The Praeger Handbook of Victimology


Violent crimes are discussed as well as crimes of intimidation, such as cross-burning or threats from corrupt officials. There is a list of important dates in victimology as well as references and websites to help victims find support. Also included are theories as to why some people become criminals or abusers. The entries all emphasize advocacy for and support of victims, who still are often believed to have done something to invite the crime inflicted upon them. Try our Search Tips.

Topics Libraries Unlimited Librarianship: Available for Course Adoption. The cost of the criminal justice system is contingent on the severity of criminal activity. For example, if an individual is a victim of a violent crime, the trial, sentence, and probation period will be longer for the offender, and will increase the cost of the criminal justice system.

Similarly, if the offender is not quickly apprehended, the cost of investigation and police time is greater. Intangible costs are often the most severe, are difficult to measure, and include costs that will never be recouped. These costs include pain, trauma, fear, lost quality of life, and relationship damage. The pain of crime includes physical and emotional damage. This damage may last a lifetime and is especially detrimental for victims of violent crimes and sexual assaults.

Costs to attend to this pain include medical or health care as well as psychological aspects that may call for counseling, therapy, or holistic services. Victims of crime may alter their behavior due to the fear of being victimized again. They often become depressed, are afraid to go out of the house, and alter their life patterns. For example, if an individual has been the victim of a burglary, he might not want to live in the same house or be in the house at night. He may move locations, stay with friends and family, or isolate himself from society. This will lead to a decreased quality of life for the victim and might indirectly affect his family and friends.

Depending on the severity of the crime and the emotional damage of the victim, she may internalize her experience out of fear, become quiet and withdrawn, or conversely become aggressive and defensive. Relationships essentially become collateral damage as an indirect, intangible cost of crime. Victims of crime often experience tremendous losses as a result of being victimized.

Though it is possible to place a dollar amount on the tangible costs that are a result of crime, it is much more difficult to price emotional and physical trauma and life alterations. Medical, life, and home insurance may cover tangible costs and sometimes cuts down on direct out-of-pocket costs. However, pain and suffering, lost quality of life, and the loss of intimate relationships are immeasurable. Department of Justice, ; Robert C.

One of the main requirements of the act is the mandatory appointment of a guardian ad litem GAL that represents the interests of the abused or neglected child in all cases that result in judicial proceedings. The GAL is not required to be an attorney, but most states chose to use attorneys for this advocacy position. In , Judge David W. Judge Soukup started using community volunteers who made long-term commitments to a child or children.

Currently, there are over 59, volunteers that serve , neglected and abused children and there are more than local program offices throughout the nation. National Court Special Advocate Association, During the s, Albert Eglash, a psychologist who worked with adults and juveniles in the criminal justice system, was dismayed by a process that was both sterile and ineffective. Over time, his innovations with restitution processes became known as creative restitution, which in turn, has been considered an early predecessor of current day restorative justice practices.

Second, the action must have constructive consequences for the victim or society. Third, the constructive aspects of the restitution process should be related to the actual offense. The burglar, during the restitution process, offered to not only provide monetary compensation for the item a requirement of his probation but also to visit the local pawn shops and black market fences in the area so that item could be located. Further, that burglar was later known to provide assistance to other offenders who wished to engage in redemptive forms of restitution, becoming a local advocate for such programs.

Such programs can alleviate guilt, anxiety, and the tendency for offenders to internalize a negative self-image. Crime prevention refers to a broad range of policies and activities directed toward reducing the likelihood that criminal events will occur. Primary prevention includes strategies that attempt to address the fundamental causes of crime and victimization. It targets key social institutions such as the economy, family, education, or other entities that are linked in theory to criminal motivation.

Primary prevention advocates attempt to direct resources toward strengthening institutions that stabilize communities and give residents a richer balance of legal opportunities for achieving social status and material success. Thus, primary preventions are designed to minimize the number of desperate and alienated people in an area and thereby reduce the likelihood that crime will ever occur.

