Yzabel is sent away and further meetings of the lady of Faiel with the chatelain are made impossible. Now follows a series of stealthy visits in which Gobert, a faithful squire of the chatelain, who is able to play a double ' L'Histoire du Chatelain de Coucy et de la Dame de Fayel. I have in preparation a new edition of the poem which I hope to finish in the near future. The chatelain first takes cruel revenge upon the jealous lady who had betrayed his secret. Then during an absence of the husband, Gobert brings him to the castle of Faiel under the disguise of a knight wounded in a tourna- ment.
This is followed by a pilgrimage to Saint-Maur-des- Fosses, which the lady is forced to undertake in the company of her husband. Passing thru a ford before a mill, she lets herself fall into the water and then enters the mill where the chatelain is waiting for her, while a servant is sent to fetch dry clothing. The husband, thoroly aroused, now announces his inten- tion to join the crusade and take his wife along, fully confi- dent that the chatelain would be informed of this plan and take the cross at the same time.
Soon afterwards the chatelain comes to the castle disguised as a traveling merchant. He is told of the husband's decision, and in consequence he goes to England and joins the army of Eichard. So soon, however, as the husband learns that his ruse has been successful, he refuses to take the cross. These incidents are followed by the account of the crusade and the chatelain's death.
After an absence of two years, he is wounded during a battle by a poisoned arrow. The wound does not heal, and, desirous of seeing his lady again, he embarks to return to France. During the journey he grows worse, and, feeling death approaching, he commands Gobert to cut his heart from his body after his death, and to carry it in a box to the lady of Faiel, together with a letter which he dictates to a clerc and the braid of hair.
Then he dies and is buried at Brindisi. The squire continues the journey. He draws from Gobert the news of the chatelain's death, learns the contents of the box, takes it from him, and drives him away. Then he returns to the castle and com- mands his cook to prepare the heart for his lady's dinner. She lauds the taste of the dish, is told its nature, and is shown the box with the braid of hair and the letter.
Saying that she will touch no other food after such a delicious meal, she swoons and dies. Fearful of the consequences of his action, the husband causes her to be buried with honors, but the lady's family suspects him of having caused her death, and he is forced to leave the country. He goes to the Holy Land, whence he returns after a long interval, and soon thereafter dies.
A story closely similar in form was printed by Fauchet, 11 who drew his version from a Chronique in his possession, now the property of the Bibliotlieque Nationale. Paris, iv, p. Chronique de France allant jusqu'au regne de Charles VI L'auteur a fait beaucoup d'emprunts aux anciens romans francais.
On lit en effet au fol. Daguesseau, chancelier de France, une copie de cette chronique faite vers l'an It is to the point to em- phasize here the fact that the marginal notes to be spoken of later are not the work of Fauchet, but were written by this unknown hand, apparently in the eighteenth century.
It has been copied several times from the book in question, the last time, so far as I know, by F. Ce che- valier fut moult amoureux d'unne dame du pays qui estoit femme du seigneur de Faiel. Moult orent de paine et travail pour leurs amours, ce chastelain de Coucy et la dame de Faiel si comme l'istoire, le raconte qui parle de leur vie dont il y a Romant propre. Or advint que quant les voyages d'oultre- mer se firent, dont il est parle cy dessus, que les roys de France et d'Angleterre y furent, le chastelain de Coucy y fut pour ce qu'il exercitoit voulentiers les armes.
La dame de Faiel, quant elle sceut qu'il s'en devoit aler, fist ung las de soye moult bel et bien fait, et y avoit de ses cheveux ouvrez parmi la soye dont l'euvre sembloit moult belle et riche, dont il lyoit ung bourrelet moult riche par dessus son heaulme et avoit loinz pendans par derriere a gros boutons de perles. Le chastelain ala oultremer a grant regret de laissier sa dame par dessa. Quant' il fut oultre il fist moult de chevaleries, car il estoit vaillant chevalier et avoit grant joye que on rapportast par dessa nouvelles de ses fais, affin que sa dame y print plaisir.
Sy advint que a ung siege que les chrestiens tenoyent devant sarrazins oultre [f. Sy avoit a sa mort moult grant regret a sa dame, et pour ce apela ung sien escuyer et lui dist: Quant le chevalier fut mort ainsy le fit l'escuyer et prist Pescriniet et luy ovri le corps et prist le cueur, et sala et confit bien en bonnes espices, et mist en Pescrinet avecques le las de ses cheveulx et ung petit escrinet ou il avoit pluysieurs aneles et dyamans que la dame luy avoit donnez, 15 et avecques unes lettres moult piteuses que le chastelain avoit escriptes a sa mort et signees de sa main.
Quant l'escuyer fut retourne en France il vint vers le lieu ou la dame demouroit, et se bouta en ung boys pres de ce lieu et luy mesavint tellement qu'il fut veu du seigneur de Faiel qui bien le congneut. Sy vint le seigneur de 16 Fayel atout deux de ses privez en ce boys et trouva cest escuyer auquel il voult courir sus ou despit de son maistre qu'il haioit plus que homme du monde. L'escuyer luy crya mercy, et le chevalier luy dist: Et pour ce qu'il ne Pen vouloit croire et avoit cest escuyer paour de morir il luy moustra Pescrinet pour Pen faire certain.
Le seigneur de 17 Eayel print Pescrinet et donna conge a l'escuyer. Et le seigneur vint a son queux et luy dist qu'il mist ce cueur en si bonne manyere et Pappar-ellast 18 en telle confiture que on en peut bien menger. Li queulx le fist et fist d'aultre viande 19 toute parelle et mist en bonne charpie en ung plat, et en fut la dame servie au disner, et le seigneur mengoit d'une autre viande qui luy ressembloit, et ainsy menga la dame le cueur du chastelain son amy.
Quant elle ot menge le seigneur luy demanda: Et le seigneur luy dist dere- chef: Et il luy dist: Mais encore ne peust elle croire ceste chose jusques a 21 ce que le seigneur luy bailla l'escrinet et les lettres, en quant elle vit les choses qui estoient dedens l'escrin, elle les cong- neut, si commenga a lire les lettres. Quant elle congneut son signe manuel et les ensengnes, adont commence fort a changer et avoir couleur et puis commenga forment a penser, et quant elle ot pense elle dit a son seigneur: Et vous m'avez fait menger son cueur, et est la derniere viande que je mengeray 22 oncques, ne oncques je ne menjay point de si noble ne de si gentil viande.
Sy n'est pas raison que apres si gentil viande je doye en mettre aultre dessus, et vous jure par ma foy que jamais je ne mengeray d'aultre viande apres ceste cy. Et en celle doleur a grant regret et complaintes de la mort de son amy fina sa vie et mourut. De ceste chose fut le seigneur de Fayel courouce, mais il n'y peut mettre remede, ne homme ne femme du monde. Ceste chose fut sceu par tout le pays et en ot grant guerre le seig- neur de Fayel aux amis de sa femme tant qu'il convint que la chose fut rapaisee du roy et des barons du pays. Ainsy finerent les amours du chastelain du Coucy et de la dame de Fayel.
This Chronique has so far not received the attention which " MS. Beschnidt examined it rapidly in his dissertation, Die Biographie des Trobadors Guillem de Capestaing, 2Z and came to the conclusion 24 that it is based partly on our roman d'aventure and partly on what was probably a Latin account of the story, and at the same time the real source of the Old French poem and the Provencal biography. Gaston Paris 25 rejected this theory and returned to the older belief that the Chronique represents nothing but a brief digest of the Old French poem.
Patzig 20 examined it somewhat more carefully and noted some of its most striking features, but he did not go into the question at sufficient length, and in the end he accepted an explanation but slightly different from that proposed by Beschnidt. The initial difficulty of the problem lies in the clause of the Chronique: Together with others, both Be- schnidt and Patzig believed that the histoire and the romant propre are two different texts which the author of the Chronique combined.
Yet it is evident that such a method would presuppose a critical attitude scarcely to be expected on the part of its author. We are ready, therefore, to accept the interpretation of the clause given by Gaston Paris: To meet this difficulty, the claim might be ad- vanced that another version of our story must have existed, also in the form of a roman d'aventure, as for example is true of Tristan or Floire et Blancheflor. There would be no way of substantiating this claim, but in support of it atten- tion might be called to the marginal notes of the Chronique added by the unidentified eighteenth century hand: Histoire n Marburg, While the former is the constant marginal note describing the contents, the latter is plainly intended as the title of the romant propre.
Is the form of this title the invention of the un- known annotator, or does it belong to a manuscript or version of the story which he knew? If the second of these possi- bilities were correct, then we should have here evidence of the fact that as late as the eighteenth century there existed some version or manuscript with a title differing from those known at present. Crapelet's manuscript bears the super- scription: Ci commence li Roumans dou chastelain de Couci et de la dame du Faiiel; the other available manuscript reads: Ch'est li romans du castelain de Couci; a third, cited by Cra- pelet, p.
Moreover, the assumption of a second version of our story is unnecessary, and the relation of the roman oVaventure and the Chronique finds a satisfactory explanation along another road. Let us first compare the two versions and note the differences. The Chronique knows nothing of the hero's profession as trouvere. Eegnault de Coucy is a moult gentil gallart preux chevalier en armes. He joins the crusade of Philippe and Kichard of his own accord, pour ce qu'il exercitoit voulentiers les armes.
The keepsake which the lady of Faiel gives him is not a braid of her hair, but ung las de soye moult bel et bien fait, et y avoit de ses cheveux ouvrez parmi la soye. In the Holy Land the chatelain is spurred on to deeds of valor by "Cf. The arrow which wounds him is not poisoned, and his death apparently occurs on land, or at least no mention is made of any preparations for the home- ward journey.
Together with his heart, and the las que la dame avoit fait de ses pheveulx, he sends to her plusieurs aneles et dynamans que le dame lui avoit donnez. The letter which accompanies these gifts was written and signed by the chatelain himself before his death. The squire meets the husband, accompanied by two of his men. When the dreadful meal has been eaten, the lady lauds its taste, not of her own impulse, as in the roman, but in answer to the question of her husband.
When she realizes what has happened she does not swoon, as in the poem, but she goes to her room, faisant moult grant douleur. Et en celle doleur And, finally, when the deed becomes known, the family of the lady makes war upon the seigneur de Fayel. These differences are fundamental and remain unexplained on the assumption that the author of the Chronique made a careless rendering of the poem.
How could he forget that the hero was known in Palestine as Li chevaliers as grans proueces Qui sus son elme porte treces Crapelet, that he was sent on the crusade thru a ruse of the husband, that he was wounded by a poisoned arrow, and that he died on the ship during his return journey? We have definite evidence here of the existence of another version of the chate- lain de Coucy story, and in addition we may unquestionably conclude that it was older than and independent of the roman d'aventure, for the literary form of this poem would have prevented the fabrication of a new version differing from it in important and fundamental details.
There is further evidence that this older form of the story stood in close relation to the Provencal Biography, for there also the 12 MATZKE [12 cruel husband is punished by the relatives of his wife. Since a closely similar ending is found also in the Indian version published by Swynnerton, its reappearance here cannot be due to accident. The evidence brought forward here necessitates a read- justment of all the facts accepted so far with reference to the source and composition of the poem of Jakemon Maket. The roman calls him Kenault, and Gaston Paris 29 accepted this as the name of the trouvere.
