therefore not a suitable place within general art history texts.
Others may imagine that the Reformation did not produce enough notable art to warrant a full chapter in a survey text. Also, there are those who believe that all Reformers were trying to rid the church of any visual imagery, by intimidation, force and destructive measures, thus casting a shadow of doubt on the works. And some are persuaded that the Reformation produced primarily book illustrations, so therefore, could not be in the same category as high or fine art.
Explanations and examples are offered in this paper demonstrating otherwise. After substantial research there appears to be no valid reason to eliminate or distort content about this important era of art and church history. For example, the Early Christian era is generally included in survey art history texts, at times with its own chapter.
There is a section that embraces Reformation women and how Katherina and Martin Luther came to be married even though he had been a Catholic monk and she a nun. Additionally, opinions from Erasmus and Calvin concerning visual arts are included and may be of value to readers of Reformation history and art. This methodological commitment licensed new spiritual movements and underwrote criticism of the then-present practices of the Roman Catholic Church and still underwrites much of the doctrine, practice, ecclesiology, and spirituality of the Protestant church today.
However, then and now, the debate over the methodological commitment represented by 'Sola Scriptura' has been accompanied by unfortunate conceptual unclarity. To that end, I argue two theses: By that definition, Holy Scripture is itself tradition. It may be divine tradition as opposed to merely human tradition, but it is tradition nonetheless.
Secondly, I point out that the methodological commitment to comparing faith and practice to the Bible is itself either part of the divine tradition or merely a human addition. I am content to merely defend the disjunction without eliminating either option. While I do not take a side, I suggest that critics of Sola Scriptura must argue that the methodological commitment is merely human tradition while advocates must argue that the methodological commitment is itself a divine tradition, on the level with Holy Scripture.
On Reformation and Medicine: A Reflection on the Protestant Reformation's Impact on Medicine and Its Relevance Today The Protestant Reformation is perhaps one of the most influential and paradigm-shifting eras in the history of medicine, and certainly one of the most overlooked. Its influence is on the one hand due to the massive reframing of 16th century worldviews which allowed for new technological and societal approaches to medicine, and on the other due to an emergent Protestant theology of health and the human body which made possible educational tools which were previously unthinkable under the reigning Catholic theologies.
Furthermore, the reformation epitomizes an approach to knowledge and convention that can be abstracted and applied to present-day medical education, reaching forward through the centuries to suggest alternating praises and critiques of some of the most well-established thought in medical education. In this paper I discuss the reformation and its impact on medical science and education in three themes — two historical and one theoretical and practical. I begin with a brief historical overview of Reformation thought and its influence on medical thought, examining the theological, philosophical and ethical underpinnings of the era and the broader entailments of these new ideas for medical theory and practice.
Next, I take these ideological reforms and illustrate with specific historical examples how they revolutionized medical science and gave birth to modern medical education in Reformation Europe. Finally, I spend the greater part of this paper developing 1 a sense of how the spirit of Reformation itself allows us to approach reforms in medical education, and 2 a small handful of cases in which we can allow the ideas of the Reformation — its methodologies, theologies, and practical insights — to speak out of history with new yet, old ideas for medical education.
Specifically, I will discuss the implications of Reformation thought for anatomical education, work-hour policies for medical trainees, the lack of education in regard to end of life discussions and spiritual care, evidence-based medicine, the physician-patient relationship, and the role of charity in medical practice. Biblical Natural Theology of Romans 1: While several passages of scripture articulate the general principle that God can be known through nature e. Paul here explicitly affirms the idea that God may be known indirectly through created things, and further asserts that this disclosure is sufficiently clear that those who continue to deny the reality of God are culpable for their atheism.
Christians prior to the Reformation tended to acknowledge that human sinfulness could impair the project of natural theology, but to insist that human rationality was not completely effaced by sinfulness see, e. Luther rather famously and forcefully criticized this view, arguing that while it is true that even heathens and idolators can know God and are culpable for denying him, the exercise of human reason can itself become of a form of sinful self-assertion against God.
What is a truly biblical natural theology? What effect does the Reformation, in particular the emphasis on human sinfulness and divine grace, have on the understanding of the capacity of humans to know God by natural means through examination of nature? In this paper I hope to accomplish two main goals: Marilynne Robinson's Neo-Transcendentalism My paper focuses on the way that Marilynne Robinson, in her nonfiction, appropriates the legacy of the Reformation in articulating a political vision for contemporary America. More specifically, I examine Robinson's appeal to the Reformed tradition as foundational to American culture and morality.