Secondary prevention includes attempts to reduce crime or control crime victimization with interventions targeted toward controlling the most likely offender groups and reducing easy opportunities to commit crime. Some secondary prevention efforts seek to identify crime-prone groups or individuals and closely monitor the activity of such people to discourage them from engaging in criminal behavior.

Other secondary prevention efforts are directed toward controlling physical or social situations that are believed to facilitate crime. Based on the work of Ronald V. Problem-oriented policing—an approach that attempts to integrate situational analysis into more proactive law enforcement activities—is also an example of a secondary prevention strategy. Tertiary prevention generally refers to activities, procedures, or policies designed to control known offenders and keep them from reoffending.

Unlike prevention efforts at the primary and secondary stages, prevention at the tertiary stage is most often reactive and designed to contain crime by isolating and incapacitating criminals after offenses have been committed. Many criminologists consider tertiary efforts such as imprisonment to be costly, inefficient strategies of last resort. However, some crime trend analysts such as economist Steven Levitt suggest that strategies involving incapacitation can be highly effective as a means of crime reduction.

While the emphasis on tertiary prevention continues to be debated, most agree that tertiary activities are to some extent a necessary element of a comprehensive prevention system. It is often argued that crime prevention efforts do not actually prevent crime as much as displace crime in time and space. Though prevention efforts may temporarily thwart criminal activity in one time frame or in one location, the criminal is likely to remain motivated to seek out crime opportunities at other times, new places, or using different methods.

Several studies of the displacement phenomenon have been undertaken with the result that some measureable displacement has been observed. Most available research indicates that prevention efforts can be successful at accomplishing at least temporary reductions in crime while criminals adjust to changing conditions created by prevention strategies.

Sage, ; Steven D. A number of strategies have been suggested to accomplish this goal. Natural surveillance refers to the use of design features to increase the visibility of potential crime targets, thereby reducing their risk of victimization. Natural access control refers to reducing public access to private areas in an attempt to reduce their vulnerability. Elizabeth Wood investigated ways in which neighborhood aesthetics could be altered in order to make residents in public housing developments safer.

An Annual Review of Research, vol. Michael Tonry and Norval Morris Chicago: Oscar Newman, Defensible Space: University of California Press, John Wiley, , — Brantingham and Patricia L. Rob Mawby and Sandra Walklate developed the critical victimology perspective in the s as a reaction to what they viewed as shortcomings in positivist victimology. For example, genocide has occurred and is occurring in some countries, yet we do very little about it.

Rape as a weapon of war has been reported in several countries. Abuse of power by those in control is very seldom mentioned as a crime in the media or other sources.

Mawby and Sandra Walklate, Critical Victimology: Sage, , 17— Theory, Research, and Policy, eds. Mawby and Walklate, Critical Victimology, Open University Press, , Willan, , Walklate, Imagining the Victim of Crime, Legal, Psychological, and Social Perspectives, 2nd ed. Allyn and Bacon , Theory, Research, and Policy New York: Palgrave Macmillan, ; Tammy C. Critical Victimology in Canada Toronto: The CyberAngels program routinely collaborates with both public and private organizations in an effort to increase online safety education and support.

However, in cases where cybercrimes are uncovered by CyberAngels volunteers, all pertinent information is forwarded to the appropriate national or international law enforcement agency for further investigation. Cybercrime generally refers to illegal activities involving the use of computers or computer networks.

In the United States, most activities involving computers and computer networks are regulated by The National Information Infrastructure Protection Act of and subsequent revisions to section of the U. The criminal activity in cybercrime is commonly focused on theft, vandalism, or some form of forbidden communication.

Vandalism occurs when criminals attempt to destroy information e. As with other crimes, victims of cybercrime can be governments or government agencies, corporations or privately owned business, and individuals. The distant, impersonal nature of cyberspace interactions have also created valued commodities out of formerly less valuable items e.