Believing further that Maket was the first to connect the story with the chatelain, he saw the initial reason for it in the tone of the Chatelain de Couci's poem beginning A vous, amant, plus qu'a nule autre gent, which Maket cites. Maket's identification appeared, therefore, to be a mistake, and Fath saw its explanation in the fact that manu- scripts containing the chatelain's songs always refer to him simply as the Chatelain de Couci.
Living in Vermandois during the second half of the thirteenth century, our author knew at least two chatelains of Couci by the name of Eenaut, and he might easily have inferred that the trouvere bore the same name. It is interesting in this connection to point out a threefold mention of a person or persons of this name, of course not our author, in Tournai toward the end of the thirteenth century: The Chronique also calls the hero Renaut, and this fact makes it extremely likely that this name existed already in the earlier and simpler version from which the Chronique derives.
To be sure this text is late and the great popularity of Maket's poem might have influenced its author, just as it caused this same name to be introduced into at least one of the lyric manuscripts, Brit. Egerton, There is, however, no reason to think that this was the case here, for the whole story in the Chronique is told in a straightforward manner without any evidence of addi- tions or changes, and the hero is described as ' ung aultre 32 moult gentil gallart preux chevalier en amies qui s'apeloit Regnault de Coucy, et estoit chastelain de Coucy.
If the author had intended to describe his hero in the light of Maket's poem, he would have called Renaut a trouvere. The omission of this detail is reasonable before, but not after, the composition of the roman d'aventure. It follows, then, that the confusion of names is not due to Maket, and that the earlier version also called the hero Renaut, chdtelain de Couci, but it would be wrong to infer further that the hero was some other chatelain de Couci and not the famous trouvere.
When the name of a poet had once been introduced into the story in Provence, it was natural that in a different region another poet should be similarly treated. The reasons why Guillem de Cabestaing was singled out in the first place are beyond our reach. Perhaps the name of the hero in the lost Provengal version, from which the Biography derives and of which we have an imperfect echo in the Guardastagno of Boccaccio, gave the impetus.
Carried "See Fath, op. Why he should have been selected remains equally obscure. His songs are in many respects not very different from hundreds of other lyrics of the period. Yet there is in several of them a note of reality, a certain definiteness of situation, which create the impression that they are based on more than mere commonplaces of lyric composition. At any rate the Chatelain de Couci was looked upon as one of the serious lovers of his profession. He had been a member of the fourth crusade, had made the pain of parting from his lady the subject of his song, had celebrated the fact that his heart was left behind with his love, had died during the journey, and had been buried at sea.
We may also imagine that, in accord with a frequent custom of the period, his heart had been cut from his body by his attendants and brought back to his native land for burial. All these facts must have been active in attracting the story to him. His name was in reality Gui, but he was commonly known rather by the office which he held, an office hereditary in his family. Thus the Chatelain de Couci became the hero of a new form of our story, and a name which was probably frequent in this well-known family was attributed to him.
In this effort to trace the road over which the tradition traveled before it found a literary form in the poem of Jake- mon Maket, we must not be misled by the story as this author tells it. He made numerous additions to the plot, added the lyrics, following the fashion set by the author of Guillaume de Dole, and in a general way elaborated the trouvere side of his hero, but his source as such was probably closely similar to the form of the story preserved for us in the Chronique. What the nature of this source was must remain a mere matter of surmise.
It may be that it had already been utilized for some earlier roman d'aventure, of which the much discussed lay of Guirun might be an evidence. The whole new setting of the story is due to the change of hero, who, tho a poet, joins the crusade in his capacity as knight and dies duriDg his absence from home. This point of view allows us to estimate more accurately than has been possible heretofore the methods followed by Jakemon Maket in the composition of his poem. It explains in the first place why the character of the hero as a knight appears so prominently in the poem.
The poet attracted the story, but this side of him remained undeveloped in the earlier version. Maket decided to give it prominence, but he failed to work his additions into an integral part of the whole picture. His hero wins the love of his lady thru his prowess in tournaments and jousts, in fact he frequents these gather- ings so that the report of his valor may come to the ears of the lady of Faiel, just as in the Chronique the chatelain hopes that she may hear of his deeds during the crusade.
In the next place he weaves into his plot certain charac- teristic themes from the Tristan legend. Yzabel plays the role of Brangien, the husband watches an interview of the chatelain and his wife and is deceived as to the real relation between the two, just as Mark is constantly misled concerning the love of Tristan and Isolt.
He introduces a series of stealthy interviews in which the chatelain meets the lady in disguise, as Tristan meets Isolt, and for one of these scenes he utilizes a theme which he probably knew from the Eracle of Gautier d' Arras. Finally, he draws on the Tristan legend for the ruse which the husband employs to induce the chate- lain to take the cross. The Chronique states that the hero joined the crusade because of his love of warfare. He intro- duced the lyrics as already indicated, and developed to the full the poetic significance of the lyric commonplace of the lover's heart, which Chrestien had combatted in his Cliges.
Certain other borrowings have been indicated by Grober. As far as I can see, it is in entire harmony with the history of the legend as a whole. But space forbids me to go into the subject here more at length. A full treatment of the whole question must be deferred for another occasion. The German poem relates the following story. A knight and a lady love each other, but they can not meet as they wish because the lady is jealously guarded by her husband, especially when he begins to suspect her passion.
To win her back and to make the two lovers forget each other, he decides to take her with him on a journey to the Holy Land. When the knight hears of this plan he decides at once to follow them; and the lady is much pleased with this decision. She even advises him to begin this journey at once, so that the husband, when he hears of it, may lose his suspicion and leave her at home.
The knight agrees to her wish, accepts a ring from her as a keep- sake, and parts from her with a heavy heart and sad forebodings. He goes across the sea and lives there, lonesome and shunning all amusements, in the hope of seeing his lady again. In the end his grief grows so strong that he feels his death approaching.
He commands his squire to cut his heart from his body after his death, to place it in a golden box together with the ring of his lady, and to carry it to her. Then he dies and the squire executes his com- mands. When he comes near the lady's castle, he meets the husband, out with his falcons. A portion of the larger study to which he referred supra, p. The squire tries to avoid giving an answer, the knight then forces him to give it up, and, when he has seen the objects it contains, at once guesses their destination.
He sends the squire on his way with threats, returns home, gives the heart to the cook and orders him to prepare it for the table. Then he sits down to eat with his wife, and offers her the dish which he says was prepared only for her. She eats it, not suspecting its nature, and, thinking that she has never eaten finer food, asks what its nature is. The husband shows her the ring, and tells her what she has eaten and how he has gained possession of the heart.
The lady falls into a swoon, exclaiming that after such a delicious dish God forbid that she should take any food. And thereupon her grief becomes so violent that she clasps her hands in despair and her heart bursts. It is evident that this poem cannot derive from the poem of Jakemon Maket. The reasons which militate against this belief are clearly stated by Gaston Paris.
On the other hand, the general framework of the German poem is closely similar to that of the two French versions. The journey to the Holy Land, the lover's death in that part of the world, the function of the squire in the story, and the method by which the husband obtains possession of the heart, all these are elements which are not likely to have been added to the story at different times, independently of each other. The German poem must be related to the French version. But the evidence at hand is not sufficient to allow us to solve the problem.
Certainly no conclusions should be drawn from an argument ex silentio. Konrad von Wiirzburg may not have known that Renaut, Chatelain de Couci, was a trouvfere, if that name stood in his source, for this fact is not stated in the Chronique. He may have misunderstood the references to the crusades, or they may not have interested him, and he may have preferred to treat this portion of his source in his own way. We are thus forced to look upon the German poem as an inde- pendent offspring of the source of Jakemon Maket and the Chronique, where the transmission has become altered, either because inter- vening links are lost or because the German author treated his material freely.
The fourth member in this group is an exemplum cited in a "Ro. For the sake of completeness we print the Short text anew. Comparison with our abstract of the German poem will make it clear that it is closely related to it, and, considering its date, we are inclined to look upon it as a derivative of this poem rather than its source. Quidam miles turpiter adamavit uxorem alterius militis.
Con- tigit autem ipsum mare transire; cumque ibi infirmaretur et morti appropinquaret, ita fatuus erat et ita excecatus amore mulieris quod nee communicare nee confiteri voluit. Preeepit autem servo suo ut eo mortuo cor suum amice sue in pixide portaret; quod cum fecisset et reversus vellet intrare castrum illius domine, occurrit ei vir ejus et quesivit ab eo quid de transmarinis partibus portaret; et cum nihil responderet coegit eum ut diceret; et accipiens cor istud conditum in pixide et bene coctum dedit uxori sue ut comederet. Cumque comedisset quesivit de domina dicens: Dilexisti etiam ilium militem qui mare transivit.
Et ilia rubedine perfusa loqui non aude- bat. Sciatis, domina, quod cor dilecti vestri vobis de transmarinis partibus missum comedistis. Et certe ego post ilium cibum nunquam alium cibum comedam. Ecce quomodo luxuria istos duos fatuos fecit et excecavit. The relation established so far is the following: X 1 1 lian 1 Provencal lost 1 Bocc. Nitze Crestien de Troyes and Wolfram von Eschenbach agree, as compared with the other grail romances, in describing more or less precisely the external setting in which the ceremony of the grail takes place.
More than any of their contempo- raries to , they give to it a local habitation and a name, the remoteness and unfamiliarity of which must have excited the wonder, and stimulated the imagination, of those who came after them. Thus in the Titurel of Albrecht von Scharfenberg, composed during the latter part of the thirteenth century, the temple of the grail is a church of matchless splendor, the architectural ideal of a mystical Christian brotherhood.
Zarncke, Der Graltempel, Sachs. Weston, Sir Perceval, II, pp. But it is Lancelot not Gawain, who meets the fishermen. The Crone, replete as it is otherwise with valuable information especially on the grail, contains no evidence of importance 5 on our subject. Thus the grail castle descriptions of Crestien and Wolfram are distinct in character, and have a marked resemblance to each other. It would be folly to attempt to decide a priori their immediate relationship. So much only is certain that here Wolfram is either following the French poet with seme elaboration, or else he is using a source close to Crestien's.
For the moment it matters little which view we prefer since the ultimate origin of both accounts must be the same. But from what we now know of Crestien's methods in other cases; that is, his characteristic habit of retaining in his story marked details of his original, regardless often of their relevancy to the feudal conditions he describes, we may as- sume that here, too, he drew on a definite source. It is more than probable that the latter was identical with the livre given him by Philip of Flanders: Dirre wlte und lange sal Wart vol von in liberal Und die tische bevangen.
Die kerzen und kerzstal Truogen vil ane zal Daz machte den sal als6 lieht, Daz man mochte vervahen nieht, Ob ez tac oder naht waere. Der wirth saz under den drin Den sal urribe und unibe urrib in Die andern besazen; Mit einander da azen Ein ritter und eine vrouwe ie. I propose to discuss in the following pages the bearing of this analogue on the origin of the grail question. Before doing so, it will be necessary to outline in detail Crestien's and Wolfram's respective descriptions of the grail castle.