Robinson is an outspoken Christian, a Congregationalist to be exact, and has made it abundantly clear she believes Christianity should have more influence on American democracy, as, she argues, it once did. Robinson has demonstrated that fiction may still engage religion and captivate secular readers, which has made her something of a spokeswoman for contemporary Christianity. She has embraced her role as a public intellectual and steward of culture, proving herself a prolific and polemical essayist. Her views on religion in America today, and on the relation of religion to politics, find a wide audience.
Because her religious vision has resonated greatly with Christians and non-Christians alike, it is important to consider how she understands the Reformed Christian vision and its relevance to American politics and social ethics. Taken together, Robinson's essays offer a genealogy of American culture and political practice, tracking the legacy of the Puritan colonists through America's transition into a nation state and its development of a national self-conception and political practice. Such an account is common enough and aspects of it are widely accepted.
What distinguishes Robinson's work and also, I argue, renders it problematic is her insistence that American culture has become anemic because it has forsaken its Reformed roots. Robinson links the vitality of American society with the spiritual robustness of its people. This linkage is not inherently problematic, but Robinson's presentation of it is, for she ultimately conflates religious identity and national identity, despite her insistence to the contrary. I will contend that there are two key problems with Robinson's account.
The first problem is Robinson's account of the Reformed tradition.
I grant that Robinson never sets out to give a systematic, comprehensive account of the Reformed tradition. But, Robinson insists that America must recover some of its Reformed roots to recover its national health, and what she claims we must recover is by no means distinctively Christian as she presents it. The result is a diluted picture of the Reformed tradition and an unconvincing argument. Robinson's Calvinism is virtually indistinguishable from the Transcendentalism of Emerson and Whitman. Robinson contends that democratic life requires religious or supernatural backing, but resources that she claims are offered exclusively, in some cases by Calvinism are not found only there.
I demonstrate this by turning to the work of atheistic political theorists Jeffrey Stout and George Kateb, who, like Robinson, draw upon Emerson and Whitman. The second, and more troubling, problem is that Robinson identifies the political with the religious in ways that threaten the integrity of both. Furthermore, by conflating religious faith and nationalism, Robinson actually reinforces an ideology of American exceptionalism she claims to critique. Robinson laments what she sees as the spiritual anemia of American today, and seeks to expose the root of this spiritual malaise.
She sees as problematic the religious kind of American ideology: Upon closer examination, however, Robinson apparently worries not so much that American ideology corrodes authentic spirituality and religious expression, but rather that a lack of religious backing is corroding American ideology. She posits that the problem with American political ideology and, in turn, political practice today is that it has forsaken its theological roots. Robinson insists that America needs to recover some of its foundational Reformed Puritan Christian tenets for the sake of its political and cultural vitality, but she places religion in the service of national interests, at the price of religion.
Regardless of her intentions, Robinson's essays convey that a fuller spiritual life is required for the sake of a richer America, which is a form of cooptation. Robinson's Calvinism is virtually entirely identified with a vision of democratic individuality which requires no religion but itself assumes the aura of religion. Robinson maintains that America is a religious entity, in a way that, I argue, reveals the pernicious specter of American exceptionalism and contravenes her own well-intended concerns for the vitality of both religion in America and American political practice.
On Jadedness and Reformation: As part of this inquiry, the following contribution is a theological and ecclesial revision of a recent chapter submission to the forthcoming edited volume, Walker Percy: Philosopher LSU Press, In this revision, I show how Percy—as Catholic essayist, critic of modernity, and theological anthropologist—offers reflections on and cures for jadedness that are directly relevant to ecclesial self-understanding and dynamic theological and dogmatic reformation.
Overall, I will suggest, with Percy, that a dynamic theological anthropology which provides solutions to the settledness of being jaded, is critical for the prophetic, reformational vocation of the church. Structural features of jadedness emphasized include volitional and epistemic inertia, an unsettled loss of meaning, a faulty assumption of epistemic completion or superiority, and a foreclosure of ontological possibilities. I show how Percy frames individual and broad cultural-existential jadedness and its problematics within a larger theological anthropology, and why our homo viator wayfaring status as creatures has such enormous implications for perennial ecclesial reformation: If we take the social problem seriously in relation to the other two , Percy illumines the fact that jadedness often involves unconscious adoption of socially crafted roles, meanings, or self-understandings, that have broad power to undermine our humanity and the prophetic, culturally critical stance of the church.
