The population of the area associated with Philistines is estimated to have been around 25, in the 12th century BC, rising to a peak of 30, in the 11th century BC. Nothing is known for certain about the language of the Philistines. Pottery fragments from the period of around — BCE have been found bearing inscriptions in non-Semitic languages, including one in a Cypro-Minoan script. For example, the Philistine word for captain , "seren", may be related to the Greek word tyrannos thought by linguists to have been borrowed by the Greeks from an Anatolian language , such as Luwian or Lydian .
Although most Philistine names are Semitic such as Ahimelech , Mitinti, Hanun , and Dagon  some of the Philistine names, such as Goliath , Achish , and Phicol , appear to be of non-Semitic origin, and Indo-European etymologies have been suggested. Recent finds of inscriptions written in Hieroglyphic Luwian in Palistin substantiate a connection between the language of the kingdom of Palistin and the Philistines of the southwestern Levant.
The deities worshipped in the area were Baal , Astarte , and Dagon , whose names or variations thereof, had already appeared in the earlier attested Canaanite pantheon. Cities excavated in the area attributed to Philistines give evidence of careful town planning, including industrial zones. The olive industry of Ekron alone includes about olive oil installations. Engineers estimate that the city's production may have been more than 1, tons, 30 percent of Israel's present-day production. There is considerable evidence for a large industry in fermented drink.
Finds include breweries, wineries, and retail shops marketing beer and wine. Beer mugs and wine kraters are among the most common pottery finds. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the ancient people. For the derogatory term, see Philistinism. For other uses, see Philistines disambiguation.
For the modern term for a positive attitude towards a group that is not one's own, see Allophilia. For the plant genus, see Allophylus. Part of a series on the. Achaemenid Empire Yehud Medinata. Rashidun Jund Filastin , Jund al-Urdunn. Sea Peoples of the Bronze Age Mediterranean c.
Translated by Thomas H. Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 60 Braude: Before Judges, it uses the neutral transliteration phulistiim , but beginning with Judges it switches to the pejorative allophuloi. To be precise, Codex Alexandrinus starts using the new translation at the beginning of Judges and uses it invariably thereafter, Vaticanus likewise switches at the beginning of Judges, but reverts to phulistiim on six occasions later in Judges, the last of which is Retrieved 31 July Retrieved 25 September Genetic testing of the human remains will provide further information.
The Samuel Scroll from Qumran: The Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy Samuel Bagster and sons. Because the events of the reign of Ramesses III were unknown from other, the context of this particular war remained a mystery. On his return to Paris, Champollion puzzled over the identity of the various enemies shown in the scene.
Since each of them had been carefully labeled with a hieroglyphic inscription, he hoped to match the names with those of ancient tribes and peoples mentioned in Greek and Hebrew texts. Unfortunately, Champollion died in before he could complete the work, but he did have success with one of the names. Dothan and Dothan's following paragraph "Dr.
Champollion did not make a connection to the Philistines in his published work, and Greene did not refer to such a connection in his work which commented on Champollion Greene , p. Chabas published the first translation of all the texts relating to the wars of Merneptah and Ramesses III.
Chabas found it strange that the Peleset shown in the reliefs were armed and garbed in the same manner as "European" peoples such as the Sicilians and Sardinians, and he therefore argued that these Peleset were not from Philistia after all, but were Aegean Pelasgians. It was this unfortunate suggestion that triggered Maspero 's wholesale revision of the entire episode. In his review of Chabas's book, Maspero agreed that the Peleset of Medinet Habu were accoutred more like Europeans than Semites and also agreed that they were Aegean Pelasgians.
But he proposed that it must have been at this very time — in the reign of Ramesses III — that these Pelasgians became Philistines.
Repulsed by the Egyptians, the Philistines P. In Fourmont tried to prove that the name "Philistine" was an erroneous form of the Greek "Pelasgi". His theory was accepted by Chabas, Hitzig and others who enlarged upon it. Maspero stated in this context: It seems, then, that the etymological evidence for the origin of the Philistines and other Sea Peoples can be defined as unfocused and ambiguous at best.
Was it a maritime migration? Was there a massive maritime Sea Peoples invasion? Were the Iron I Philistine cities fortified? Were the Iron I Philistines organized in a peer-polity system? Was there a Philistine Pentapolis system in the Iron I? Instead of questioning the story of the Philistines Cretan origins, in an attempt to locate a core of historical probability, Maspero took the story at face value and proceeded to inflate it to fantastic dimensions.