Thus, the prevalence of identity theft has risen as a major threat to individuals in developed societies. Motives for cybercrime vary as broadly as motives for most other types of crime and may include greed, dominance, vengeance, excitement, or attention seeking. Due to the high volume of monetary transactions that have shifted to the Internet, cybercrime has become a lucrative enterprise. The large investments made in the development of online assets have made government and corporate Web sites attractive targets for those who seek to attack these entities.

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Furthermore, successful attacks on online corporate and government properties can bring heavy publicity to these events and produce instant notoriety for the attackers. Protecting potential victims from cybercrime presents challenges different from more traditional criminal activity. Cyberspace is practically boundless and thus difficult for authorities to monitor, patrol, and protect. The relative newness of cyberspace along with the diverse backgrounds of people who use the space have resulted in confusion about rules of conduct and jurisdictional disputes surrounding the investigation and prosecution of rule violations.

In efforts to promote trust in cyberspace commercial transactions, private corporations have been instrumental in the development of strategies for detecting and thwarting online criminal activity. Most prevention efforts have been directed toward educating Internet users and raising awareness about the potential risks involved in cyberspace activity. However, efforts have also been made to develop better reporting mechanisms for cyber offenses e.

While many cyberstalking behaviors resemble physical stalking, there are two important differences. First, the identity of the perpetrator is often anonymous and, as a result, cyberstalkers are in the unique position to engage in deception tactics such as assuming a false identity. Second, through the use of electronic communication devices, cyberstalkers do not need to be in close proximity to their targets.

However, although the Internet provides opportunities for perpetrators to target strangers, most monitoring transpires between people in a current or past romantic relationship. In addition, the two types of stalking also co-occur. Additionally, unlike physical stalking, which is primarily perpetrated by men,3 both men and women appear to cyberstalk.

However, victims of cyberstalking may not be aware they are being targeted or who is responsible. This landmark case suggests that cyberstalking is being considered seriously and legislated as Internet harassment. Future research is needed on the rates and kinds of behavior that comprise cyberstalking, the relationship between cyber and physical behaviors, and gender differences in cyberstalking.

Department of Justice, Praeger, ; Jayne A. The term cycle of violence refers to the intergenerational transmission of violence. In other words, a childhood history of physical abuse predisposes individuals to the perpetration of violence during adulthood. There is strong evidence, for example, that childhood exposure to abusive parenting increases the probability that individuals will grow up to mistreat their own children.

Therefore, parents who were abused as children are 15 times more likely to abuse their offspring than parents who were not themselves victims of child abuse. Exposure to harsh parenting increases involvement in various types of violence besides child abuse. Ronald Simons, Kuei-Hsiu Lin, and Leslie Gordon3 found, for example, that having experienced abusive parenting predicted subsequent violence toward a romantic partner. Leslie Simons, Callie Burt, and Ronald Simons4 found that exposure to harsh parenting was related to not only the perpetration of intimate partner violence but sexual coercion by males toward females as well.

Ironically, women who were victims of harsh parenting often grow up to be the victims of violence by their romantic partners. This does not mean that all abused women were abused as children. In fact, over half of abused women were not subjected to harsh treatment by parents. It does appear to be the case, however, that exposure to abusive parents increases the probability of being married to an abusive husband.

They escape the violence in their family of origin only to encounter further violence in their marriage. Ronald Simons, Leslie Simons, and Lora Wallace7 suggest that double jeopardy occurs because women exposed to abusive parenting often engage in delinquent and antisocial behavior. Since people usually affiliate with persons similar to themselves, these women tend to become romantically involved with and marry antisocial men. Unfortunately, antisocial males are at risk for violence toward their romantic partners.

Research has revealed that abused mothers who do not mistreat their own children either had access to a supportive nonabusive adult as a child or a stable satisfying relationship with a romantic partner in adulthood. In this way the cycle of violence can be broken. Heyman and Amy M. Burt, and Ronald L. Widom and Micheal G. Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice, First, not all crimes that are reported are officially recorded by the police. Rand, Criminal Victimization, Generally, deaths that involve elements of: Contrast the expected death of a long-ill elderly person in a hospital setting with family members gathered around with the death of a teenage driver in a drunkdriving vehicular crash as the parents drive up to the scene.