Baist is inclined to think see Parzival u. This seems to me possible, if it can be shown, as I believe it can, that the grail ceremony is an " initiation. This fact in itself would explain the emphasis he places on questions of conduct, see my Fountain Defended, in Mod. Crestien likens the theme to a quest of Fortune cf.
His relationship to the mediaeval learning should be investigated. Further, compare the instructions given by Gornemanz, w. Of the value of this version Baist says: Ganzen, aber doch nicht mit der wunschenswerten absoluten Genauigkeit wiedergiebt. Presently, however, he perceives nearby a an un val Le chief d'une tor qui parut; L'an ne trovast jusqu' a Barut Si bele ne si bien asise. Quarree fu de pierre bise, Si auoit [deus] torneles antor, La sale fu devant la tor E les loges devant la sale. When he has ridden thither, dismounted, and put on a " mantel d'escarlate," the host despatches two squires to greet him in the loges.
E cil avoec ax s'an ala 6 An la sale qui fu quarree E autant longue come lee; Enmi la sale sor un lit , Un bel prodome seoir vit Que estoit de chenez meslez E ses chies fu anchapelez D'un sebelin noir come more; A une porpre vox desore E d'itel fu sa robe tote, Apoiez fu desor son cote. Et li rois Peschieres gisoit an un lit cordeiz dont li quepou estoient d'ivoire, et avoit une coute de paille sor quoi il gisoit et par desus I couvertoir de sable, dont li dras estoit mout riches. Et avoit un chapel de sebelin an son chief, couvert d'un vermeil samiz de soie, et une croiz d'or; et avoit desouz son chief i oreiller qui touz estoit anbaumez, et avoit an mi cornez de l'orillier mi pierres qui ran- doient mout grant clart6; et avoit I piler de coivre sor quoi i aigle seoit qui tenoit une croiz d'or.
Les colomes forz i estoient, Qui le cheminal sostenoient, ; D'arain espes e haut e The host invites Perceval to sit beside him: Li vaslez est lez lui asis. Then the sword is presented ; la sore pucele Vostre niece qui tant est bele Vos anvoie ci cest present. Perceval finally hands it to un bacheler Antor le feu qui cler ardoit. The light there is Si grant com l'an le porroit faire De chandoiles an un ostel. Then the lance and the grail are brought forth. From the latter there streams so great a brilliancy e [Qu'] ausi perdirent les chandoiles Lor clarte" come les estoiles Quant li solauz lieve e la lune.
De fin or esmere" estoit; Pierres precieuses auoit El graal de maintes menieres, Des plus riches e des plus chieres Qui an mer ne an terre soient. This is placed on deus eschaces, Don li fuz a deus bones graces Don les eschaces fetes furent, Que les pieces toz jorz andurent, Don furent eles d'ebenus.
De celui fust ne dot ja nus Que il porrisse ne qu'il arde; De ces deus choses n'a il garde. As each dish is served the grail passes Par devant lui tot descovert. Li mangiers fu e biax e buens; De tel mangier que rois e cuens E empereres doie avoir Fu li prodom serviz le soir, E li vaslez ansanble lui. The entrance Vuis to the hall, however, is open; and passing out, he discovers at the foot of the steps his horse saddled and his lance and shield in readiness for him. According to the Parzival 10 v , P. Unless the enemy came flying or were blown in by the wind, it could not be stormed — so round and smooth the castle was built.
This feature of the castle suggests Chaucer's Hous of Fame, w. For the latest and fullest treatment, see W. The following features are of interest here: The Hous of Fame, v. Al was of stone of beryle, Bothe castel and the tour; and within the hall, Not far away, in a valley, is the House of Tidings there are often two castles in otherworld adventures, a typical example is the Bel Inconnu, ed. An hous, that Domus Dedali, That Laborintus cleped is, Nas maad so wonderliche, y-wis, No half so queynteliche y-wrought.
And ever-mo, so swift as thought, This quentye hous aboute wente, That never-mo hit stille stente. A " turning " castle is frequent in the romances, see Perlesvaus, Pot. I, Sypherd also mentions, p. Studien, xxxvi, ff. The chief Irish parallels are: For other analogues in folklore and story, see Sy- pherd, pp.
On Lajamon's reference, w. Thereupon he is invited into the presence of the host. The host has himself placed gein der mitteln fiwerstat uf ein spanbette. The fire had been made because of the host's illness; to keep warm he also wore a sable fur, with a mantle over it; of sable too was his cap upon which shone ein durchliuhtic rubin. But Lajamon's point is that the circular seat- ing places the knights on a plane of equality; cf.
Brown, Harvard Studies and Notes, vn, Martin, 11, ] Eepanse de Schoye places the grail. Tables are set before the knights in the hall: The grail provides whatever food is desired: Carbunculus, qui Grceca antrax et a nonnullis rubinus voca- tur. Tanta est namque claritas, ut nichil tam exiguum tarn subtile possit excogitari, si in pavimento esset, quin posset intueri. Also, Roman de Thebes, ed. Meyer, Girart de Roussillon, Paris, , p. Crestien says of Fenice's beauty in Cliges, w. Et la luors de sa Haute 1 Rant el pales plus grant clarte" Ne feissent quatre escharboucle.
The sword presentation then follows: He calls but receives no answer; at the steps his horse awaits him. As he rides forth the drawbridge is raised by an unseen hand and a squire shouts a reproach after him. Si lebent von einem steine: I, 75, the sword is as clere comme une esmeraude et autresint vert, cf. Perhaps Wolfram has in mind a frequent otherworld trait; cf. AussitOt qu' ils furent au lit, il lui tourna le dos et resta le visage fixe" vers le bords du lit, sans lui dire un seul mot jusqu' au matin.
Architecturally the most striking feature in the above de- scriptions is the fireplace 19 or fireplaces c , for in Wolfram by Martin n, Variants of lapsit are lapis and iaspis; on the latter see also the Younger Titurel, str. Ome maintient bien e conforte; E ki la garde chastement Mult li fist grant seiirement. Les colomes forz i estoient Qui le cheminal sostenoient D' arain espes e haut e The last line I take to refer to colomes.
The word cheminal is not given in Baist's glossary; but Godefroy gives chenet as its meaning. Are we then to suppose that it was a kind of landier, of the primitive type mentioned by R. In England ist er, wie in alien Kaminlandern meist dreibeinig. Er kommt aber auch vierbeinig vor, wie z.
Dieser Feuerbock steht auch keineswegs in einem Kamine, sondern auf den Fliesen, auf einem mit Steinen umstellten Platze, in der Mitte der Halle. Nach seiner Grosse zu urteilen, konnte man auf ihm ein morderisches Feuer entbrennen. The text-commen- tators in general have passed over the matter without remark. Schultz 20 and Heyne, 21 however, were both struck with the incongruity of this feature in a feudal castle of Crestien's or Wolfram's time. Es ist mir zwar kein derartiges Monument bekannt, aber die Beschreibung welche Chrestien de Trois von solchen Kamin entwirft, scheint unzweifelhaft in der von mir versuchten Weise zu erganzen zu sein.
There is, however, an earlier edition of the same, entitled Homes of Other Days, where the fireplace at Penshurst is described p. A glance at this cut will convince anyone that Crestien could not have had a similarly constructed firedog in mind in describing his cheminal supported by 4 columns, d' arain espes e haut e U. The exact form and perhaps the meaning of chemi- nal in this passage I therefore leave to others to explain. In the meantime, we may conclude, I think, that Crestien and Wolfram referred respectively to a primitive fireplace or hearth cf.
I, , ; Horning, ZRP. On Penshurst, see below, note Eschenbach beschreibt, in welchem Aloeholz brennt und vor dessen mittlerer Feuerstall der Wirt selbst auf einem Spann- bett Platz nimmt, das muss dahin gestellt bleiben. Gall preserved in the Vocabu- larius S. Galli of the seventh century 22 is generally cited as an example — a late one — of a hall and house constructed about a central fireplace. Gall came from Ireland and settled in the place which bears his name in , it is probable that the plan outlined in the Vocabularius repre- sents Irish rather than continental traditions.
In any case, it is conceded that long before Crestien's time, the fireplace in continental stone buildings had been moved to the outer wall, where it is regularly found in the feudal castles of the twelfth century. In Arthurian literature the only other clear instance of a fireplace so placed that I have found is in the late fourteenth century Libeaus Desconnus. Henning, Das Deutsche Haus in Quellen u. Viollet-le-Due, Dictionnaire d'architecture, in, ff. Libeaus rides right into the palace, as Yvain does in Crestien's Yvain, w. Foerster's elaborate note is unnecessary the moment we think of the Irish hall, see below.
The pillars and the wall are of jasper and fyn crystall, v. In Syr Gawayne and the Green Knight, ed. Morris, ber fayre fyre vpon net fersly brenned v. Moreover, the castle appears suddenly to Gawain, on Christmas eve, on a mound. But this example is also from an otherworld description in Arthurian literature, and interesting as it is as a piece of tradition, was hardly taken direct 25 from local conditions. Thus we are justified in looking elsewhere for the origin of this curious trait. Now it is well known that the Irish heroic saga always places the fireplace in the center of the hall, which is gener- ally rectangular in shape, though the earlier form was probably circular.
So, Dottin says, 26 "les maisons et les front of the chemne, Mer charcole brenned, v. Beside the host two ladies, the one fair, the other yellow and rough, dwell in the castle, which is " huge " in height, with battlements and watch- towers. See, also, The Turke and Qowin, ed. Penshurst lies in Kent and was presumably built about The hall is known among archi- tects by the fact that its center is occupied by the hearth, " over which there was at an earlier period an opening in the roof, having a small ornamented turret to cover it called a smoke louvre.
A similar louvre is extant in the well-known Abbott's Kitchen, completed in , at Glastonbury. But this is offered only as a suggestion. Likewise, to infer that Crestien and Wolfram had in mind an actual English building hall seems to me unreasonable. M Manuel pour servir a V6tude de Vantiquitd celtique, Paris, , p.
Le feu etait au milieu. II n' y avoit qu' une porte. Les couches etaient tout a l'entour de la chambre, d' un cote de la porte a l'autre. In the fore part of the palace a royal couch was erected for Conchobar high above those of the whole house. It was set with car- buncles and other precious stones which shone with a lustre of gold and silver, radiant with every hue, making night like unto day.
Around it were placed the twelve couches of the twelve heroes of Ulster. Moritz Heyne, Ueber Lage u. Construction der Halle Heerot im angelsach. Beoiculfsliede, Halle, ; G. Studies and Notes, vn, , suggests rightly, I think that the circular seating arrangement in the Irish house " points back to the more primitive round wattle house, being totally unlike the Germanic arrangement. Henderson, Irish Texts Soc. Thurneysen, Sagen aus dem alten Irland, Berlin, , pp.
In these walls, according to the prose accounts, 34 there were twelve or fourteen doors, six or seven 80 On the History and Antiquities of Tara Hill, Trans. Acad, xvin, , p. Ringsum laufen die Pritschen, wie ich das irische Wort " imda " am richtigsten wiederzugeben glaube, wenn auch bei den hier ge- schilderten Prachtexemplaren die der Mitte des Hauses zuge- wendeten Seiten nicht aus Holz, sondern aus Bronze bestehen. Auf sie werden Decken u. Nachts oder bei Krankheit dienen die Pritschen als Betten. Keating, History of Ireland, , p. In it there was a flaming lamp, and it was entered by fourteen doors.