Believing that the Medinet Habu reliefs, with their ox carts, depict the Philistine nation on the eve of its settlement in Canaan, Maspero imagined a great overland migration. Whereas Amos and Jeremiah derived the Philistines directly from Crete, a five-day sail away, Maspero's myth credited them with an itinerary that, while reflecting badly on their intelligence, testified to prodigious physical stamina: Not surprisingly, for the migration from Caria to Canaan imagined by Maspero there is no evidence at all, whether literary, archaeological, or documentary.
Since none of Maspero's national migrations is demonstrable in the Egyptian inscriptions, or in the archaeological or linguistic record, the argument that these migrations did indeed occur has traditionally relied on place-names. These place-names are presented as the source from which were derived the ethnica in Merneptahs and Ramesses inscriptions.
First, it is not supported by any factual evidence. Second, it assumes that the Philistines had at their disposal a large and strong naval force of a kind unknown in this period.
Third, in the period immediately following their settlement in Philistia there is hardly any archaeological evidence connecting the Philistine culture and settlement with sea and navigation. Had the Philistines really possessed such a strong naval force and tradition, as suggested by Stager, we would expect to observe these associations in their material culture in later times. Ipamati kistamati pari tumatimis: Luwian and Hittite Studies Presented to J. David Hawkins on the Occasion of his 70th Birthday.
Corpus of Hieroglyphic Luwian Inscriptions 1. Inscriptions of the Iron Age. In referring to a tribe or nation, the Hebrew writers as a rule either a personified an imaginary founder, making his name stand for the tribe supposed to derive from him—e. But in referring to the Philistines, the plural of the ethnic name is always used, and as a rule, the definite article is omitted. A few other names, such as that of the Rephaim, are similarly constructed: The Canaanites, Amorites, Jebusites, and the rest, are so closely bound together by the theory of blood-kinship which even yet prevails in the Arabian deserts, that each may logically be spoken of as an individual human unit.
No such polity was recognized among the pre-Semitic Rephaim, or the intruding Philistines so that they had to be referred to as an aggregate of human units. This rule, it must be admitted, does not seem to be rigidly maintained; for instance, the name of the pre-Semitic Horites might have been expected to follow the exceptional construction.
But a hard-and-fast adhesion to so subtle a distinction, by all the writers who have contributed to the canon of the Hebrew scriptures and by all the scribes who have transmitted their works, is not to be expected. Even in the case of the Philistines, the rule that the definite article should be omitted is broken in eleven places. Instead, they avoided the toponym altogether, turning it into an ethnonym. Jerome followed the LXX's lead in eradicating the names, 'Palestine' and 'Palestinians', from his Old Testament, a practice adopted in most modern translations of the Bible.
Not a proper name at all, allophyloi is a generic term, meaning something like 'people of other stock'. The History of Ancient Palestine.
Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe Ca. Chabas found it strange that the Peleset shown in the reliefs were armed and garbed in the same manner as "European" peoples such as the Sicilians and Sardinians, and he, therefore, argued that these Peleset were not from Philistia after all but were Aegean Pelasgians. The modern term "Sea Peoples" refers to peoples that appear in several New Kingdom Egyptian texts as originating from "islands" tables ; Adams and Cohen, this volume; see, e.
The use of quotation marks in association with the term "Sea Peoples" in our title is intended to draw attention to the problematic nature of this commonly used term. It is noteworthy that the designation "of the sea" appears only in relation to the Sherden, Shekelesh, and Eqwesh. Subsequently, this term was applied somewhat indiscriminately to several additional ethnonyms, including the Philistines, who are portrayed in their earliest appearance as invaders from the north during the reigns of Merenptah and Ramesses Ill see, e.
Hencefore the term Sea Peoples will appear without quotation marks.
Yet in the inscriptions themselves, such a migration nowhere appears. After reviewing what the Egyptian texts have to say about 'the sea peoples', one Egyptologist Wolfgang Helck recently remarked that although some things are unclear, "eins ist aber sicher: Nach den agyptischen Texten haben wir es nicht mit einer 'Volkerwanderung' zu tun. Luwian and Hittite Studies presented to J. David Hawkins on the occasion of his 70th birthday. A Three Thousand Year History. Killebrew, Biblical Peoples and Ethnicity: E, Society of Biblical Lit, p.
The Philistines in Transition: A History from Ca. Nonetheless, the association of the Philistines with the Iron Age I bichrome pottery bearing their name is most often taken for granted. Although scholars have backed off from postulating that every site with bichrome pottery was under Philistine control, the ethnic association remains A cautionary note has, however, been sounded in particular by Brug, Bunimovitz, H. Weippert, and Noort, among others. In essence, their theories rest on the fact that even among sites in the Philistine heartland, the supposed Philistine pottery does not represent the major portion of the finds Weippert has stated, "Konige kommen, Konige gehen, aber die Kochtopfe bleiben.