In modernity, the passive consumer and abstract theoretical identities are often unconscious practical identities adopted by default, co-constituted by our cultural zeitgeist, potentially undercutting the reformational vocation of the church and mirroring a cultural lack of intellectual humility with respect to scientific, social, or technological progress. With respect to jaded foreclosure of possibilities, for example, the existentially jaded consumer imbibes finished systems of symbolic meanings—actualities to which experience must measure up the Grand Canyon looks just like the postcard —in virtue of which first-personal discovery of being and its possibilities, our distinctive creaturely vocation, is eliminated.
After discussing the unique problems of jadedness Percy identifies, I turn to his theological anthropology for unique solutions. Sir Thomas More's Comfort Amidst Tribulation While imprisoned in the Tower of London, Sir Thomas More was faced with the necessity of defending, both to his family, and to himself, his reasons for being there. Scholars like Leland Miles have noted how writing this dialogue allowed More not only to comfort his own family but to prepare himself to face with courage his own immanent execution.
Primarily, he maintains that a Christian should not seek to avoid all earthly pain or to keep all earthly treasure if it means giving up fidelity to God. Such is the stance that More himself maintained in his persistent refusal to take the oath accompanying the Act of Succession. Though he was accused of stubbornness in holding to his conscience when many others had taken the oath, More was adamant that his stance on conscience was neither an overly scrupulous fantasy nor an obstinate assertion of will.
Instead, he maintains that for him, taking the oath would place his soul in peril, making it tantamount to apostasy. He establishes the criteria upon which Christians should be willing to surrender their lives, and when it would be wise to flee tribulation. He interrogates the charge of foolishness by indicating when it is a just rebuke and when a Christian may without shame bear it in the same manner that Christ bore reproach.
More shows when death is not to be feared but embraced. Ultimately, More shows the way to taking comfort in a clear conscience, in a good hope, and in the strength of God.
More outlines how a Christian may seek comfort from God not in the absence of earthly pain, but rather in the strength to endure it. Galileo and the Bible The Galileo Affair of remains in popular culture an emblem of the conflictual relationship between faith and reason, religion and science, the institutional Church and the autonomous individual in modernity. One of the significant elements of the Galileo episode had to do with the relationship between scientific truth and Biblical truth.
The Bible thus played a central role in this episode, just as it did in the more general conflict between the Protestant Reformers and officials of the Roman Catholic Church. He is viewed by many as a modern standing in opposition to the obscurantism and authoritarianism of the Roman Church. The truth is that this view is simply wrong. In my paper, I plan to break no new ground on the Galileo Affair in general or on the specific topic of Galileo and the Bible. This will require a brief account of the hermeneutic tradition as represented in the works of St. A familiarity with this material is useful both for critiquing the ongoing role of the Galileo Affair in contemporary secularism and for thinking clearly about current or future tensions between the claims of the natural sciences and the claims of Scripture.
Is Another Reformation Needed?: The State of Evangelical Churches Two Decades After "Scandal of the Evangelical Mind" We examine what has become of the intellectual state of the evangelical and fundamentalist churches twenty years after Mark Knoll's critical analysis. Since the publication of "Scandal of the Evangelical Mind" have these churches developed a sufficiently mature and consistent theological and scientific world-view to attract a next generation of believers? We study this question and its implications for the future of evangelical churches. Sola Scriptura and the Liturgies of the Reformation The impact of the Reformation of the 16th century was felt throughout the whole of Christian life and practice.
Nowhere is the influence of the Reformation more clearly seen, however, than in its effect upon the liturgy of the Christian church. In their pursuit of ecclesiastical reform according to the principle of Sola Scriptura, the Reformers sought to produce liturgies that were more Biblical in orientation and in method. It is the purpose of this paper to examine several significant ways in which the Reformers sought to elevate Scripture to a role of greater prominence in the Christian liturgy.