Third, the survivors are provided with information about the events leading to the death, the injuries that were sustained, and medical treatments provided. Fourth, the actual death notice occurs by telling survivors that death has occurred using unequivocal terms like death, died, killed, etc. Janice Harris Lord and Alan E. Compassion Books, ; Alan E. The defense attorney is charged with the responsibility of protecting the rights of the accused; it is a protection that is guaranteed by law.

The right to counsel is constitutionally guaranteed for most, but not all criminal offenses. If the sentence is less than six months, counsel is not guaranteed. There was a corresponding proliferation in the number of defense attorneys. With rare exception, defense attorneys are in effect agent mediators. On the one hand, they are charged with protection of the defendant; on the other hand, they have an allegiance to the court bureaucracy and the courtroom workgroup. Who are the members of the courtroom workgroup? They are judges and prosecuting attorneys and other defense attorneys.

The defense attorney recognizes that he has far greater intellectual, professional, and educational ties to the courtroom workgroup, than with the lowly defendant. By virtue of the relationship with the courtroom workgroup, defense attorneys learn early on that their clients are at the very least factually guilty. With this allegiance to the workgroup, the defense attorney views the defendant as someone who is here today and gone tomorrow, but the relationship with the courtroom workgroup has to continue. The point to be made here is that defense attorneys, as members of the workgroup, have stronger ties to the court, and the organizational priorities of the court are not always due process.

The defense attorney working in concert with other members of the workgroup has two goals, one external and the other internal. Internally, the workgroup is concerned with cohesion—as cases are processed. Externally, the goal is to create the impression that justice is being done. With this practice in mind, crime victims are rarely a concern and are clearly not priorities for the court bureaucracy. As evidence, defense attorneys are notorious for asking for postponements, designed to wear down the victim. In all, we are all victimized by a system that hinges on impression management, with ideals that may not include the principles of justice.

Defensible space1 is a concept that relies on the restructuring of the physical layout of communities so that persons who live in those communities can practice self-help, rather than relying solely on the police for protection. By bringing citizen involvement to bear on the problems of crime, a level of crime prevention remains even when government support wanes or is withdrawn. Since the impact of the area is different for residents and offenders, Oscar Newman believed that the arrangement of space could portray to potential offenders that the space was protected by the residents.

Based on his analysis of public housing, Newman divided space into four areas— public, semi-public, semi-private, and private—based on his analysis of the differing types of space in public housing. Space was divided based on its use. If the space was open to the public for a variety of uses, it was designated public. Space with a limited number of uses was designated as semi-public. As space was restricted to residents, and had fewer uses, it was designated as semi-private.

Private space was reserved for residents and used personally by residents and invited guests. Newman reasoned that as space became more private, individuals would have more ownership of the space and be more aware of who should be in the space and who should not. Increased surveillance by persons living in the community would reduce anonymity, which should lead to a reduction in crime. As space became more private, the knowledge of who was supposed to be in that space and who was not would lead to increased deterrence of criminal activity. By restructuring the layout of public housing from an architectural standpoint, the resulting increase in citizen effectiveness should reduce escape routes used by offenders.

The concept of defensible space, however, is not without its criticisms. He did little to address the issue of the internal physical environment of the offender. Newman focused his recommendations on lowering the height of buildings; making public areas visible to residents; increasing lighting, fences, and barriers; and installing entry phones. He also advocated the hiring of concierges and porters to assist residents.

Government agencies and architects used his principles in designing the newest and most modern of public housing units across the country. Louis, Missouri, used defensible space principles in limiting traffic and encouraging resident associations in new subdivisions in an effort to reduce crime and victimization. Department of Housing and Urban Development, The reasons defounding occurs vary, as does its impact on the victim. First, defounding may occur when there is insufficient evidence to support the original account of a crime. Second, defounding may be used to reduce criminal charges.