It contained one hundred and fifty beds, besides Cormac's own. One hundred and fifty warriors stood in the king's presence when he sat down to the banquet. There were one hundred and fifty cup-bearers in wait- ing; and the hall was provided with one hundred and fifty jewelled cups of silver and gold. Fifty over one thousand was the number of the entire household. Irish Texts Soc, vin, Three stripes of bronze in the arching of the house, which was of oak, with a covering of shingles an der Stirnseite des Hauses drei Bronzesaulen.
Das Haus selber von Eichenholz, etc. It had twelve win- dows with glass in the openings. The dais of Ailill and of Meve in the centre of the house, with silver frontings and stripes of bronze round it, with a silver wand by the fronting facing Ailill, that would reach the mid " tips " of the house den Querbalken des Hauses so as to check the inmates unceasingly Such was the spaciousness of the house that it had room for the hosts of valiant heroes of the whole province in the suite of Conchobar.
I give Thurneysen's variants in brackets. See also the slightly varying account in Sulli- van, p. Chacun d' eux le saluait en arrivant. La salle fut prgparee; il vit entrer la famille, la suite, la plus belle et la mieux equipee qui se fut jamais vue, et avec eux la reine, la plus belle femme du monde, v6tue d' un habit d' or de paile lustree; apres s' 6tre lav6s, lis se mirent a table: And Conchubar's own room was on the ground, and the walls of it faced with bronze, and silver up above, with gold birds on it, and their heads set with shining carbuncles; and there were nine partitions from the fire to the wall, and thirty feet the height of each parti- tion.
And there was a silver rod before Conchubar with three golden apples on it, and when he shook the rod or struck it, all the house would be silent. One of the essen- tial articles of furniture in the house of a Bo Aire 39 i. In the Mabinogi of Branwen, Loth I, 89, the warriors cast into the cauldron of renovation come forth restored except that they could not speak. So in the Queste, Williams ed. In the circular houses the imdas went around the room from one side of the door to the other.
Their number seems to have depended upon the rank of the owner of the house. In round houses it was apparently behind the fire and fronting the door. The queen occupied a place near the king, the cham- pion's seat was near him also. According to the plans of Tara, two rows of seats occupied the sides of the central passage in which the candelabrum, fire and ale vat were placed. One of these, thinks Sullivan, 42 corresponded " to a lower range of benches, on the level of the fire, upon which sat the Cerds or goldsmiths, the black- smith, shield-maker, and other artificers of the king.
In the famous Brug of Da Derga 43 there were seven doorways but only one door, which was put in the doorway at the side from which the wind blew. The chair in Caer Sidi Skene, I, will have three utterances, around the fire, sung before it.
The arrangement is essentially that described by Posidonius, 46 who states with reference to Celtic feasts: Crestien or the host cf. Wolfram reposes during the night, etc. The objective, material nature of the traits compared strengthens the probability of a definite Celtic source for the Crestien- Wolf ram descriptions; although a Latin inter- mediary in the form of Count Philip's book seems likely.
Grcecorum, Paris, , in, Brown, see note below, cites the Greek text. Studies and Notes, vil, pp. Weston, Melanges Wilmotte, reprint, Paris, The fireplaces are three; the tables are placed before each couch fur werder riter viere so that the general nature of the feast is preserved, while in Crestien only that part of it is mentioned which affects the hero himself; accordingly, too, Wolfram emphasizes the large number of attendants, their gorgeous apparel, etc.
So, also, the emphatic mention he makes of the chandeliers hundert krone may be significant. To assume that his fertile imagination is responsible alone for the above details would imply that the poet had unconsciously created out of Crestien's rationalized version a more primitive Celtic description. Against this we have Wolfram's own assertion as to another more authentic story. To the mediaeval mind history and fable, or let us say tradition, were one and the same thing.
Thus the name Kiot could stand for the various currents of narra- tive, no matter what their origin was, which constituted Wol- fram's literary baggage. Nor should we forget that Wolfram had not enjoyed a school education.
He affirms that he could neither read nor write ; " swaz an den buochen stet geschri- ben," he says, 51 " des bin ich kunstelos " ; what he knew he had gathered by word of mouth. All the more reason, there- 48 Compare these details with those recorded below, p. What- ever our ultimate conclusion may be: The question as to whether or not the ultimate source was Irish seems to depend on the correctness of the theory, ad- vanced by Zimmer and Kuno Meyer, that a pan-Celtic epic never existed, and that such similarities as these are due to borrowing from Irish legendaries.
According to our present knowledge the grail, as such, was unknown to the Irish until relatively late. Helinandus, Migne, ccxii, the text is cited in Nutt, Studies, p. The late Alfred Nutt was the first to see clearly the importance of this evidence for the grail problem. Following in his footsteps I have recently sought to draw closer the kinship between Manannan and the Fisher King. The resemblance between the talismans of the Tuatha De Danaan and those of the grail castle has been elaborated by Brown, 57 whose evi- dence is further strengthened by a comparison of Gerbert's account of the Siege Perilous with the Lia Fail or Stone of Destiny, 58 both of which announce by a cry brait the a foot, Cilorns, or pitchers with handles.
Curns, or horns of ox- horn, were much used for drinking ale — these were frequently mounted in silver and set with gems. The Irish for ' caldron ' is coire; cf. The Siege has been sent to Arthur by the Fee de la Roche Menor, with the request that it be set on the dais at every high feast, and the warning that only the knight who achieves the grail quest can safely occupy it.
Of course Perceval seats himself in it, and at once the earth gives forth a brait, cleaving in all directions about the seat but leaving Perceval unharmed. Keating, History of Ireland, ed. As noticed by Ehrismann, Marchen im hofiscken Epos in Beitrage, xxx , 49, Wolfram's idea tbat the grail cannot be borne by an impure or untruthful person Parz. Perhaps the idea is reflected in Crestien's poem, V. Tant sainte chose est li graax, for physical welfare is dependent on moral strictures. On the question of indebtedness Brugger's observation also is worth considering, Z.
Das Scenario wird wohl nie erfunden. Man entnimmt es entweder dem Leben oder der Ge- schichte oder Saga oder einer andern fast immer einfacheren Erziihlung. Zenker, Die Tristansage u. Moreover, the title roi pecheur as a synonym for Manannan is implied rather than proved by the daminum maris filium maris given the latter in the Yellow Bk. It is noteworthy, too, as Professor Warren has suggested to me, that Gawain never meets the grail-king fishing; so that this incident seems characteristic of the Perceval versions. A striking parallel to the king's lameness and the enchantment of his land, as well as a plausible explanation of the fish which he catches, is offered by the tale of the King of the Black Islands from the Arabian Nights — I owe to Professor Warren's kindly interest the knowledge of this fact.
An outline of the story according to Chauvin, Bibliog. Although near his city, the lake had been unknown to the king. He is the king of the Black Islands, and his lower extremities have been petrified by enchantment. His subjects have been turned into fish. Then he kills her.
As to its form, we should bear in mind Kuno Meyer's remark: Stil dieser Sagen jahrhundert lang fortgepflanzt worden, ehe sie zur Aufzeichnung gelangten, geht u. The cyclic redactions testify rules over the whole land. It requires two incantations p. While one might be tempted to see in the Oriental story the material of Count Philip's Book see above, p.
Thus it would seem that if an Oriental strain be present in Crestien's source at all, it is secondary; that is, due to contact of an Eastern legend with Celtic tradition the Perceval form at a point which we cannot now determine. Our present testimony does not seem to me to admit of any other conclusion. On the fish as a zoomorphic symbol of life, see my article, pp. Thus, while we cannot expect to find the particular version on which Crestien and Wolfram drew, we may at least conjecture what this. Of the various Manannan-otherworld descriptions extant the most typical, especially as to technique, is the oft-men- tioned Serglige Conculaind or Sick Bed of Ciichulinn from the Lebor na h-Uidre.
I hesitate to bring it forward once more. It is, however, so good an example of how the great shapeshifter wins the services of a mortal hero that it may well be taken as a partial prototype of the Perceval quest. Khys 65 has already connected it with Peredur's adventure with the Empress and Owen's visit to the Lady of the Foun- tain, in which connection it has been elaborately treated by Brown in his Yvain study; and Ehrismann is inclined to see in it a source of the Wigalois 66 Guigelain.
Our object thus is to point out a basal type, to which the otherworld visit represented by Crestien's source roughly conformed, rather than a version with which Crestien was actually acquainted. Stokes, Revue Celtique, xxn, pp. Da Derga, it is said, " wore a green cloak and a shirt with a white hood and a red insertion. In his hand was a sword with a hilt of ivory, and he supplies attend- ance of every imda in the house with ale and food, and he is quick- witted in serving the whole host.
The palace lies "over a pure lake," which they cross in a bronze boat. They reach it in the fraction of a minute [see the suddenness with which the grail castle appears in Crestien]. Labraid is called Long-Hair, and there is another king with him in the palace [cf.
Three fifties about each of them Fifty beds on the right side Fifty beds on the left side Front rails to the beds of wood, Their posts of white gilded over. And the light they have Is a precious glittering stone. The rain-storm consequent on the appearance of the grail in some of the romances e. There are three-score trees Their tops barely touching. Three hundred men are nourished by each tree, With fruit manifold, without rind. There is a well in the noble sid, With three fifties, gay mantled; And a brooch of gold, fair in color, In every one of the gay mantles. There is a cask there with joyous mead, Which is distributed to the household.
It continued ever, enduring is the custom, So that it is always constantly full. There is a woman in this noble house; She is superior to the women of Ireland; With golden hair she comes out In her accomplished beauty. Loeg, the charioteer of Cuchulinn, says that had he not withdrawn quickly: They had wounded me so that I had been powerless. The woman whom I speak of there, She robs the hosts of their wits. We have now seen that in every important respect the earliest extant grail quest can be explained on a Celtic, perhaps ultimately an Irish, basis.
I may, therefore, reaffirm positively what I said tentatively in my Fisher King: This question, we are told, relates especially to the Fisher King's father; i. This Crestien undertook to interpret in his customary scholastic manner: As for the destructive effect of the lance, this too was indicated to him, but perhaps by a different source. In the Gawain-section 79 MS. Del sane tot cler que ele plore Ert escrit que il ert ancore Que toz li reaumes de Logres, Qui jadis fu la terre as ogres, Ert destruite par cele lance.
Professor Warren has repeatedly called my attention to the fact, which others seem to have overlooked — including myself — that Gawain never meets a fisherman in a boat, and that, in fact, his chief concern in the story is with the bleeding lance, and not with the grail: Daz sper von gotes tougen Wart grozer tropfen bluotes drl In dem tobliere, der im bl Stuont. This fits in well with my theory of a multiplicity of closely related sources, see above, p. Ferdi- nand Lot's criticism of Miss Weston Bibl. M For the second line Baist gives among the " hergestellte Le- sung ": E s'est escrit qu'il iert tel ore, which must be approximately correct.