The earliest of the Reformers noted the importance of preaching for the service of worship. Martin Luther argued that the preaching of the Word was to be central in Christian worship. For Zwingli, the drama of worship was not to come from music or even primarily from the Eucharist. Rather, it was to come from the Word itself. The sermon was not the only place in the liturgy where the Word was to be proclaimed.
Rather, it was given a prominent role throughout the liturgy. Initially advocated by Luther, this pattern is found in almost all of the early liturgies, including those of Bucer, Calvin, and the English Book of Common Prayer. This provided the people with catechetical training, as they learned of the law of God, how to pray, and what to believe based upon the teaching of Scripture.
The Reformers saw these three components as instrumental in communicating Biblical teaching regarding the Christian life to believers. For the Word to be effectively received, however, it must be received by the people in their own language. The Reformers therefore emphasized the importance of conducting the liturgy in the common tongue, the vernacular. Everywhere the Reformation came, a translation of the liturgy into the language of the people followed. Luther in his Formula Missae expressed hope that the Mass would be conducted in the vernacular, while the preface to the Book of Common Prayer notes that the English replaced the Latin in order to reach the hearts of the people.
While the Reformers made numerous positive changes in advancing Scripture and its teaching in the liturgy, by far their most controversial decisions were their negative changes. The Reformers devoted great energy to the removal of ceremonies and elements of the Mass that they deemed unbiblical. His service of the Word is focused entirely upon the sermon, and his service of the Supper bears little resemblance to the Mass. Even in those liturgies that followed the Mass more closely, such as the Book of Common Prayer, various ceremonies such as the elevation of the host and the invocation of saints were removed as they did not have explicit Biblical warrant.
But one of the most profound ways in which the Reformers emphasized the Scriptures in the liturgy was by expressing the inseparability of Word and Sacrament. The Sacraments were not voiceless vehicles of grace. Rather, they rested upon the promises of God. The result of liturgical reform was that the Word was given a more significant role within the liturgical means of grace.
While the pre-Reformation Masses contained much that was Biblical, they tended to place Scripture in a position in which it contributed to the central act of worship in the Eucharist. The Reformers, however, saw Scripture as transformative and powerful in and of itself. Indeed, in the Reformed liturgies, Scripture took a role that was just as prominent as that of the Eucharist, and in some cases as with Zwingli one that was even more prominent.
The Reformed liturgies located Scripture in a place wherein it was central to the means of grace: Communities tell new stories, but they also re-make and reshape old stories, or, as Charlotte Linde's concept of "narrative induction" suggests, communities "take on an existing set of stories an existing set of stories as their own story" Martin Luther, of course, was no exception. According to Mickey Leland Mattox, Martin Luther saw a close relationship between biblical narratives and his own society, "never hesitating to imagine the biblical characters into his world or himself into theirs" 1.
Like Luther, contemporary American rock remains interested in the connections between biblical narrative and today. Rather than focus on Springsteen's rendering of the biblical text, this paper turns to a more recent rock musician, Craig Finn, and his band, The Hold Steady. Finn, an American Catholic, often names characters in his songs after biblical characters, sometimes drawing an explicit link and sometimes leaving the connection ambiguous. For example, several Hold Steady songs follow Gideon, who, in the biblical narrative, is a military leader and judge, but, in these contemporary songs, Gideon is a member of a gang called the Cityscape Skins.
In one song, "Sweet Payne," St. Paul is likely a drug dealer because he "had it all when we called" and was "maxing out on medicine. Some might be skeptical of Finn's incorporation of biblical characters into contemporary contexts. These critics might see Finn's songs as perversions of the biblical narratives, even rubbing up uncomfortably against blasphemy.
In contrast to these possible critiques, however, I argue that Finn's recasting of biblical characters actually rests in a long Christian tradition of biblical adaptation, from medieval mystery plays to Jesus Christ, Superstar. Finn's seemingly blasphemous adaptation of the biblical narratives actually represents an immersion into the biblical text rather than a rejection or subversion of the text. Finn's reimagining of the biblical characters acting in the contemporary world is a radical re-enactment of the biblical narrative.
This is akin to what Walter Brueggemann, in a slightly different context, calls "doing the text" or "to entertain, attend to, participate in, and reenact the drama of the text" 1. This is a dynamic model of reading the Bible, one that sees the Bible not as an ancient, lifeless text but as a living, present text in which Christians can constantly participate. By placing the biblical characters in the contemporary age, Finn demonstrates that the Bible is relevant for our present and future time, as much as the past.