This form of defounding is the result of offender cooperation and has little negative impact on the victim i. Third, defounding may occur when police agencies manipulate crime statistics. For instance, if an agency wishes to demonstrate the success of a burglary prevention program, responding officers may reclassify i. The difficulty arises when the victim is not consulted or disagrees with the defounding tactic.

Nienstedt, and James M. Estimates state that between 1 and 2 million adults age 65 or older have been injured, exploited, or otherwise mistreated by someone on whom they depend for care or protection. Further, data show that 1 of 14 incidents of abuse come to the attention of authorities.

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Elder abuse, like the other forms of family violence, is often hidden by the dayto-day lives of families. Elder abuse by adult children or caretakers can take many forms including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, neglect, and abandonment. Some patterns of abuse contain all the elements, but others just one. Will this be the night she does not receive her supper? Will this be the night her son or daughter beats her before bed? This context produces long-term psychological, emotional, and physical consequences for the elderly, often shortening their lives.

Victimization of the elderly happens more often to women than to men. In the survey, Adult Protective Services APS received a total of , reports of elder abuse of persons age 60 and older, and vulnerable adult abuse for persons of all ages, from all 50 states plus Guam and the District of Columbia—and investigated , reports.

As with other types of crimes against vulnerable populations, the criminal justice response is mixed. National Center on Elder Abuse, , 7. Bonnie and Robert B. Domestic minor sex trafficking is the human trafficking of children under the age of 18 through commercial sexual activity in the United States. The original focus of the act was on people trafficked into the United States to work in contemporary servitude or slave-like conditions. Domestic minors are all persons under the age of 18, U.

Commercial sex acts include prostitution, stripping, and pornography, all activities that are illegal in every U. Traditionally these victims were referred to as child prostitutes or juvenile delinquents. The act also emphasizes that trafficking victims should be protected rather than punished even if they participated in illegal activities; trafficking victims should not be incarcerated for unlawful acts committed as a direct result of being trafficked.

Although children who are trafficked through prostitution are recognized as victims by U. For example, in Las Vegas, Nevada, — minors are being arrested and pulled into the juvenile justice system each year for prostitution-related charges. Children as young as 12 are arrested for being involved in prostitution in Las Vegas. Most children exploited through prostitution have a pimp or trafficker that has forced or coerced them into the commercial sex trade.

Another challenge is that victims require a comprehensive strategy of services to deal with multiple traumas experienced through commercial sexual exploitation. They also require medical care, psychological and trauma therapy, education, life-skills training, and self-esteem counseling. Very few programs exist in the United States that can address the complex issues faced by children exploited through domestic sex trafficking. Shared Hope International, , 2, http: Shared Hope International, , 3, http: University of Pennsylvania, , 7, http: Understanding Juvenile Prostitution Montreal: Domestic violence is one of the most common forms of violence against women, children, and the elderly and is usually performed in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust, or power.

Although some cultures acknowledge this as a social problem, most of the cultures around the world consider this to be a personal problem. Most women who have experienced physical violence generally experience multiple acts of aggression over time. Cross-culturally, law enforcement agencies uphold patriarchal values by treating wife-killing as less serious than other forms of violence. Such negligence is observed in countries that do not have any laws on domestic violence. Besides intimate partner abuse, child abuse prevails in all societies around the world.

Child abuse includes physical, psychological, and sexual abuse as well as neglect. Although young children are most at risk of physical abuse, adolescent children are at risk for sexual abuse. Boys are victims of beatings and physical punishments more often, whereas girls are at risk for infanticide, sexual abuse, and neglect. Research suggests that women use more physical punishment than men. However, men are far more likely to be the perpetrators of sexual abuse.

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Factors that contribute to child abuse are unrealistic expectations for children, poor impulse control, stress, and social isolation. With the increase in the elderly population, abuse of elderly people by their relatives or other caregivers is increasing. Elderly people are especially vulnerable to economic abuse, in which relatives or other caregivers make improper use of their funds and resources.