Crestien did not rime plore and ancore. Huet has dis- cussed the readings of this passage in Rom. As for the rime Logres: So we may conclude that the sacramental nature of the story was already a part of Crestien's source, remembering, how- ever, that his continuators in some respects had a clearer notion of it than he, and returned to the wellsprings " of which the livre gave only an imperfect synopsis. In the case of Wolfram, however, our discussion has shown that his detailed account of the.
For whether or not, as Heinzel 81 maintained, Wolfram drew on Kiot, and Kiot on Crestien's source — Wolfram's version, as we have seen, is in some respects more chaiacteristically Celtic than that of Crestien. Qu'aussi con por oir les ogres Vont au mostier a feste anvel. Langlois called attention to the poem which follows here, including it in a list of minor satirical works, then unpublished, which seemed to him to deserve the notice of the historian of French society of the thirteenth century.
As to form, the work of Renaud is in no wise remarkable: Qui a lu deux ou trois de ces poemes les connait tous, it is true that there are marked resemblances of tone and expression in the poems of this group. We read, for example, in Renaud's work: Joustise est esclopee et droiz vait a potenees; and, in the Vie du Monde of Rustebuef: Puis que justice cloche et droiz pent et encline. Of the Last Judgment Renaud exclaims, 1 Naetebus's index includes poems in this form, mostly of the thirteenth century.
The Contenz dou Monde, for some reason, was overlooked: Godefroy, who read the poem, usually cites it in this erroneous form, and under the bizarre title, Contempt dou Monde. As to the satirical matter, however, the invectives of Re- naud d'Andon fully meet the requirements so well formulated by M. Finally, it may be stated that Eenaud's work is by no means without linguistic color and interest. We should have found there, no doubt, the needed explanation of the title, which has been gathered from the Explicit.
He shows, in fact, intimate acquaint- ance with both lay and ecclesiastical courts st. I am indebted to M. Joseph Beclier for an excellent photograph of the text. We notice that after an enumeration of various other kinds of sinners, he returns with predilection to the corrupt judges st. At once the messenger of heaven I kenned, And toward my master turned who made a sign That hushed I should remain and lowly bend.
Ah me, how full he looked of scorn divine! He reached the portals ; with a little rod Touched them: What frantic pitch of insolence is this? Why vainly kick against the Will supreme, Whose mighty aim was never known to miss, Who to your pangs adds oft a new extreme? He speaks, and also carries a fairy wand. Thomas Aquinas declares that angels have not by nature bodies united to themselves, but may assume them, as when angels appeared to Lot and the men of Sodom. Thus they may seem to be living bodies but they are not so ; nor do they really speak by means of the assumed body, but it is something like speech in so far as they form sounds in the air like human voices.
Although the angel seemed to fly, yet Dante says nothing about wings. I saw that army of the gentle-born Thereafterward in silence upward gaze As if in expectation, pale and humble ; And from on high come forth and down descend, 1 Summa , Pr. Scartazzini cites Isaiah vi, 2, 3. THE ANGELS 29 I saw two angels with two flaming swords — Truncated and deprived of their points, Green as the little leaflets just now born Their garments were, which by their verdant pinions Beaten and blown abroad, they trailed behind.
One just above us came to take his station, And one descended to the opposite bank, So that the people were contained between them. Clearly in them discerned I the blond head ; But in their faces was the eye bewildered, As faculty confounded by excess.
In the Vita Nnova 2 Dante says that he was busy one day drawing an angel, when he looked up and saw worthy men watching him. After they had gone he returned to his work, that is, of drawing angels. Had they beards or other evidence of sex? We shall never know, and yet it would not be amiss to suppose that they were naive figures, winged fantasies, but far less spiritual than the angels limned with a goose quill on the first manuscript of the Divina Commedia. Minia- turists painted him in as many shapes as tradition sanc- tioned or imagination could devise.
Hewn in stone, he still haunts the spires and balconies of the great Gothic cathedrals. Men fear him no longer, but he, being of stone, still leers over towns and cities as in the days when he shared with God the ever ripening harvest of souls. Roskoff, Geschichte des Teufels , Leipzig, , is rather antiquated and makes dull reading.
Not only was he the Tempter, but he brought diseases, poverty, drought, and storms. By many visionaries, and by churchmen whose word is worthy of equal trust, he had actually been seen. Who will doubt such authorities as St. But how did he make shift to get them? Or was he incorporeal? How much intelligence had he? Could he speak and converse with other devils and with men? The opinions of the theologians differed considerably on all these points, though all — to a monk 1 Parad.
I, ; II, See Pezii, Thesaurus Anec. I, pars ii, col. Cist, liber Revela- tionum de insidiis et versutiis Dcemonium adv. I, , , and St. Jerome, Migne, Patrologia, vol. In the Middle Ages every sin was conceived by many to have its special demon ; so Dante sets over the vari- ous realms of Hell fiends whose habits match the wicked- ness of the damned. How came there to be demons? Inspired by pride, Satan raised his brows against his Maker.
As these angels had been arranged in orders before the fall, so, afterward, they maintained a kind of system. See Renan, Averroh et V Averroisme , p. Thomas Aquinas, Sntnma Theol. Paul, made the gods of the Gentiles devils. Minos expresses his opinion with his tail, Cerberus barks, the Minotaur is dumb, so is Geryon; Lucifer busies his three mouths crunching three traitors; but most of the other devils speak, and one of them is a logician.
They were mingled with the wretched band of those that were neutral when Lucifer fell. How these fiends look, Dante fails to say; but there were more than a thousand that had rained down from heaven, and they wrathfully tried to keep the two poets from going far- ther. Augustine wrote as follows: The query is hard to answer. Se- ducers and panders, for instance, are scourged by horned demons.
But why are they horned? Could not some other kind have handled the scourge as well? Horns were worn in the Bacchic orgies , 1 and have been the emblem time out of mind of those who have sullied conjugal honour. This side and that, along the livid stone Beheld I horned demons with great scourges, Who cruelly were beating them behind.
Is it not enough to clatter with thy jaws But thou must bark? What devil touches thee? It is probable that Dante meant to have devils in most parts of his hell, for here are devils at the very entrance, others at the gates of Dis. The fres- cos of Pisa show how these diabolical body-snatchers 1 Inf.
Dante saw one laden with a sinner come running to a pool of heaving pitch. How fell his aspect was! And oh, what cruelty his gesture showed! His land breeds plenty such: The sinner plunged, then, doubled up, arose While underneath the bridge more demons cried: Unless by our fell forks thou wouldst be maimed, Look lest thou get above the pitch by chance. This black devil with the sharp shoulders and wings was a pet type of medieval artists, 2 but is none the less extraordinary, for he seems to know all about the Ancients of Santa Zita; yet how did he get his informa- tion?
There are slips not a few in the Divina Commedia. The band to which this devil belongs numbers ten, and, quite as old acquaintances of ours are called Old Nick, Old Scratch, and otherwise, so these have signifi- cant nicknames — Badtail, who is the chief, then Dog- face, Harlequin, Swinetusks, Frost-treader, and so forth, 3 — but the names of the others baffle translation.
With this troop advanced Dante and Virgil. I have, ere now, seen cavalry shift camp, Begin the assault and muster in array ; And sometimes in retreat with rapid tramp ; 1 Inf. With those ten fiends we went. Ah, troop of sin! No wonder Dante thought himself in bad company! One of the devils, at least, has a tail, another has tusks like a wild boar, and probably all have wings. One has a snout, and one, Rubicante, is mad. They show their teeth and are eager to get not only their hooks but their claws into a sinner.
Dante feared these devils ; yet High Providence had decreed that they should never leave their pit. Had such limitation existed for all devils, how could they have got into human bodies or raised storms? According to the Gospel of St. Mark 1 Jesus wrought miraculous cures. And when the unclean spirit had torn him, and cried with a loud voice, he came out of him. That this belief in demonia- cal possession flourished until it was at last overcome by science, during the Renaissance, has been demonstrated by Mr. White in his History of the Warfare of Science with Theology.
Buonconte da Montefeltro told Dante in Purgatory how after his death at Campaldino a good and an evil spirit strove 1 i, 32, 34 - 8 II, XXIV, 1 Well knowest thou how in the air is gathered That humid vapour which to water turns, Soon as it rises where the cold doth grasp it. This Buonconte da Montefeltro, whose soul was car- ried off by an angel, though his body was washed down to the sea through the agency of a devil, — this Buonconte had a father less fortunate.
Francis came for his soul, but one of the black cherubim cried: He must come down among my minions because he gave the fraudulent counsel, for which I have ever since been at his hair ; for he who repents not cannot be absolved, nor can re- pentance and a sinful will exist together because of the 1 Purg. V, 1 One of those sad souls in that cold crust Cried: These frozen curtains from mine eyes unbind ; Let me a little vent this bursting heart Before again my gathering tears congeal. This one advantage beareth over all The rest of Hell our Ptolemaean part, That oft the soul is hither doomed to fall Ere Atropos compel its final start.
That thou more willingly mayst rub away These frozen drops that overglaze my face, Learn that no sooner doth a soul betray, As I did, than a demon takes its place 1 Inf. If thou but newly art descended here, His outward semblance haply thou mayst know: But put thy hand forth now and let me see: Caesarius of Heisterbach had written a century earlier of a cleric whose body was enlivened by a devil instead of a soul. Dante took what suited his purpose from literary traditions or from the folk-lore of his time. No human mind could imagine a new colour, though Nature 1 Inf,: Nor could Dante or any other poet devise something wholly new.
Dante let his fancy play on old designs, and his genius enabled him to give them a life which has not yet gone out. Dante sees him coming through the gloom, an old man with hoary locks. A red-eyed fiend appeared to the virgin Agnes Blannbekin, who flourished under Rudolph of Hapsburg and Albert I of Austria ; 3 and Tundal saw in his vision black imps whose eyes seemed lamps aglow. Roskoff, Geschichte des Teufels , I, Is Charon naked or not? Virgil clad him like a dirty Roman. Dante mentions no cloak, and, as most of his lost souls except the hypocrites are naked, it may be consistent thus to imagine Charon.
No necessity of allegory forced our poet to alter essen- tially the looks of this demon, but Charon has undergone a slight change of soul, for he seems to know that he is no longer a servant of the antique Gods. In thirteen hundred years the world above him has made some changes in its divinities and demons, and Charon, son of Erebus, feels that he must obey the new rdgime. After thirteen hun- dred years Minos has grown a tail — the chief justice of the nether world has a tail!
The imagination struggles to see him as he stands at the entrance to the dark kingdom. There standeth Minos horribly, and snarls ; Examines the transgressions at the entrance ; Judges and sends according as he girds him. I say, that when the spirit evil-born Cometh before him, wholly it confesses ; And this discriminator of transgressions Seeth what place in hell is meet for it ; Girds himself with his tail as many times As grades he wishes it should be thrust down. Always before him many of them stand ; They go by turns each one unto the judgment ; They speak, and hear, and then are downward hurled.
Do not impede his journey fate-ordained ; It is so willed there where is power to do That which is willed ; and ask no further question. This demon Minos can speak, but rather than do so to the sinners, he decides upon the enormity of their crimes by the twists of his tail, which must be kept going day and night at a terrific speed to dispose of such a multitude. Each sinner on arriv- ing before Minos seems to lose all guile, and make, as if hypnotised, a confession of all his sins.