In addition to stressing the Bible as a living text, Finn's songs force us to reconsider the composition of the Christian community. Instead of a military leader, Finn's Gideon is a gang member; Finn's St. Paul is a drug dealer, and Finn's St. Peter is arrested in a bar. By casting Gideon, St. Peter as potentially nefarious characters, Finn reminds us that "sinners and tax collectors" make up the Church. Finn forces listeners to abandon their idealized images of biblical characters and the Church and instead reflect on who represents these "sinners and tax collectors" in the contemporary age.
In this manner, Finn's recasting of the biblical narratives enlivens our reading of the Bible but also calls us to live out the Bible and be more attentive to the needs of those who are despised, neglected, or condemned in our world. Who Speaks for God in Science?
In a nutshell, the worry is that without some kind of ecclesial interpretive authority, individuals are more liable to misinterpret the sacred text. Yet behind this particular concern lies an even larger one: This question remains as poignant today as ever, and its importance transcends the Protestant and Catholic traditions. It is a crucial question for anyone with any kind of religious faith at all.
Moreover, the question cannot simply be confined to matters of exegesis, hermeneutics, or theology. It vitally matters in other areas as well. Who speaks for God in economics or immigration or politics? One area where the question is vital -- yet often overlooked -- is, of all things, evolutionary biology. Surprising, a careful analysis of dozens of biology textbooks reveals that many of them deploy God-talk in arguments for evolutionary theory.
Careful examination reveals the following about these theology-laden arguments: The removal of a given theology-laden premise leaves the argument in question logically invalid. Second, these theology-laden arguments are part of the positive case for evolutionary theory. They are not simply critiques of creationism or intelligent design. Instead, they overwhelmingly appear in chapters that lay out "the evidence for evolution.
Fourth, as far as I can tell, these claims are not entailed or made probable by any of the big three monotheistic traditions or any other visible and enduring religious tradition. Fifth, textbook authors overwhelmingly fail to give even minimal justification for these partisan theological claims. They do not cite basic religious creeds, codified doctrines, or holy books. Neither do they cite non-religious sources. In the end, while textbook authors may think they are simply testing creationism's own claims about God, they actually seem to be resorting to their own subjective preferences about the deity's nature and ways.
In a way, they purport to speak for God. I recommend that biologists avoid these arguments and instead focus on stronger arguments for evolution that do not depend upon God-talk. Ad Fontes and Sola Scriptura: This paper will explore the challenges that ad fontes presented to the Reformers and how they responded to these challenges. This exponential increase in available textual knowledge of the scriptures generated watershed debates between Catholics and Reformers as well as among the Reformers themselves. In defending the Vulgate, the Catholics developed a polemic that drew on the increased textual information and claimed that the textual traditions from the time of the Vulgate to the Reformation had been corrupted.
They argued, therefore, that the Vulgate is the best available witness to the original text of the scriptures. The Reformers responded by emphasizing a strong doctrine of preservation. This doctrine also served in the debates among the Reformers themselves. Cappel argued that scripture was not preserved in any one manuscript; rather, the original text was only recoverable through a comparison of all the textual witnesses available.
In other words, the God-breathed character of the biblical text was confined to the autographs themselves and it was the job of the text critic to uncover that text using all the available textual traditions. Turretin and Owen responded vigorously, arguing again for a doctrine of preservation for the scriptures. The paper will then move on briefly to the mid 19th and early 20th century, and the writings of A. Warfield, arguing that Cappel's view, so derided by Owen and Turretin, became the position of Turretin's spiritual descendants.
The paper finishes by discussing the significance or otherwise of these Reformational debates for our current understanding of scripture as the Word of God. What are the strengths and weaknesses of a doctrine that limits inspiration to the autographs Cappel, Warfield and Hodge? Are we caught between relying wholly on the ever-changing conclusions of text critics on one hand and ignoring them and their conclusions on the other? Romans 13 and First Peter 2 are key passages in understanding the necessity of obedience to those in authority.
Luther espouses the division of humanity into two classes: The kingdom of this world consists of those people who are not Christians and do not act like Christians, and therefore are necessarily under the governance and law of civil authorities. Because of lawlessness, God has instituted the sword, that they may be restrained from committing the evil that they desire. Without the deterrent of temporal authority and the sword, anarchy and selfishness would reign, leading to mass chaos among not only the people of lawlessness, but also those who belong to the kingdom of God.
Thus, as the Apostle Paul writes in Romans 13, the sword exists to correct those who are evil and live outside the kingdom of Christ. For Luther both kingdoms exist for specific purposes and both must exist for their specific purposes and functions within their spheres of influence; one kingdom cannot be allowed to overrun the other. The church does not constitute the basis of temporal authority, nor does the temporal prince provide a foundation for spiritual authority.
Instead the temporal authority of princes and spiritual authority of the church both derive from God and thus purposefully exist to fulfill their respective offices. Luther thus argues for a formulation of the doctrine of the two kingdoms that allows each kingdom to hold authority over their respective citizens, and in such a way that does not encroach upon the jurisdiction of the other kingdom. Using the model of the two kingdoms, Luther described the relationship of the Christian to the world in terms of the kingdom of Christ, that which emphasizes the gospel without using force, and the kingdom of the world, the use of laws and force by those whom God has ordained for temporal authority.
Employing an understanding that interprets the doctrine of the two kingdoms as two governments under one kingdom of God and that the two kingdoms are unified by the theme of acting in Christian love allows for a coherent ethical structure. Groaning Creation and Franciscan Animism: This essay is presented in three parts. First, we examine classical soteriology that posits creation as a mere backdrop for salvation history. Perhaps this view gives White license to claim that Western Christianity finds divine warrant for human dominance of nature.
While most focus on the ethical scope of environmentalism, others attempt to construct a framework that insulates Christianity from such charges. Finally, this broad sweep of theological reflection distills two salient similarities: Taken together, they engender strong confidence in the future of ecumenical dialogue. Beginning with an overview from the Middle Ages through the late 18th century, he claims that theology and science were partners far too long.
Consequently, Western Christianity found divine warrant for its dominance of nature. These encyclicals have not been monolithic, though. The ethical, common-good arguments now include sacramental, covenantal approaches. Other theologians already have established this covenantal framework. She resists identifying creation with redemption in the New Testament vision; both indicate that God actively participates in the world. Sustainability becomes a theological possibility when we recognize the place of humankind within a thoroughly ecological ethic.
May, who starkly outlines the ecological crisis: Franciscan Romanticism, European sacramentalism, and American covenantalism. He suggests that these views can transform the American environmental ethic by adding to our mercantile understanding of property, thereby contributing further to our history and destiny as a people. Additionally, feminist writers rely upon this communal, narrative focus.
Drawing from Jewish and Christian historical perspectives, Ruether calls for a deep metanoia, by which humans rediscover their shared place in the ecosystem, and return to covenantal-sacramental understandings of creation. Although we remain far from addressing the roots of ecological turmoil, we seem to have rediscovered the theological ground for our reflection. We should use this reinvigorated sense of covenant and transcendent view of creation to continue our dialogue. Perhaps, we must wait upon the eschaton to witness the final redemption for which creation groans.
After all, it is very good indeed. Grace and the Bible versus the Church? Floating alongside this grace-church divide is a similar concern about the role of the Bible in ecclesial life. Ought the Bible serve to determine and lead the life of the church? Have Protestants put the Bible back in its proper place—subjecting all earthly powers?
Or has the freedom of the Bible from the church encouraged the multiplicity of ecclesial fracturing that characterizes so much of modern Christian life? In this paper I wish to address both of these concerns: Second, I suggest that such a congruence has important implications for the role of the Bible in the life of the church: Nonetheless, the Bible also stands above the church, guiding and directing her as nourishment in the spiritual life, leading to an increased depth of participation in the life of God. The Reformation's Impact on Film Since the beginning of the Reformation, its effects have been felt most keenly in the areas of theology and history, but its effects have been in other areas of faith and culture as well.
Almost immediately art historians noted ways in which the Reformation influenced painting, with the diverging theologies of Catholic and Protestant artists being made manifest in their works. Four centuries later, another visual art form emerged. Would film show the same divergence?
Apprenticed to Hope: A Sourcebook for Difficult Times (Living Well) Publisher: Augsburg Fortress Publishers, This specific ISBN edition. Difficult Times - Buy. Apprenticed to Hope: A. Sourcebook for Difficult. Times ( Living Well). (Living Well (Augsburg)) by Julie E. Neraas (ISBN.