Abusive acts in institutions for the elderly include physically restraining patients, depriving them of dignity and choice over daily affairs, or providing insufficient care. World Health Organization, Numerous myths relating to domestic violence exist. A select few are provided below. Domestic violence is not a serious social problem. It is difficult to know the real extent of domestic violence because of three factors: National studies estimate that 3—4 million women are beaten each year in the United States.

Domestic violence occurs only in poor, uneducated, and minority families. Studies of domestic violence consistently have found that battering occurs among all types of families regardless of income, profession, region, ethnicity, educational level, or race. Middle- and upper-class women are less likely to seek assistance because they fear personal embarrassment and damage to their family prestige.

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Battered women must have done something to deserve a beating. Battered women probably enjoy the abuse; thus they do not leave the perpetrator. Most members of the community fail to understand the difficulties faced by women who wish to leave a violent relationship. Many assume that she stays in an abusive environment because she receives pleasure from the abuse in some way. This is not true. There are many reasons for staying in an abusive relationship, such as fear of retribution, a lack of alternative means of economic support, concern for the children, emotional dependence, a lack of support from the family, an abiding hope that the man will change, stigmatization associated with divorce or living alone as found in traditional societies , and fear of homicide.

Regret and remorse on the part of the man means he has changed. Although violent men can appear to enjoy the effects of the abuse, they often feel remorseful about their behavior. However, regret and remorse do not indicate change; neither do they mean that he is prepared to renounce the power he has within the relationship. Violent men cannot control their violence. This misconception allows men to avoid the issue of taking responsibility for their acts of violence. Many men may accept this responsibility once they are taught some strategies for positive change.

Elder abuse encompasses many types of crimes. Financial crimes can include fraudulent schemes or the overbilling for services in a healthcare facility. Elder abuse also encompasses the neglect of an elderly person. In addition, verbal abuse and even unintentional or intentional communication neglect, such as failure of a caregiver at home or in a nursing home setting to engage in any conversation with an elderly patient, may be included. Although the content of these laws vary, all states have set up reporting systems that involve reporting known or suspected elder abuse to adult protective services agencies.

However, state laws differ regarding who is considered a mandatory reporter for purposes of elder abuse. The Administration on Aging AoA is a federal agency that is responsible for policy and planning issues in the area of elder abuse. The majority of these reports Women were more frequently the perpetrators in cases of neglect. Perpetrators are most often in the age group of 41—59, and the majority of perpetrators were white. In addition to mandatory reporting laws and state protective service agencies, changes have occurred in the civil and criminal justice systems in favor of the abused elder.

Fattah and Vincent F. A Public Health Perspective, eds. Summers and Allan M. American Public Health Association, , 51— Carolina Academic Press, , 13— Trends and Projections Washington DC: Department of Health and Human Services, American Public Health Association, , — Facilitation is a term that is applied to situations in which victims are seen as making it easy for criminals to commit crimes against them.

For instance, persons who fail to lock the windows in their homes may be blamed for facilitating burglary by providing criminals with easy access into their house. Used in conjunction with two additional ideas—precipitation i. Although not as commonly referenced within the victimology literature as precipitation and provocation, the idea of facilitation is implicit within many studies and reports on property crimes such as burglary, motor vehicle theft, and more recently, identity theft.

For instance, studies on car theft, sponsored by insurance companies, often focus on the ways in which victims fail to protect their cars, such as leaving the keys in the ignition or not locking car doors. Additionally, studies on identity theft often infer that victims facilitate these crimes by failing to safeguard their personal information, such as neglecting to shred bank statements or using unsecured Web sites when making credit card purchases.

The implication in these studies is that it is the carelessness or negligence of victims that enable criminals to steal from them. In fact, by emphasizing how persons can avoid crime, many crime prevention campaigns inadvertently end up blaming victims for not being more careful or cautious and ultimately facilitating their victimization.

A false allegation of criminal conduct is a serious form of victimization. Persons falsely accused of a crime suffer a loss of reputation and social stigmatization even if exonerated. Defending a false accusation may require an expensive criminal defense.