The find at Tell Qasile of both bichrome and Canaanite types originating in the same pottery workshop would appear to indicate that the ethnic identification of the potters is at best an open question. At any rate, it cannot be facilely assumed that all bichrome ware was produced by "ethnic" Philistines. Thus Bunimovitz's suggestion to refer to "Philistia pottery" rather than to "Philistine" must be given serious consideration What holds true for the pottery of Philistia also holds true for other aspects of the regional material culture. Whereas Aegean cultural influence cannot be denied, the continuity with the Late Bronze traditions in Philistia has increasingly come to attention.
A number of Iron Age I features which were thought to be imported by the Philistines have been shown to have Late Bronze Age antecedents. It would hence appear that the Philistines of foreign or "Philistine" origin were the minority in Philistia. Archived from the original on 19 May Retrieved 4 April The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago. A Long-Term Perspective", pp. By the end of the Iron II, the Philistines had lost much of their distinctiveness as expressed in their material culture see Gitin ; ; and bibliography there. My suggested chronological framework for Philistine acculturation spans the tenth to seventh centuries B.
According to calculations of the inhabited area, the population of Philistia after the arrival of the migrants numbered about twenty five thousand in the twelfth century reaching a peak of thirty thousand in the eleventh century. The continuation of local Canaanite material culture and toponyms indicates that a good part of the population was local. The number of migrants amounted, at most, to half of the population, and perhaps much less.
Even the migrant population probably accumulated over at least two generations, the minimum estimated time for the continuous process of migration.
There is never any indication in the Bible of a language problem between the Israelites and Philistines. The Philistines must have adopted the local Semitic language soon after arriving in Canaan, or they might have already known a Semitic language before they came. Their names are usually Semitic e. But two Philistine names may have come from the Asianic area: Achish has been compared with Anchises, and Goliath with Alyattes. A few Hebrew words may be Philistine loanwords. The word for helmet koba H or qoba H is a foreign word often attributed to the Philistines.
The term for "lords," already mentioned seren , can possibly be connected with tyrannos "tyrant" , a pre-Greek or Asianic word. The name Ashkenaz also occurs once in Jeremiah According to Assyrian royal inscriptions the Ashkuza fought the Assyrians in the reign of Esharhaddon - B. Since the Ashkuza are mentioned in conjunction with the Gimirrai-Cimmerians and the Ashkenaz with Gomer in Genesis, it is reasonable to infer that Ashkenaz is a dialectal form of Akkadian Ashkuza, identical with a group of Iranian-speaking people organized in confederations of tribes called Saka in Old Persian, whom Greek writers e.
They ranged from southern Russia through the Caucasus and into the Near East. Some scholars, however, have argued against this identification on philological grounds because of the presence of the n in the word Ashkenaz. In medieval rabbinical literature the name was used for Germany see next entry Caphtor Cappadocia Jer According to Amos 9: In an Assyrian document, based upon an ancient Babylonian tradition, describing the empire of Sargon the Great, king of Akkad 24th century B.
In the Mari texts the terms Kaptaru, Kaptaritum occur as names of precious goods apparently imported from the region of the Aegean Sea. It is accepted that the Keftiu Kftyw mentioned in inscriptions of Egyptian kings and nobles in the second half of the second millennium is identical with Caphtor. Kftyw is known in Egyptian sources as a distant land accessible by ship. Charchemish 2 Chr The strategic city guarded the main ford across the river in antiquity, and now lay close to the Turkish-Syrian border. The importance of the city as a trade center is demonstrated in that it was mentioned as far back as the C18 BCE in epigraphy finds at Mari and Alalakh.
He wanted the base to contain the Persian advance to the West, and wanted to cut off the western trade that helped sustain the power in the Persian Gulf. The strategy eventually failed as Egypt was defeated in a surprise entry to the city by the army of Nebucadnezzar II summer BCE that forced a hand to hand fight Jer. The Babylonian Chronicle captured the details of the battle and the aftermath. Significant excavations were carried out in for the British Museum in to , and again in Wooley published both in three volumes called Charchemish.
The excavations exposed the outer south and west gates, the wall of the citadel with two more gates, numerous reliefs and statues of Hittite origin, and a temple complex. And the Spirit bade me go with them, nothing doubting.
Moreover, these six brethren accompanied me, and we entered into the man's house. And he showed us how he had seen an angel in his house, who stood and said unto him, Send men to Joppa, and call for Simon, whose surname is Peter, who shall tell thee words, by which thou and all thy house shall be saved" vv. Cornelius had a ready heart, and he was prepared along with his household. Peter was the instrument who brought the message they waited to hear.