Are there differences in the way Catholic and Protestant filmmakers ply their trade? In short, what difference has the Reformation made in the movies? This study is not an attempt to catalog or discuss the different ways that the Reformation has shown up in the subject matter of films. What I explore is how the theologies of Protestant and Catholic filmmakers show up in their films, regardless of the subject matter of the films.
Using the concept of the dialectical versus the analogical imagination expounded by both Andrew Greeley and David Tracy, I will explore how the underlying differences between the ways that Catholics and Protestants tend to view the world show up as tendencies in their films. Various modern era filmmakers, both Catholic and Protestant, will be examined through the lenses of sacred space, sacramentality, the communion of saints, and salvation.
How can West think that he is a God, yet at the same time hold dear to the Christian faith and its values? Rather, they carry not only an earthly weight but also a spiritual one too, which will be the specific aim of the essay. Reviewing the Bible and Its Relation to Learning Though perhaps a bit unorthodox, we are proposing a full session of short papers and ensuing discussion around a central theme, namely: Said another way, the Bible sheds light on life; it shows us the way. It is simply to consider ways in which the Bible is a source of direction and understanding and discernment for all things.
More specifically, we will do the following: First, Nathan Alleman will serve as the moderator of the session. He will introduce it and its participants to the audience and facilitate the conversation after all of the presentations have concluded. Second, Don Opitz will briefly outline a biblical hermeneutic that underlies our approach. More specifically, he will summarize the redemptive-historic method for understanding the Bible. Further, he will explain ways in which this method informs relating the scriptural narrative of creation-fall-redemption-consummation to all areas of life.
He will utilize authors such as Geerhardus Vos, Richard Gaffin, Craig Bartholew, Nancy Pearcey, and Michael Goheen as scaffolding for this important interpretive method, particularly many in the Christian academy may not be familiar with its contours. A Diagnosis of Western Culture, describes the norming power of the scriptures for economic life.
His work has been utilized in various ways. This book was published in and was based on lectures given by Runner some ten years previous. Rather, he suggests that the Word of God gives light to all areas of life, including learning, and this book represents his apologia for explaining why and how. While the liberal ideal has often been championed by the Western Church, it is a system largely founded on a rights-based philosophical perspective that is, at root, atomistic and individualistic.
Martel will examine critiques of the Social Contract theory as expressed by philosophers Herman Dooyeweerd and Charles Taylor, and propose the possibility of the biblical concept of covenant as a faithful response for political life. The Word as Ward in the World: It is a brilliant book tracing the central thesis of repentance from Luther's 95 Theses to current concerns.
While Marty gives insight into the continued relevance of Reforming strategies, still it seems unlikely that one day brought about the many later changes. Though Luther is treated as a rebel with a cause, his later On Temporal Authority, some regard as a way of placating tyrants. What is overlooked are Luther's revolutionary insights emerging from his translation of and prefaces to his vernacular Bible. The stances there taken promise a justification for civil resistance.
No group understood this better than the Huguenots of southern France. Here, a text by a lesser-known Reformer, Theodore Beza, provides a pivotal base for biblical arguments for resistance to a tyrannical government and church. So to invert Marty's point -- no single day changed the world, but a culmination of events brought about a changed point of view, a 'repenting' from old to new ways of thinking about the believer and the state.
So after Luther and Beza, we see the Bible as forming a new genre, a revolutionary text at the foundation of a Christian populist humanism, grounded in moral conscience. The Huguenots took upon themselves this new subversive power of defying tyrants by translating, printing, and interpreting the Bible in light of their conscience.
Hence, building pulpits for preaching this Word out of native chestnut, but concealed in wine casks, while also constructing beauty in old caves to worship brought in a new aesthetic. The Word became a Ward in the world. Protestantism, With and Without Reformation: Dietrich Bonhoeffer on the Contested Legacy of the Reformation Though no one appreciated their Reformation heritage more than Dietrich Bonhoeffer, he did not hesitate to critique the consequences, many unintended, of the various Protestant movements of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
He found wanting both cultural Protestantism in Europe, for which the collusion of the German Christian Church Movement with National Socialism was but an extreme expression, and American civil religion, which touted the new ecclesial structures of congregation and denomination as a providential match for the new republic Pro Ecclesia, Pro Texana!