Minos, like Charon, gives way to his diabolical temperament in bursts of fury. Moore, Studies in Dante , First Series, p. Regola e qualita mai non V e nuova. Gran dine gross a, e acqua tinta , e neve Per V aer tenebroso si riversa: Cerbero, fiera crudele e divers a, Con tre gole caninamente latra Sopra la gente che quivi e sommersa. Urlar gli fa la pioggia cojne cani: Quando ci scorse Cerbero , il gran vermo , Le bocche aperse , e mostrocci le sa? Non avea membro che tenesse pernio? E il Duca mio distese le sue spanne ; Prese la terra , e con piene le pugna La gitt'o dentro alle bramose canne.
Qual e quel cane che abbaiando agugna, E si racqueta poi che il pasto morde , Che solo a divorarlo intende e pugna ; Cotai si fecer quelle facce lorde Dello demonio Cerbero che introna L anime si, chi esser vorrebber sorde? In the third circle am I of the rain Eternal, maledict, and cold and heavy ; Its law and quality are never new.
Huge hail and water sombre-hued, and snow, Athwart the tenebrous air pour down amain ; Noisome the earth is, that receiveth this. Red eyes he has and unctuous beard and black, And belly large, and armed with claws his hands ; He rends the spirits, flays, and quarters them. Howl the rain maketh them like unto dogs ; One side they make a shelter for the other ; Oft turn themselves the wretched reprobates. When Cerberus perceived us, the great worm! His mouth he opened and displayed his tusks, Not a limb had he that was motionless. And my conductor with his spans extended Took of the earth and with his fists well filled, He threw it into those rapacious gullets.
Such as that dog is, who by barking craves, And quiet grows soon as his food he gnaws, For to devour it he but thinks and struggles, The like became those muzzles filth-begrimed Of Cerberus, the demon who so thunders Over the souls that they would fain be deaf. It remained for a heavenly messenger at the gates of Dis to tell the resisting demons how Cerberus still has a peeled chin and throat for having tried to thwart the fates. Cerbero vostro, se ben vi ricorda , Ne porta ancor pelato il mento e il gozzo; 2 1 Cf. On a capital of the baptismal church at Monte Santangelo may be seen if I mistake not Cerberus being dragged with a chain round his neck and resisting with wide-open mouth, but vainly.
Whence he derived this information would be hard to say. This obstinacy was shown by Charon, Minos, and by most of the demons, no longer forced by policy to be compliant or courteous, as they often were when bent on some mischief in the upper world. The surroundings in which Dante found Cer- bero are like those in which Friar Alberico came upon a like demon in his voyage through Hell.
Near this Hell was a worm of immeasurable size, bound with a large chain, one end of which seemed to be fastened in Hell. Before the mouth of this Hell there stood a great multitude of souls which he absorbed at once, as if they were flies ; so that, drawing in his 1 Cf. Could Pluto have meant to blaspheme?
Pape is the regular Italian equivalent of pap cep a word used in Boethius 5 to express astonishment. IV, Prosa ii, ad init. Ambrose says that the first letter, Aleph, means doctrine. Nor should any one wonder that Pluto has been able to pick up a little Hebrew in the course of so long a life. Indeed, all the infernal functionaries, no matter what their own tongue may have been, could hardly fail to gather many oaths from the cosmopolitan throng of sinners. Pluto uses gibberish, but why has he a harsh or clucking voice?
Dante makes of 1 Expos, in Ps. Perhaps Lactantius or Jerome. Roskoff, Geschichte des Teufels , I, p. Like most of his kind, Phlegyas is hot-tempered, and gives way to his wrath on discovering that he has failed to gather in another lost soul. Phlegyas is a shade, yet seems fairly to fly in his little craft, which is very old.
Scarcely has he landed his visitors when they are hin- dered by a band of more than a thousand nameless demons. Virgil, who knows well these minions of the queen of 1 Inf. On Phlegyas, see Toynbee, Dante Diction- ary, s. This is Megaera on the left ; she that weeps on the right Alecto. Tisiphone is in the middle. With their nails all were tearing their breasts, beating their palms, and crying so loud that Dante shrank toward Virgil for dread. O ye who have sound understanding Think well upon the doctrine hidden Beneath the veil of mystic rimes!
The Gorgon typifies despair. Alexander Neckam takes Alecto, Tisiphone, and Megaera to symbolise respec- tively evil thoughts, evil speech, evil deeds. Like Filippo Argenti and Minos, they tear themselves, being overcome by wrath. The monster, whom Dante seems to have left in the ancient medley of man and bull , 1 lies in a rocky place at full length. Hard by are scurrying Cen- taurs. While he is maddened it behooves thee to go down. VIII, , ff. Francis, at Assisi After C. The Archer here is a Centaur in a beaver cap. He may or may not have wings, for the drawing is obscure.
Francis on his knees before the Virgin is taking the vow, and to one side is a horror-stricken Centaur. From the tenth to the sixteenth century Centaurs often occur, especially on church doors. On the bronze portal of Augsburg one is shooting at a lion, another at a man.
Similar scenes are carved on the churches of Brenz and of Arles ; for Centaurs, from antiquity down through the Middle Ages, were used to symbolise the overruling animal passions. Jerome records that when St. Anthony, in the nineteenth year of his age, 1 Gazette des Beaux-Arts , vol. Francesco d' Assisi , pi. Paul the Hermit, in the desert, he met a creature half man and half horse.
Thereupon the strange hybrid uttered some harsh, semi-articulate whinnying sound, and, pointing with his right hand in the proper direction, galloped off. This apparition, according to St. Jerome, was an emissary of Satan sent to frighten and deter St. They stopped at seeing us advance ; and three Rushed with their bows their arrows choosing first , And one cried afar off: What destined round adown the cliff accursed? Speak where you stand, or else I pull the cord. Who for the beauteous Dejanira dying, Himself full vengeance for his murder took. Evans, Animal Symbolism in Ecclesiastical Archi- tecture, pp.
Not so are wont the footsteps of the dead. When Virgil had explained to Chiron the cause and aim of their journey, asking guidance and a Centaur to bear Dante, Chiron turned to Nessus, and, mounted on him, our Florentine rode along the crimson pool. On the facade of the cathedral at Chartres in France may be seen another rider mounted on a Centaur, but there is some difference between what that sculpture means and the privilege vouchsafed to Dante. These Centaurs vary little from the antique. Cacus, however, whom Dante, misinterpreting Virgil , 2 made also into a Centaur, is a monster.
Dante met him in another region of Hell ; for Cacus was in life not only violent, but violent with fraud. The poet saw him in pursuit of a sinner. On his back swarmed snakes up to the nape, and there lay a fiery dragon. See Toynbee, Dante Dictionary , s. VIII, , especially See Toynbee, Dante Die - tionary , s.
A bronze Centaur in the Louvre bears neither serpents nor a dragon, but a Cupid, whose graceful pose and air of happiness seem due to a friendship between him and the Centaur. No fruits are there, but poisonous thorns. This is the abode of the Suicides, whose souls are in the weird plants, and here dwell the Harpies, — brooding thoughts embodied in ghastly, birdlike shapes that for- ever haunt and torture those who have done violence to themselves.
There do the hideous Harpies make their nests, Who chased the Trojans from the Strophades, With sad announcement of impending doom ; Broad wings have they, and necks and faces human, And feet with claws, and their great bellies fledged, They make lament upon the wondrous trees. Now, when the soul of some suicide reaches this forest, it goes to no established place, but whither fortune wills, and there grows up in a plant. The Harpies, then, feed- ing on the leaves, create pain and for the pain an outlet.
Not only has he removed them from the Strophades to Hell, but he has modified their looks and actions. Virgil gives them virginly faces, wings, befoul- ing bellies, mouths pallid with hunger, hooked hands. In giving them hooked hands uncaeque manus 2 , Virgil was perhaps following the traditionary sculptural form which shows the Harpies with both feet and hands. This sculpture antedates a. XIII, 14, with Inf. Tristius haud illis monstrum, nec saevior ulla Pestis et ira deum Stygiis sese extulit undis.
Virginei volucrum vultus foedissima ventris Proluvies, uncaeque manus, et pallida semper Ora fame. I, of Histoire de la sculpture grecque, by M. How shall they get farther down? Virgil, well versed in magic and in the trickery to be used with demons, taking from Dante a certain cord, casts it into the void. Hardly has the charm fallen when there rises, swimming, a wondrous figure, the demon Geryon. And that loathsome image of fraud came onward, and landed his head and his body, but drew not his tail upon the bank.
His face was that of a just man so benignant was its skin outwardly , and of a serpent all the trunk beside ; he had two paws, hairy to the armpits ; 1 Inf. With more colours of woof and warp Tartars or Turks never made cloth, nor were such webs woven by Arachne. At a word from Virgil to be sturdy and bold and to mount in front, — for Virgil wishes him- self to ward off the baneful tail, — Dante obediently seats himself on the great shoulders, shivering as if in a quar- tain fever. Then Virgil gives the word: Wide be the rings and the descent be slow.
Mind that thou bearest strange freight. Slowly in circles Geryon swam down into the thundering abyss and there set his riders sullenly ; then was off like an arrow from the bow. Of the three-bodied king of Spain 2 who by some writers is said to have kept open house to strangers in order to rob and kill them , 3 nothing remains but the name. So nimble is this mantichora, so great a leaper, that not even the widest spaces can delay it nor the broadest obstacles.
Latini says of the lynx, Tresor , p. And they had tails like unto scorpions, and there were stings in their tails, and their power was to hurt men five months. But where did Dante get the knots or nooses and the little rings? Land, 2 in , called attention to a griffin at Pisa, covered with a horse-cloth gualdrappa , presumably of stone, in which were cut knots and little rings. That Dante was once in Pisa seems likely from the observation shown in his mention of Caprara and Gor- gona.
In the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries Oriental 1 Rev. Letter a al chiarissimo professor e Cavaliere Salvatori Betti. This brief book has a frontispiece showing Dante and Virgil on Geryon. Toynbee, in Romania , Oc- tober, , pp. When Tristran had died they covered him with such cloths: In their interwoven or embroidered knots and spangles, their little wheels or rings, their shimmering hues, Dante had both colours and patterns to apply to the skin of his demon Geryon.
Taken for all in all, Geryon is an extraordinary fan- tasy. Yet Geryon is swift as an arrow and speeds away like a flash when freed of his riders, whose mission he adequately understands. Whether or not Geryon ever had any other function than to lower visiting poets to the foot of a jagged rock near the trenches called Malebolge, is a puzzle which Dante leaves to an already strained imagination. Patristic theologians and exe- 1 Chrysaon, a woman of black eyes and agreeable face, had the body of a dragon.
Cahier, Melanges , II, Made dissolute by tragedies and comedies, as if overcome by a heavy sleep, they become a prey to the devil. Evans, Animal Symbolism , p. XI, iii, , declares the sirens were really three harlots. In this he is followed by St.
Ambrose, Enar ratio in Ps. Poi chi elV avea il parlar cost disciolto , Cominciava a cantar si, che con pena Da lei avrei mio intento rivolto. Io volsi Ulisse del suo cammin vago A l canto mio ; e qual meco si ausa Rado sen parte , si tutto V appago. Ancor non era sua bocca richiusa , Quando una domia apparve santa e presta Lunghesso me per far colei confusa.