Cnidus 1 Mac It was partly on the peninsula and partly on an island that had been created by cutting through the peninsula. One of the cities of the Dorian Hexapolis, it sought to maintain its independence but fell BC under Persian rule. It had a large trade, particularly in wine, and was also noted for its medical school and other institutions of learning.
One of the most famous statues of the ancient world, Aphrodite by Praxiteles, was there. It is also referred to as the "garden in Eden" Gen. It is referred to by Ben Sira There existed in early times an Israelite tradition of a garden of God i. Thus, in Genesis there is no trace of the holy mountain of Ezekiel While Genesis speaks only in general terms about the trees in the garden 2: The name Eden has been connected with Akkadian edinu. But this word, extremely rare in Akkadian, is borrowed from the Sumerian eden and means plain, steppe, desert.
In fact, one Akkadian synonym list equates edinu with seru, semantically equivalent to Hebrew midbar, desert. More likely is the connection with the Hebrew root dn, attested in such words as ma danim, dainties, luxury items Gen. The Septuagint apparently derived Eden from dn, translating gan eden Gen. Akkadian provides a semantic parallel in kiri nuhsi, garden of plenty McCarter apud Stager. This datum encouraged scholars ancient see below and modern to attempt to locate the site of the garden of Eden intended by the author.
Euphrates River Firat Nehri Gen 2: In the Bible it is referred to by several names, among them the "great river" or just "the river". The Euphrates is formed by the confluence of two rivers, the Muradsu, which comes down from Armenia, and the Karasu, flowing from the Anti-Taurus. At first the river runs through a deep narrow gorge, but as they descend towards Babylon, the Euphrates and the Tigris Hiddekel form the broad plain of Mesopotamia.
The rivers join at the head of the Persian Gulf to form the Shat al-Arab, though this union is quite recent. The Euphrates has a very strong current and for this reason was navigable only in its lower reaches. Along it flourished some of the important cities of Mesopotamia, the greatest of which was Babylon. Another, Carchemish, was an important road junction and a river-crossing for the caravans coming from the Far East. In the Bible the Euphrates is named among the four rivers which flowed from the Garden of Eden Gen 2: Throughout all periods it was the boundary between east and west, between the spheres of influence of Assyria and Egypt, and each of the great empires attempted the conquest of the borderland of Syria and Palestine.
This is also true of the Persian period Ezra 4: In the Hellenistic and Roman periods the Euphrates served as the boundary between the kingdoms of Armenia and Cappadocia, Sophene and Commagene. In the early Roman period it separated Rome from Parthia. Gozan 2 Kgs In II Kings How the gods of the nations have delivered them which my fathers have destroyed; as Gozan, and Haran, and Rezeph and the children of Eden which were in Thelassar? In this list are included countries, such as Eden Aden which were outside of Assyria. Habor River Gumus Cay 2 Kgs Many of these became eyewitnesses to the outpouring of the Holy Spirit and Peters subsequent sermon.
Some were undoubtedly among the three thousand who believed on Jesus that day Acts 2: Halicarnassus 1 Mac The oldest inhabitants were immigrants from Crete. Later came the Carians. But no real advance in civilization was made before the immigration of the Dorians under Tlepolemus, one of the Heraclidae, and after the Trojan war Aethaemanes. The island attained no political greatness until the three chief cities formed a confederation and rounded the new capital Rhodes in BC.
In the beginning of the Peloponnesian war, Rhodes sided with the Athenians, but, after 19 years of loyalty to Athens, went over to the Spartans BC. In , when Conon appeared with his fleet before the city, the island fell into the hands of the Athenians again. The name of Abram's wife was Sarai, and the name of Nahor's wife was Milcah; she was the daughter of Haran, the father of both Milcah and Iscah.
But when they came to Haran, they settled there Helech Cilicia Ezek Regarding Tarsis of Cilicia Anatolia there were no rich deposits of iron, tin, and lead there. Kue Cilicia 1 Kgs Egypt is the more suitable place for Solomon to have mediated trade with Aram. Whatever the historical situation that prompted these verses, the text as we now have it states that Egypt was the source of this trade. Lud Lydia Isa I'll send the survivors of judgment all over the world: Spain and Africa, Turkey and Greece, and the far-off islands that have never heard of me, who know nothing of what I've done nor who I am.
I'll send them out as missionaries to preach my glory among the nations. Lycia 1 Mac Lud , a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem Gen. It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the Aegean Sea.
A woman of Thyatira, a seller of purple, who dwelt in Philippi Acts She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened her heart as she heard the gospel from the lips of Paul