Churches on both sides of the Atlantic, in exchange for their birthright in Christ, had assumed the identities of the various nation-states they occupied. With respect to civil religion in the United States, which he had encountered during his extended time in this country, Bonhoeffer stated that a cursory examination of church bulletins in New York would amply show "the complete collapse of the church into the world.
Freedom was no longer the gift of God, the fruit of our participation in the life, liturgy, and witness of the body of Christ.
Early Anabaptist communities were deeply shaped by the Reformation's recovery of biblical knowledge and obedience and by what Robert Kolb calls the "the divine communication" and "re-creative promise" of the enduring Word of God proclaimed by Martin Luther. Recent biblical scholars and theologians have noted some unsatisfactory ways of using the Bible—the Bible as a theological compilation, the Bible solely as object for close textual criticism, or the Bible as grab-bag full of bits of personal guidance and encouragement. Others may imagine that the Reformation did not produce enough notable art to warrant a full chapter in a survey text. Educational reformers promoted the new scientific method by citing its more theologically appropriate grounding and ability to demonstrate God's wisdom and power in creating and maintaining the intricate an orderly world. The Word became a Ward in the world.
In its place a secularized notion of "religious liberty" was installed as the presupposition of faith, creating in the process an ecclesiastical version of cheap grace. As with every exercise of paternalism, the political asylum offered by the state comes with conditions attached, the most important of which is that faith is free precisely to the extent that it is consistent with the aims of the state. According to this implicit concordat, the church is strictly a "religious" entity and therefore must concern itself solely with private matters of the soul essentially unconnected to the concerns of the public square.
What Christianity and the other traditions must accept in exchange, said Bonhoeffer, is that the "yearning to decide for the truth against its distortion" must remain unfulfilled, sacrificed for all practical purposes to the needs of the nation. Acceptance of asylum thus entailed "this strange relativization of the question of truth in the thinking and action of American Christendom. The cost to the church of complicity with the politics of civility has been considerable. Nowhere is the moral failure that accompanies the abandonment of the quest for truth more apparent than in the construction of race in this country.
Walker Percy observes that though Americans have perhaps "done righter [sic] than any other great power in history," in "the place which hurts the most and where charity was most needed, they have not done right. The Reformation in the Reformatory: The prison also hosts one of the first seminary programs for incarcerated students and the only such program that graduates its students into inmate-led churches as ministers. Over two-dozen inmate congregations, led primarily by seminary graduates, operate at Angola, as the prison is commonly called. The gates to the respective chapels bear plain crosses on the one hand and crucifixes on the other.
Seminary students and graduates include not only Baptists and Catholics but also Christians from a host of other denominations, Muslims, and those of no religious preference. Within an environment where security is paramount, these students must by necessity learn to navigate theological differences with peace and mutual respect.
Responsible ecumenical dialogue begins within the seminary, where veteran instructors both exhort and model irenic conviction to their students beginning during the admissions process and continuing throughout the degree. Graduate inmate ministers continue this practice, frequently collaborating in ministry with colleagues from other traditions with whom they bonded as fellow students and modeling ecumenism to their congregations.
At the root of this cooperation is a shared commitment to the Bible that transcends traditional ecclesial divides. Theological Interpretation of Scripture in Conflict and Consonance with the Legacy of the Reformation In recent decades, both evangelical and Catholic scholars have contributed to a more or less concerted effort to move constructively out from under the hegemony of critical approaches to biblical interpretation. She considers hope's relationship with faith, the human imagination, and community; d With emphasis on its spiritual and religious dimensions, Apprenticed to Hope: She considers hope's relationship with faith, the human imagination, and community; distinguishes authentic hope from optimism and false hope, and draws upon her own experience with chronic illness, as well as what she has learned from places where hope is tested.
Additionally, she addresses contemporary questions about where we can look for sources of hope in turbulent times. Paperback , pages. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Apprenticed to Hope , please sign up. Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Joan Mitchell rated it it was amazing Feb 27, Anne rated it liked it Apr 14, Paula rated it liked it Mar 11, Allison rated it really liked it Aug 29, Debra marked it as to-read Apr 06, Carol marked it as to-read Dec 04, Polly added it Jul 08, Bill added it Dec 31, Carina marked it as to-read Dec 13,