Daltra prendeva, e dinanzi Vapria Fende? XXXI, 45 ; Parad. XII, 8 ; and Epist. Victor writes, 11 De Sirenarum seu Sirenum natura. Then, with her speech thus loosened, she began To sing so, not to listen had been pain: I am she who can Misguide the mariner in the middle main ; So full of pleasaunce is my voice to hear! Benvenuto da Imola, 1 skilled in the secrets of alle- gory, discerns in these hideous attributes — the stam- mering, the squint, the twisted body, maimed hands, and deadly pallor — the physical effects of greed, trickery, 1 Comentum super D antis Aldigherij Comoediam.
Toynbee quotes him at length. See Dante Dictionary , s. Though gross vices bring about physical vileness and deformity, the inter- pretation of Benvenuto seems valuable only because it embodies a belief of that time. Caesarius of Heisterbach tells how a certain cleric sang so sweetly that his song was thought deli- cious by all. All knew then that the body had long been the plaything of a demon. Dante believed in giants. Ill, iii, , and note , which are hardly gratuitous. The Angelic Doctor, St.
Thomas Aquinas, also believed in giants ; see his Summa , Pr. Though the Bible hardly warrants such a conclusion, Orosius and St. Augustine made a giant of Nimrod , 2 and him, too, we find doomed with the others, half sinner, half demon. None of them had been loyal to the gods or to God. Our poet saw another giant in a vision, and he, too, was a monster of evil. Since from the bank that girt his waist so much Of his vast form was visible that three Tall Frieslanders could not have reached his hair ; Thirty good palms of him mine eye could see, Below where men their cloak-clasps use to wear.
With thy horn alone Vent thy brute fury, for that brays it best. Search on thy neck there ; thou wilt find the zone That binds it dangling round thy giant breast. Nimrod is not only imagined as being some thirty- five feet high, but he speaks gibberish whose meaning various commentators have tried hard to divine, though Dante expressly states that the language of Nimrod is known to none.
As in the northern myths, these giants are dull enough to be outwitted by men. By flattering Antaeus with the hope that Dante can give him fame, Virgil coaxes Antaeus to lower himself and Dante down toward Lucifer. Him Dante put at the bottom of Hell, with his gigantic body sheathed in ice from the middle of his breast. He is the creature who once was beautiful, but, having dared to raise his brows against his Maker, he was hurled down from Heaven to the Antipodes. The land fled before him and made our hemisphere.
He has three faces, — the one in front, ver- milion. Over each shoulder are the others ; that on the right is yellowish, that on the left black as faces from the head waters of the river Nile. Beneath each face issued two mighty wings, as befitted so huge a fowl, and at the stirring of these six wings, which wore no feathers, but, batlike, were covered with thick hair, rose three freezing winds. With six eyes he wept, and down his three chins trickled his tears and bloody foam. The sinner in greatest pain was Judas, whose legs were writhing.
Of the two others one was Brutus, in the black snout; the other Cassius, both traitors like Lucifer. Now, when the two poets had seen all, they bode their time ; then Virgil, with Dante clinging to him, fastened to one of the shaggy wings and climbed down from fell to fell, and, reaching the thigh, set Dante where he seemed to behold Lucifer upside down, for they had turned now at the point whither all weights are drawn and were making their way out to look again upon the stars.
Lucifer is a Gothic demon. His body is the product of the allegorical tendency that built churches in the form of a cross, and strove, sometimes with gloomy, sometimes 1 Inf. It was an art that revelled in the grotesque and often tore nature asunder in order to get forms that should symbolise ideas corresponding to no single natu- ral truth. As God, then, was the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and as each of these divisions of the indivisible Trinity signified Power, Wisdom, and Love, so there arose in opposition a triune demon.
A Christ of Salerno, the product, per- haps, of Byzantine influence, is represented with three faces. Carus, History of the Devil , p. In the existence of Lucifer Dante believed as sincerely as he believed in the existence of God ; 4 but like all other men 1 Cf. Krause, cited by Carus. As both Dante and his beloved St. Yet Dante gave to man a place to himself in the Uni- verse because he conceived that man alone has a rea- soning soul, immortality, and a duty to himself and to God.
Carus, Geschichte der Zoologie. Quod maxime in plantis et animalibus patet, in quibus nullo certiori iudicio diversitas specierum diiudicari potest, quam diversitate figurarum. I, iii, , ; De V. I, ii, ; xvi, ; II, i, ; Conv. IV, xvi, ; Conv. II, v, ; Purg. V, 88 ; Parad. XIX, 85 ; Canz. X, ; Conv. II, ix, ; III, vii, Millions of species have lived and gone, but still there exists a great chain whose links reach from a pebble up to man.
But where between the pebble and man does the soul begin? Where is the beginning of life? The vegetative power by which we live is the foundation upon which we feel, that is, see, hear, taste, smell, and touch ; and this vegetative power of itself is a soul, as we see in all the plants. The sensitive soul cannot exist without it, as there is nothing that feels that has not life. And this sensitive soul is the basis of the intellectual, that is, of reason ; and therefore in living mortal beings the rea- soning power is not found without the sentient, but the sensitive soul is found without the rational, as in beasts and birds and fishes, and all the lower animals.
But if the lower animals have not reason, how do they live? What is their motive power? Instinct, 2 — the answer is plain. But what is the difference between instinct and reason? In modern science instinct is an inherited habit which varies ever so slightly from parent to offspring accord- ing to the exigencies of nature, and in every animal, including man.
To Dante instinct is appetite, an in- born motive power, a tendency to act like an animated mechanism. It is the only main mental faculty of the lower animals. Ill, ii, , cf. Thomas, Summa , Pr. Among those of different species, not only would speech have been needless, but even harmful, since no friendly intercourse would have taken place between them.
What Dante says indicates that he had failed to observe two of the most obvious facts in the life of animals. Not only is there a very great difference in the acts and passions of ani- mals of the same species, but they frequently make friendship with animals of different species. I, i, ; IV, vi, Thomas Aquinas declares that nature, not intellect, is the moving power. V, tract, ii, cap.
Intelligent speech, however, is confined to man. Do they not share in something like mutual love and fondness? The very ones that look forward and store away food have, as it were, foresight. In many are perceived signs of reason, too. For, since they seek their own good, shun harm, avoid dangers, make their hiding-places with several outlets, surely they have some understanding. Can any one deny reason in them since they often give man himself the slip?
Furthermore, those whose business it is to make honey, having settled on the places assigned them, fortify their camp, making their abode with indescribable art, and serve their king sic. I know not whether there be in these a perfect foresight, and thus it is uncertain whether the traits attributed to man are common to other living things; assuredly they are devoid of religion.
If we do not much wonder to see a flock of rooks usually attended by a flock of daws, yet it is strange that the former should have a flight of starlings for their associates. Dante denies the lower animals free will , 1 which is the prerogative of man and the angels. Thus, Vanni Fucci, a sacrilegious plunderer, says to Dante: I liked not a human, but a bestial life, — mule that I was ; and Pistoia was my fit lair.
Such a theory is based, not on zoology, but on conceit. Man fondly imagines himself a borrower of 1 De Mon. Thomas, Sutnma , Pr. Once, at least, Dante seems to have hit upon the truth, for there occurs in the Banquet an almost scientific theory as to the relation of other animals to man. As a dogmatist moralising about the life of animals, their place in nature, their habits and mortality, Dante 1 Conv.
Ill, vii, , translated by K. For upholding a doctrine like this, and for other reasons, Vanini had his tongue torn out and was strangled at Toulouse on February 9, Not one great truth did he maintain, but he simply followed in the tracks of those fettered reasoners who had gone before. As a poet he sees most often with his own eyes; as a poet he thinks best. In poetry he seems to have gone more fully through the wonderful realm of nature. In poetry Dante was less hindered by dogma; and though he touched many a conventional chord in his symphony , 1 we shall find that he knew also how to make new harmonies.
No art ever wrought well that falsely interpreted life. This is why there is an abyss between Dante the dogmatist and Dante the poet. II, ; Canz. XV, ; Son. Even though it be true that jugglers were often accompanied by monkeys whose antics excited the derisive curiosity of medieval idlers , 2 there exists no evidence that Dante ever stopped for a scornful glance at such a show. His characterisations of the monkey are absolutely conventional , 3 and merely come like an echo from hard rocks. A sinner tells him: Diez, Poesie der Troubadours , 2d ed.
Indeed, no medieval philosopher seems to have come to any other conclusion with regard to the monkey than that he is a kind of imitative caricature of man. I, xi, , Sardos etiam qui non Latini sunt, sed Latinis adsociandi videntur, eiciamus: Not only did he see a special symbol in each of the three beasts, but he gave to the whole pas- sage an application derived from a source that lies deep in the mythology of the Middle Ages. In the Divine Comedy Dante feigns to have met at early morning, near a gloomy wood, three beasts, an ounce, a lion, and a wolf.
XII, , the soul, not yet let into the garden of heaven, is first stopped in a dread- ful place by lynxes, lions, and serpents. To meet a priest constituted an evil omen. A wolf, on the contrary, was a lucky omen. How he came there he did not know, so drowsy was he at that point where he abandoned the true way.
But having reached the foot of a hill that lay at the end of the dreadful valley, he looked upward and beheld the rays of the planet that leads men aright on every path. Then his fear was somewhat stilled, and like one who, breathing hard, reaches the shore and turns back to the dangerous water, gazing long ; so his soul, still fleeing, turned back to behold the life of sin.
The poet now tells how he was thwarted from going further by three bestial foes: Ma non si, che paura non mi desse La vista, che mi apparve, d' un leone. Questi parea, che contra me venesse Con la testa alta e con rabbiosa fame, Si che parea che V aer ne temesse: Ed una lupa, che di tutte brame Sembiava carca nella sua magrezza, E molte genti fe' gia viver grame. It was negr the morning hour, and the sun was rising with 1 Inf.
He seemed to be advancing against me with his head high and with ravening hunger, so that the air seemed to fear. And then a she-wolf, which with all greediness seemed laden in her leanness and had already brought many into misery. Poscia che V ebbi tutta da me sciolta Si come il Duca in' 1 avea comandato , Porsila a lui aggroppata e ravvolta. Having unloosed this wholly, as my Leader had bidden me, I handed it to him, knotted and coiled.
Whereupon he turned toward the right, and, at a little distance from the brink, he cast it down into the deep black hole. Having before us now all that Dante says of the ounce, we shall see whether any light can be shed upon the puzzle by examining various documents of antiquity and of the Middle Ages. Jerome takes the pard of Jeremiah to mean the onslaught of Alexander upon India.
This, he goes on, is taken to refer, not only to the figure, but to the fickleness of wrath, because the Jewish people, stained by the dusky, restless, and fickle mutations of their faith- less mind and soul and spirit, could not cling to the grace of a good purpose ; nor would they return to any better- ing or correction, having once taken on a bestial wick- edness.