The Praeger Handbook of Victimology

Accusations of sexual misconduct and abuse are common types of false accusations. According to a study spanning nine years, Eugene J. Kanin discovered that most of the false accusers were motivated by a need for an alibi or are seeking revenge against another. And in instances of false allegations, the accused may also be wrongly convicted. In a study of wrongful convictions, the main cause was faulty eyewitnesses. Other contributors to false convictions are sloppy police work and overzealous prosecution, as occurred in the Duke University lacrosse scandal of Several white members of the Duke University lacrosse team hired two black strippers to perform at a party.

One of the dancers later claimed she was raped by some of the team members. Subsequent investigation revealed that the evidence against the players was insufficient to support a case. The initial police investigation did not establish a rape due in part to inconsistent statements by the accused. Furthermore, DNA test results failed to connect any of the team members to the alleged victim, and the other stripper at the scene later admitted no rape occurred. A family abduction occurs when a family member acts in violation of a legal custody order through failing to return a child or removing a child from a legal custodian.

The dynamics and complexity of this form of abduction are very different than nonfamilial abductions.

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In many cases, the whereabouts of the child may be known to the custodial parent, although the child may not be returned to the party having custody. For example, many abductions occur following a variety of circumstances related to transitions in family structure, including the dissolution or disruption of a marriage or relationship, a custody battle, or attempts to reconcile. In these cases, perpetrators typically are unhappy with the custodial arrangements and may disregard legitimate custodial rights. Many family abductors have social networks and family ties that aid them either directly or indirectly in the abduction and hiding of the child.

Domestic violence and fear of abuse of a child often complicate these abductions. A survey of prosecutors indicated that four varieties of familial abductions are most common: However, roughly one-third of all familial abductions are performed by more than one perpetrator. Young children are at higher risk of abduction, perhaps because they are less independent, less vocal, and more easily controlled or concealed. Although few parental abduction cases cross international lines, those that do rely upon the Child Abduction Convention CAC adopted at the Hague, which is the primary international governing body involved in helping return children who have been taken out of a country by a family member.

The CAC was primarily enacted to help facilitate the return of the child to the country of residence rather than to punish the offending parent. Family stress theory explains victimization as a result of how families handle various stressors. This theory is most often applied to family violence victimization. Resources may exist at the individual level strong coping skills, education, self-control, etc.

The stressors, resources, and perceptions interact to create a crisis for some families. The birth of a new baby, the addition of a grandparent into the family home, or a sudden medical emergency can all be stressors for the family.

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Victim offender dialogue looks very much like mediation. Elderly people are especially vulnerable to economic abuse, in which relatives or other caregivers make improper use of their funds and resources. Ursel, Family Violence Courts Toronto: Though there may be statutorily prescribed amounts of community service ordered, the amount that is typically required is very subjective and depends on the discretion of the judge. It is also important to take note of what factors help to mediate burnout for domestic violence advocates. Goldman Institute on Aging,

Any situation that changes the family dynamic has potential to become a crisis if resources are insufficient and the situation is negatively perceived by the family. Family members with special needs are at higher risk for family violence. For example, children from unwanted pregnancies or who had a difficult birth, low birth weight, or other early health problems are more likely to be abused by parents. Roxbury, , — Etienne Krug et al. Classic and Contemporary Readings Thousand Oaks: The s witnessed a movement to raise awareness of the problem of domestic violence.

By the mids, there was a new focus on treatment programs, case management, and pro-arrest policies. These courts, however disparate, share one or more of the following unique features: The Hidden Victims Deborah Spungen. Crime Victims Andrew Karmen. Lost Connections Johann Hari. Red Notice Bill Browder. Chasing the Scream Johann Hari. The Anatomy of Violence Adrian Raine.

Pure Evil Geoffrey Wansell. On Killing Dave Grossman. May God Have Mercy: Violence and Nonviolence Gregg L. Hello, Shadowlands Patrick Winn. Gang Leader for a Day Sudhir Venkatesh.