The pard, furthermore, sig- nifies the devil full of divers vices, or any sinner be- spattered with the spots of crimes and of many errors. XIII, 1 - 2. This was fulfilled at the coming of Christ, since those who once were ferocious live with the innocent, and those who were befouled with the spots of sins errorum maculis are converted through penitence to the truth of Faith. Only the dragon was afraid and hid away. Dante unquestionably knew this story. See his comment on lonza. Brunetto Latini declares the lynx could see through a wall or a mountain! Hippeau, Caen, , p.
Philippe de Thaun, Bartsch, Chrest. Meyer, Romania I, pp. Hildegard sees in panther symbol of vanity. See Physica , lib. Albertus Magnus dis- believes story of sweet odour. XXII, tract, ii, cap. Not a few scholars see a reference to the lonza ounce in words uttered to Dante by Ciacco with regard to Florence: No tradition seems to support the theory that Dante meant a panther. And when we use these words it must continually be borne in mind that they are hardly more than mere words about which have clustered vari- ous legends.
The classifications of modern naturalists have little or nothing to do with these ancient names and their parasitical fables. Any accurate determination of the animal meant by Dante seems next to impossible. Indeed, it is highly improbable that Dante or any ancient or medieval writer had a clear idea as to the various animals now called lynx, panther, and leopard. What Dante beheld was a spotted beast, very swift and light, which did not attack him, but simply kept before his eyes.
Surely this creature is not Alexander making an 1 Inf. XVII, 7 , nor would such an interpretation agree with any tradition. Were it not for the cord which Dante took from his body, — the cord wherewith he had thought to catch the ounce with the painted skin, — and were it not that the wolf undoubtedly symbolises envious greed, envy would seem more acceptable than any other interpretation. But the cord suggests strongly the scriptural phrase of girding up the loins, and still more strongly the cord of the Franciscans.
Though Dante himself may never have belonged even to the third order of the Cordeliers , 1 the girdle which he wore was part of their symbolical costume, served a practical purpose, and was the token of the chaste life they were sworn to lead, or of chastity in the larger sense, — continence, we may say, — for, ac- cording to an old and by no means foolish belief, the seat of the sensual, especially of sexual, passion is in the loins.
He has in any case mystified us and all his old-time readers by an obscurity which adds nothing to the beauty of the poem. Not only is it uncertain precisely when Dante thought to catch the ounce with the painted skin for he made no endeavour to do so on encountering her near the gloomy wood , but one can hardly conceive why a simple cord should be an adequate means of bringing up the monster Geryon, unless this is merely a part of the heavenly plan for showing Dante through the mysterious places of Hell.
As Virgil ap- peased Cerberus with a clod of earth, so he may have wrought this magic on the demon Geryon.
He is a hard animal, fit for toil and for blows, a loiterer, and stubborn. More than any of their contempo- raries to , they give to it a local habitation and a name, the remoteness and unfamiliarity of which must have excited the wonder, and stimulated the imagination, of those who came after them. I, of Histoire de la sculpture grecque, by M. Ette rigavan lor di sangue il votto , Che mischiato di lagrime, ai lorpiedi , Da fastidiosi vermi era ricotto. I have in preparation a new edition of the poem which I hope to finish in the near future. The phrase has a thoroughly proverbial tone, and one might almost say that some particular tale or fable lay behind this line. Questa mi porse tanto di gravezza Con la paura , che uscia di sua vista?
What Dante meant is unlikely ever to be known. When Dante encountered the ounce it was early morn- ing, and, as he says, the hour of the day and the sweet season caused him to hope well concerning that beast with the pretty skin. And the sweet season of Easter would have beamed on him as if from heaven; for it was on Good Friday of thet year that he encountered the ounce. Nor is it mere chance that Dante met the ounce before he met the lion and the wolf, for the Divine Comedy con- denses the vicissitudes of life into a few days, and thus the three beasts seem to follow one another as youth is followed by manhood and manhood by old age.
Neither envious greed nor overweening pride is the besetting sin of youth, but lust, lust for pleasures ; for this is precisely one of the three great Dantesque categories of sin. Non ti rimembra di quelle parole , Colie quai la tua Etica pertratta Le tre disposizion che il ciel non vuole: Incontinenza i malizia e la matta Bestialitade?
Each of the three beasts represents a demon of sin, and each sin thus embodied in an allegorical beast is more terrible than the preceding sin. Dante not only changed the order of the three beasts in Jeremiah, but in two cases he changed their gender. The lupus becomes la lupa , the pardus becomes la lonza. So his demoniacal dogs are bitches, as in Virgil and Lucan.
But why did Dante employ lonza where parda would have done as well? Seeing what a fancy medieval poets had for such embellishments, one can readily believe in the allitera- tive theory. Again, as will presently be shown, Dante was influenced in his choice by the classics. What kind of a beast may Dante have meant by this ounce of his? Had the poet ever seen one? Benvenuto da Imola, a sound-minded man, sheds light here. I, , 4 and the pelle dipinta of Inf.
Here are the lines Met. Raynerio, 1 In ipso deserto reperit duas hyaenas, quas vulgus vocat lonzas, leone velociores et auda- ciores. Libri -Quattro , pp. Marty-Laveaux , Des Pierres Precieuses , vol. It is even safe to affirm that in the whole range of medieval zoology there is not one thoroughly scientific description of the looks of a dog or a horse, of a wild boar or a bear.
The difficulty of identifying any variable exotic species is, therefore, almost insuperable. Yet we may be sure that leopards or similarly spotted beasts had come into Europe before Leopards and bears are mentioned as princely gifts in the Roman de Brut 1 of Wace, — a poem composed about ; and William of Malmesbury records 2 that Henry I of England longed fervently for the wonders from foreign lands, — leopards, lynxes, camels, — of which breeds England had none, and right joyfully, as he said, begged them of other kings.
Frederick II of Swabia states in his Art of Hawking that in the chase hunters use instruments or animals as, for example, various leopards, lynxes male and female, ferrets, and some others. Frederick passed through Parma with leopards in In June the Podesta had to do with the payment of sixty soldi and ten denari to Piero del Maestro for feeding the leopard. Etymologically lynx or lince and lonza are probably of one origin. That the word Auyf or lynx was split by the learned into lince and by the others into lonza seems plain. Most critics have gone astray by failing to seek light in the animal lore of the Middle Ages.
Casini, Aneddoti e Studi Dantes chi, p. This ounce had died or departed before June 29, , when Raniero del Sasso made a propo- sition 1 de curiis faciendis iuxta Palatium Potestatis, in loco in quo morabatur leuncia. First, to throw the hunters off his track he rubs out his footmarks with his tail. Secondly, when the lion sleeps his eyes never close. Thus slept the body of Christ at the crucifixion, but his Godhood watched at the right hand of the Father.
Thirdly, the lioness bears her cub dead, but on the third day his sire comes, breathes into his face, and thus brings him to life. In the Bible and in the Fathers he figures in a good sense as the king, — the Lion of Judah , 2 — or typifies in stately fashion the might of Hell. It is chiefly 3 as a majestic beast, as an 1 Cf. Lauchert, Geschichte des Physiologus , p. Victor, De Bestiis II, cap.
Dante must have seen a live lion before he began the Divine Comedy , for Pope Boniface had given one to the Commune of Florence, — a young lion, whose fate is thus chronicled by Giovanni Villani: Seeing the lion, the ass, either through power, Par ad. Story of Athamas, Inf. See Toynbee, Dictionary , s. Dante is fancying a golden age. According to Jacopo della Lana arms of Gianfigliazzi were a lion azure on a field or. XII, 54, arms of Castile.
According to Postillator Cassinensis cited by Scartazzini arms were as follows, 1 Cuius signum scuti est ad quarteria ; in duo- bus quarteriis supra in uno est castellum et in alio est leo ; et sic etiam est in aliis duobus quarteriis inferioribus, nam leo superior subiugat castellum inferius, et castellum superius subiugat leonem inferiorem. THE LION fear or miraculously, straightway assailed him so sav- agely and kicked him so hard that he killed him, and the help of many men there present was of no avail.
This was held to be a harbinger of great changes, for many befell our city in those days. As the Eagle of Polenta covers Cervia with its pin- ions , 2 so the lion in the arms of the Ordelaffi holds Forli beneath its green fore paws. If, now, the princely hunger for lands is joined to pride, the heraldic emblem becomes almost a reality, and the poet finds strong imagery for the devouring sin.
In , according to Torraca, the Florentines kept a lion at public cost. In Litta, Famiglie Celebri Italiane , vol. Hardly is this danger past when he is confronted by a greater. Ma non si, che paura non mi desse La vista , che mi apparve, d' un leone. Questi parea, che contra me venesse Con la test ' alta 1 2 e con rabbiosa fame? Si che parea che l' aer ne temesse?
But not so that the sight which appeared to me of a lion did not give me fear. He seemed to be coming 1 Cf. VII, v, , and De Mon. THE LION against me, with head high and with ravening hunger, so that it seemed that the air was affrighted at him. The onslaught of this lion is not true to life, but shows the king of beasts in a conventional attitude.
He attacks his foe, not with furious bounds and with the head somewhat lowered, but he stalks toward him grandly, and the air seems to tremble. The lofty pose of the head betokens pride , 1 the pride of a man — some would have it of Philip the Fair ; the ravenous hunger is hardly for flesh and blood, but rather for worldly power. No tradition could make this lion-demon signify anything but overweening pride and devour- ing might, whose hunger is appeased by wealth or, rather, by empire.
To the poet Sordello, whose spirit Dante met in Pur- gatory, are addressed these lines: How thou didst wait, in thy disdain unstirred, And thy majestic eyes didst slowly roll! Meanwhile to us it never uttered word, But let us move, just giving us a glance, Like as a lion looks in his repose. Perhaps this Sordello is merely a statuesque recollection of the lion that was kept in the Palace of the Priori, and there kicked to death by the ass, who may not have known what a rare curiosity he was destroying.
Genesis xlix, 9, cited on p. Encyclopedia Britannica , 9th ed. Yet the wolf and his cubs, weird phantoms, fall before the dogs that drive them to the mountain, and there kill 1 Purg. Si veggion di quassu per tutti i paschi. IX, , and Canz. Count Ugolino della Gherardesca tells how the Archbishop Ruggieri, the traitor, like a huntsman-in-chief and leader, hunted him and his sons to their death: Con cagne magre, studiose e conte, Gualandi con Sismondi e con Lanfranchi S' avea messi dinanzi dalla fronte.
In this dream the dogs are demons, but the wolves, phantoms though they be, are pursued like real maraud- ing wolves, back to their fastnesses, and there are caught and slain. How has he been influenced by the overreach- ing symbolism and folklore of his time? The wolf to Dante is the symbol of envious greed, — not of the Guelphs alone , 1 but of many, and mostly, perhaps, of the clergy and of his own Florence.
Having a greed so infinite for food. And this food, for which the bitch-wolf is greedy, is terra e peltro, — land and pelf. IX, 1 32 ; Purg. XIV, 50 ; and Inf. II, 36; Brunetto Latini, Tresor , pp. Ed una lupa che di tutte brame Sembiava carca nella sua magrezza? E molte genii fd gia viver grame. Questa mi porse tanto di gravezza Con la paura , che uscia di sua vista? Chi io perdei la speranza del! E quale e quei che volentieri acquista , E giugne il tempo che perder lo face , Che in tutti i suoi pensier piange e s' attrista: