And this because it revokes dif- ferent essential places of that lyrical tradition. Really, the lyrical subject introduces self-consciousness as if it were another, otherness as that consciousness, specifically in the second verse: On the contrary, it denies this form as permanence or poetic foundation. Art as Nature or identity with itself This reading goes through the following pas- sage stated by the critic: Let us read the following passage, concerning, precisely, the images that seek to express this coincidence: We saw that this movement is essentially paradoxical and condemned in advance to fail- ure.
It presupposes an Art, a poetic word, which would give origin like Nature. Indeed, the poet has left us some very brief but fundamental considerations, which from here on will influence my reading of the sonnet. They are the following: It might be said that a negative dialectic determines this scenario. Joaquim Manuel Magalhaes seems to overcome this vacuousness. Magalhaes looked and saur. The splendore, the intense bright- ness, the intense brilliance prevails over a gaze that would be sensitive.
Art is no longer a trope of the posthumous, but an appearance, a presence, in the poem. A poem on seeing is, in this sense, a poem on the end of giving poetry to be seen. It is Ruy Belo who says it to us: Deanie Loomis tries in vain to com- ment in class an extract from a poem by Wordsworth. Let us return again to the sonnet. In the preface of Tmnsporte no Tempo Ruy Belo tells us: It is not the place of the autotelic Imperative that would make this final place serve as a closing place for the poem. When all is said and done, he sees that the image is image, transport of the non-existence of the object.
Works Cited Belo, Ruy. The Rhetoric of Romanticism. Reproduz os dois posfacios publicados pelo autor em Belo, He is the translator into Portuguese of the seminal work, Orientalism, by Edward Said. His most recent book is Um Intelectual na Foboldndia: Taking as its point of departure the argument that Jorge de Sena tailed productively in his attempt to overcome Fernando Pessoa, and that Ruy Belo — trying to emulate Pessoa but at the same time writing quite different poetry — emerges as Pessoa's worthy successor, this article proposes a brief analysis of three preliminary aspects of temporality as a contribution to a broader study of time in Ruy Belo's poetry: In the rich history of his country's twentieth-century poetry, Ruy Belo is the worthy successor to the great Fernando Pessoa and may be considered, within an intentionally restricted national lyric repertoire, the second Portuguese poet of the century.
From the critical point of view, however, Ruy Belo is still awaiting his own equivalent of Eduardo Lourenqo's Pessoa Revisitado: Let us therefore put an abrupt end to this reductive paragraph, with its concern for the poet's complete works, in order to focus on a relatively secure point of time. For time is precisely what it is all about. There were, of course, other similar attempts, but in terms of an explicit confrontation Sena subsumes them all.
Ruy Belo attempted to imitate Pessoa and, despite himself, produced poetry that was substantially different from Pessoa's. In another art form, we may be reminded of how Brahms the composer of the First Symphony related to Beethoven of the Ninth: We do not find in Belo the structural lucidity of Pessoa's prose in verse, but we encounter in it another space 2 ind, above all, another time.
Some prevalent critical approaches to Belo tend to label him as an epigone to Modernism which often means to Pessoa or wrap him up in the miseries and anachronisms of the Portuguese literary-historical narrative of the s and s, in this way revealing their own share of analytic distress. These miseries and anachronisms are of little help in reading Belo's poetry in the context of the twenty-first-century republic of letters; in other words, in making it contemporary.
My contribution to such an undertaking is to show how Belo inscribes in the temporality of his verses a stage in the history of how the Portuguese became hedonists, and does so — much better than Pessoa — regardless of the thematic sadness suffusing so many of his poems. The poet is faced with the difficult problem of the co-existence, within the poetic text, of contradictory stances. In this regard, the most relevant factor is without a doubt the author's belonging, on the crucial issue of how to cope with life, to the party of Catholicism as well as, simultaneously and in an overt contradiction, to the party of the critics of Catholicism and, even more amply, of Christianity: This is the most intense contradiction of Belo's poetry, and it is of religious nature, as was the case, in an altogether different context, of Camoes's epic as pointed out by Almeida Garrett in Travels in My Homeland.
Unlike what happens in Sena, Belo's inscription of this discrepancy in time fortunately does not beget a set of rules that confine temporality to a dialectical version of history. Let us locus then, hrst ol all, on time as the condition of possibility. Belo's orange is not an orange, just as the journey around this orange is not a journey at all.
Let us have a look at the poem's syntactic pattern: A scrutiny of the conditions of possibility for Belo's orange brings us to the question of time. What this orange suggests is a micro-narrative principle resting on at least two moments that are aligned as follows in the linear time of analysis: The answer to this question, in the context of the poem, requires a consideration of, in the first place, the art of painting, along with the hands that paint in order to make sense, and the discipline of this art of emotional restraint, and secondly, the act of looking at painting or, more precisely, of having seen an orange painted in a picture.
This anti-Aristotelian explanation is well known to us and has its origin in some of Oscar Wilde's maxims about art and life or in the work of the outstanding art historian Ernst Gombrich. Art as challenge and aggressiveness is refuted by time through an unannounced shift of register that is such a recurrent surprise of this poetry. Only for a while does the orange deny the course of time. The orange that is eaten becomes part of the cycle of metamorphosis by means of death. In other passages of the text, the poet occupies the place of the orange in time. Do painted oranges die?
In the terms of the poem — and these are the only terms we have at our disposal — the relationship between the image of the poem and death is not clarified, so the issue whether the painted orange, or in other words art, entails an effective suspension of time is filed away as a matter that defies resolution. Time does and does not allow itself to be subsumed by space. Nonetheless, in Belo's works poetic thought on time asserts itself vigorously as a reversal of the linear time inherent to the notion of progress.
The much-quoted Nietzschean and Wittgensteinean cognitive vision that informs both Belo's poetry and my own reading invalidates the charge that Ruy Belo is unable to escape the distress of being an heir to Pessoa's Alvaro de Campos. Let us have a look at the standard version of the history of progress. Birds preceded airplanes, airplanes emulated birds. In this poem, however, airplanes come before birds. In a more abstract formtilation, effects can produce causes; if we were to look for an Illustration of this claim in Belo's poetry, the very particular case of God who in time changes into a god may be read as the cause of man, but in Belo's terms it is man who can be read as the cause of God.
In a necessary aside, let us note that the prevailing point of view in Belo's poetry is manifestly male, and that as such it recalls, by means of a displacement, the representation of modern Man still on display at the Natural History Museum in Washington, DC: Let us collect the objects corresponding to this scheme that have been mentioned so far: The works of art technics, techne precede and produce nature.
Let LIS move now to a second aspect of temporality: Braqtie is one of the artist heroes whose funeral Belo stages in his poetry. And the funerals in Todos os Poemas are many, allowing lis also to regard this poetry, even in statistical terms, as an obituary. The poem on Braque poses several pertinent problems related to the issue of time in Belo's poetry, most prominent among them the problem of time after death.
What is this particular time like? Foi atraves dum titulo inserido num jornal alheio no metro por acaso de vies olhado qiie eu soube que saiste da velhice para entrar nao se sabe bem onde mas decerto na terra dentro em pouco We know that in Belo's anthropology of death the dead get buried and that the poet has dedicated unforgettable verses to the act of burying. As we shall see, Belo's poetry as a whole presents a number of postmortem fictionalizations. Braque's death presents an opportunity for art and for Belo's affiliation with modernity. Regarding the question posed above, about the relationship between death and the orange that is the image of the poem, the poem on Braque gives us a helpful clue: Here we are again in the realm in which trust needs to be deposited on the side of the poem and not in the experiment one may wish to perform, of leaving footprints in the sand, noticing their disappearance, and investigating that something remains.
This is a minimalist version of art's time after death, which secures the permanence of the poem's orange. Braque becomes here the generic modernist hero: Tu e os tens amigos dos princi'pios deste seculo de maquinas de tecnicas de pressa de vertigem devolveram ao mundo o seu passado e rcduziram a distancia entre nos e a nossa origem - 15 The modernist accomplishment is an exploit directly related to time.
To paraphrase quickly what Belo tells us, there was a time when the world was deprived of its past. Lhen, resorting to machines and techniques, Braque and his friends restored the past to the world. Thus, through a contraction of time — that is the implied corollary — we have come closer to our past. His relationship with his wife, Maria Teresa, is described as the opposite of goodness, in an expiatory mood, while his acknowledged cruelty belongs grammatically to the past: In the present, however, nothing better awaits in the realm of the conjugal relationship; hence the shocking statement: This is an exceedingly rough game, even if one keeps present the awareness of verses being nothing but verses.
What are the stakes here? Within the temporal economy of the poem, Belo attempts to buy time. Fenn ascribes to it, that is, as a possibility to experience, in a reasonably harmless way, as is the case of poetry, certain emotions related to a situation that threatens to annihilate the subject. As we know, in Belo's work the man who dies is the man who chooses to die.
The poet's venturing into death reaps symbolic gains. The complete experience of death remains, for the time being, protected in the dimension of an indefinite future time: The anxiety of time is retrospective; it comes from a future death, and thus is experienced by a subject who has already lived in a bought time. One can hardly think of a better function for poetry as a transport in time. Trinta dias tern o mes e muitas horas o dia todo o tempo se Ihe ia em polir o sen poema a melhor coisa que fez ele proprio coisa feita ruy belo portugales Nao seria mau rapaz quern tao ao comprido jaz ruy belo, era uma vez VICTOR K.
Phis benign experience of a post-burial state makes possible for the poet the analepsis of his poetics: This brief poem and the others in Belo's collected poems, Todos os Poemas, that belong to the same family recall an episode in Francis Ford Coppola's film Rumble Fish, in which the central character, in a compensatory move, dreams of his own death and of the death of those surrounding him. Belo's poetry requires a rhetoric of temporality for strategic reasons.
The tension at the origin of this need results, as we have seen, from the main contradiction that permeates Todos os Poemas; we shall call it religious for short.
Instead of the Nietzschean death of God, in this poetry we see God metamorphosing into a god in language. Belo needs time to accommodate his thorny distinctions: The third aspect of time in Belo's poetry that I will touch upon is mostly implicit in his writing, but it may be discerned in the concluding lines of a number of his poems. Here is what else happens to Joao Miguel in Belo's poem: O joao miguel quer qualquer coisa para os sapatos o joao miguel agora quer lalar para o porto so para ouvir talvez a voz da margarida O joao miguel quer-me ca a mim parecer nao saber hem ao certo ja aquilo que quer O joao miguel encontra finalmente a graxa e assim finda o poema escrito no involucro da caixa onde levo os sapatos acabados de comprar - 41 The character of Joao Miguel inherits, in this poem, the shape of the contradiction that configures Belo's structural distribution of time: Other characters in the poem also join this family of figures that want one thing now and then another, or who are supposed to talk about something and then talk about something else.
This is what happens with the writer Vitorino Nemesio appearing on TV , who instead of speaking of Christ speaks of the Neolithic precisely a time when there was no Christianism yet. The time of the poem's closure, once again self- referential, is imprisoned in a cyclical time that returns year after year, and the poet's words betray no sign of progress: Joao Miguel and Maria Teresa. The poem's ending injects it into the referential time of the present and into the action controlled by the poet: With this distinction marked between himself, on the one hand, and, on the other, the younger Joao Miguel a distinguished poet since the s and Belo's wife Maria Teresa, Ruy Belo stages his own identity as that of the resigned protagonist of the end.
I liis reincarnation in pjiglish has benefited vastly from the input of Anna M. Klohucka and Maria Antonia Amarante. Very summarily, the first phase was concerned with English poetry, the second with the theory of infitience, and in the third stage of his work Bloom assumed the role of a popular critic. A Map of Misreading. The first and the second Bloom are certainly among the small number of the most decisive literary critics and theorists of the twentieth century.
How We Became Hedonists. See Frank Lentricchia and Andrew Dubois, eds. Quine made the following lapidary reference, in his decisive style, to the analysis of time in the context of Zeno's paradoxes: The MIT Press, In Belo's poetry, time in not treated as spacelike, but as that which makes it possible for space to exist and encompasses it. Fish confronts us with the concept of modern or modernist analysis that reduces time to space, thus allowing for a unified vision of time. In Ruy Belo, no such unified vision blocks discontinuous temporality, but thematic criticism of his work — invested as it is in the content of time as a theme — is methodologically unable to move beyond making note of the essence of time through its examples, remaining blind to what I am calling the grammar of time in Belo's text.
One of the most consequential formulations of the expansion of the present, coupled with a critique of transcendental assumptions, may be found in the work of Flans Ulrich Gumbrecht. The Personal Experience of lime in Secular Societies. A Study of How Poems End.
I'he University of Chicago Press, It would be a highly promising vein of analysis to read Joao Miguel Fernandes Jorge's poetry as a response to Ruy Belo's. For example, Fernandes Jorge's writing evidences a recovery ot certain notions that had been rejected by Belo. In this essay I primarily intend to provide the American public with an introduction to the poetry ol Herberto Helder.
The poet is a faker He fakes so completely That he fakes the pain He is actually feeling. It is one, or, rather, it is the only cult that we have been officiating for centuries, with passion and more or less guaranteed success [ All our modernity has lived until today off of this inven- tion ot Poetry as Myth.
Many citizens of Portugal have a difficult relationship with a vastly popular, intriguing reputation: In reality, more books of poetry are annually written, published and pur- chased in Portugal than in most European countries. Similar to Spaniards and Latin Americans, the Portuguese reward their favorite writers — particu- larly their poets — with considerable acclaim and public reverence. Poetry readings are popular social events. A popular representation of our most celebrated poet, Luis de Camoes, shows him as a fierce street brawler and a passionate seducer of courtly ladies.
Um livro pra toda vida e pra muitas releituras. Zur Rezeption literarischer Techniken in den Versinschriften seit dem Hellenismus. I he father cradles the son and we can almost hear their conversation in a church near the sea — immense is the light in the Jewish Port, the blue of its narrow bay, those who travel far from their homeland disappear. And we are here, traveling with him, following his random itinerary, dreaming his dream within a dream, seeing him weaving his immortal plots. Aplico-o a noite, quando acordo as quatro da madrugada. Das Menschenbild bei den Indogermanen.
Highly romanticized, heroic legends such as these are part of our national folklore. In Portugal, despite relatively high illiteracy rates and even higher func- tional illiteracy rates literature in general has a widespread, popular, democra- tic prestige — if an elitist readership — and poetry holds an even stronger appeal. Yet these books — in what, sociologically, constitutes a very intriguing behavior — often remain unread, yet proudly on display in many a living room bookcase.
They are revered by a large segment of the public while often exhibiting a certain disdainkil aloofness towards the applause of this same public. Frequently — either out of vanity or out of humbleness — they resent the insistent inquiries of literary supplements, the obligation to par- ticipate in book promotions and, particularly, what they interpret as the intrusiveness of literary journalists and of the public in general. Who is Fderberto Fielder? Fierberto Fielder is widely considered one of the most important poets since Fernando Pessoa, if not the most important. Fie was born in in the Madeira Islands, Portugal.
In he published his first book of poetry, O Amor em Visita. In the rest of the world, with the exceptions of Brazil, Spain and Prance, Herberto Helder is either a completely ignored author or is relegated to the status of an exotic and harmless CLiriosity. In Portugal, Helder is still vastly unknown to the majority of our population, although his name recognition has been steadily growing among the most active members of the reading public. In this essay 1 primarily intend to provide the American public with an introduction to the poetry of Herberto Helder.
The reception It is thus a [critical] move drenched in humility, although it is often performed with righteousness: For the past fifteen years or so, a number of critics have expressed positions that are, at best, contradictory. On the other hand, scholarly stud- ies on Helder are perceived as scarce, timid, or insufficiently productive. Many critics have already referred to this contradiction. In part, ol course, due to the very high quality of this poetry, but also due to the halo of silence with which the author surrounds it [ The result of this confessed humiliation is a type of aphasia.
Juliet Perkins adapted her doctoral dissertation and published it under the title The Feminine in the Poetry of Herberto Helder. More recently, Silvina Rodrigues Lopes, who had previously writ- ten articles about Helder, published a book exclusively devoted to the poetry of this author: A Inocencia do Devir. Uma Especie de Crime. Many of the texts that proclaim themselves analyses of Helder s poetry often turn out to be little more than tearful homages to the author.
In other words, critics have contributed to rigidifying the myths, to thickening the mystifications and to cultivating the prejudices instead of dis- pelling them. Few critics have attempted to do what, in my opinion, needs to be attempted: No promise ot happiness is offered by the poetry of Herberto Helder. Poetry such as this speaks a demoniacal idiom — it is some kind of absolute force. To that which is close we cannot get closer without risk and, yet, without our approaching it the poem would not exist for us.
Maybe our approximation should be a ritual in which the offerings are words drunk with meanings and danger. Maybe we should be silent and choose instead words whose rumor becomes the brief breath of the wind. Later, as we find out that it is true, we still do not know what to say or what to do [with the poems] — for the fear of jumping into the unknown is great [ We may call him difficult, hermetic, obscure, but that obscurity is the obscu- rity of someone who protects his mysteries to better illuminate them from the inside.
As for us, before such an intense and different light, maybe we are simply blind. Indeed, by a logic peculiar to the institution [of criticism], one of the standard ways of practicing literary criticism is to announce that you are avoiding it. This is so because at the heart of the institution is the wish to deny that its activities have any consequences.
This idea is in agreement with the generally accepted principles of Modernism and still appears to be among the most popular characteristics of the movement as it has been interpreted by many critics. This belief may have, in part, legitimated some positions of passive resigna- tion toward what is perceived as the inscrutability of the literary text.
Yet, just as she did in , she still defends the incomprehensibility of texts: One cannot read into things while simultaneously lecturing the reader about the unreadability of things. This particular reading by Lopes exemplifies one of the most disappointing aspects of some contemporary styles of criticism. And even if one of them suddenly pressed me against his heart, I should fade in the strength of his stronger existence. The original poem by Helder reads: I play, I swear. It was a childhoodhouse. I know how it was an insane house.
I would stick my hands in the water: I would fall asleep, I would re-remember. Mirrors would crack against our youth. When asked about the autobiographical overtones in his book of short stories. Os Passes em Volta, Helder stated: Many years ago, Helder offered a journalist the following rhetorical advice: Falk to a child.
Some time ago, a child told me: Is it unintelligi- ble myself being green and the child being orange? But I comprehend it. Those who do not please go away. Looking at themselves in mirrors, as night moves further, children appear with the horror of their candor, children that are fundamental, big, watchful children — singing, thinking, madly sleeping.
The suspicion that the dead — a theme that in Helder has comforting, positive, connotations — interfere and collaborate in the lives of the living is more than just curiously common in Poesia Toda — it is a defining recurrence in this poetic universe: Both worlds share a strong magical dimension. I have heard that the dead breathe with transformed lights their eyes are as blind as blood, this one ran away from me, terrified, the dead must he pure. I have heard that they breathe, they run across the dew, and then they lay down.
They are sweet equivalencies, lights, pure ideas. Scenes of con- frontation between the poetic subject and God are far from being occasional. This cosmic rivalry is, nevertheless, not a balanced one. Basic children turn me into a raging rose and they throw it against the mouth of God. The poet goes so far as announcing: The power of the poet derives, in part, from the power of his creatures and of his creations. Poetry is, therefore, the fittest weapon to be used against the greatest possible enemy — the one that cannot be defeated: It is necessary that God free himself from my fabulous gifts [as a poet].
God has a double identity in Poesia Toda: And he dies and passes from one day to the other. We are before another scene in which a jubilant poet defeats a vulnerable God: These three Helderian themes — three among many more that are possible in Poesia Toda — have one thing is common.
They possess an undeniable dimension of sublimity — which, historically, has been in close association with supernatural representations Voller Whatever is fitted in any sort to excite the ideas of pain, and danger, that is to say, whatever is in any sort terrible, or is conversant about terrible objects, or operates in a manner analogous to terror, is a source of the sublime; that is, it is productive of the strongest emotion which the mind is capable of feeling.
The intense, paralyzing emotion — experienced by the subject and, differently, by the reader or, differently still, by the critic — is attained through the representation of a power so vastly overwhelming and unmatched by our own that it appears to be life threatening: We love what is beautiful for submitting to us, lor being less than we are; we react with dread and awe to what is sublime because of its appearing greater than we are, for being more, and making us acknowledge its power. On poetry A particular mythicization of poetry is at work in Poesia Toda. A myth that is, nowadays, strangely cultivated by critics themselves, as noted earlier by Fish.
Helder de- legitimates the critical act, which is, to him, incorrigibly illicit or, at least, inherently suspect. Critical commentary is always an act of violence commit- ted upon the literary work: The poem is centered in itself, monstrously solitary? It is not in a hurry, it can wait to be taken out of its isolation, it possesses enough expansive forces, take it out of there. Yet, either you take it whole, with its center in its center, and harnessed all around as a living body or you do not take a thing from it, not even a fragment. And what one often does do is smuggle pieces of it: Where is its body and where is its life and its integrity?
Where is the solitude of its voice? Because it is mandatory to say this: To read a poem is to be capable of making it, of re-making it. In the following passage he is showing an obvious nostalgia for Romantic, pre-mod- ern times. As he denounces the enemies of the poet — which are also, naturally, his own enemies — the excerpt provides us with a Poetics. Meanwhile they all turned to: That which is not searched but found is over, that which is magically and ardu- ously and profoundly found, that is over.
This is not the time to praise poets that declare: Expel them from the Republic. Success, in particular, can be dangerous. One should he available to disappoint those who trusted us. Disappointing them is guaranteeing the move- ment. The confidence that others have in us is entirely theirs.
What concerns us is another kind of confidence. I he fact that we are irreplaceable in our adventure and that no one will pursue it for us. Writing about another Portuguese poet, Edmundo de Bettencourt, Helder praises the fact that, at some point in his life, Bettencourt stopped writing when he felt that Portuguese society — then under the New State dictatorship — no longer offered him conditions to pre- serve his integrity as a poet.
Helder praises the fact that Bettencourt was being faithful to his own mission. Humbly I weave my grateful words Over the beautiful ferocity of your flesh, I raise my cup, I listen to the hidden rumor of the fountain. Romanticism and Modernism; the meeting of both movements, this in-between point, is exactly the place — or the non-place — where some of the great visionaries have thrived. Very few comparative observations on the two authors were ever published. A text by the late poet and critic Luis Miguel Nava is among the few that compare the two authors.
Nava once said that, similarly to what Pessoa had represented in the time of Orpheiu both Ruy Belo and Fierberto Fielder constituted important land- marks beyond which the landscape radically changed. In different ways, both Ruy Belo and Fierberto Fielder represented the convergence and the matura- tion of a host of different tendencies that originated in previous generations Nava Both Helder and Pessoa lived during periods that were later considered crossroads in Portuguese letters.
Both authors — in various ways, and to vary- ing degrees — have inHuenced all of the generations that followed their own. He even invented a poet who, wrote as one of our most unlikely bards — the unsophisticated, barely literate, Alberto Caeiro, the shepherd. Pessoa granted literary dignity to the exceed- ingly human, to the embarrassingly human: His poetry pursues and celebrates the de-humanization of the poet, the isolation of the poetic subject, his incommunicability. Pessoa wished to implement, in a sense, liter- ary democracy.
Helder is exactly at the opposite end of the spectrum. Helder is an elitist, an aristocrat as far as his poetic materi- als are concerned: What appears as SLibjective emptiness in Pessoa is equivalent to excessive, celebratory, defiant identity in Helder. A super-assertive, highly self-centered personality contrasts with a fragmented, multiplied or emptied subjectivity. As is well known, Pessoa once prophesized the advent of a poet who would surpass Camoes in cultural and national importance.
This poet would appear one hazy morning in the Portuguese Republic of Letters and rescue its literattire from the threat of insignificance. One may argue that Helder is here building his own Super-Pessoa prophecy. Names like Camilo Pessanha, Angelo tie Lima, Sa-Carneiro and Fernando Pessoa will he used to indicate what degree of modernity had already been achieved among us. One needs to be between two moral worlds in order to transgress the rules of one of them; in order to be accused of the sin of insincerity.
Might sincere souls be lake me, without knowing it? Before the lie of emotion And the fiction of the soul, I cherish the calm it gives me To see flowers without reason Flowers without a heart. Fielders poet displays the haughty humanity of a demigod in the same way that angels and demons share human traits with humans without being human.
Fiis domain — the magical — is that of the non-human and that of the non-real. There are no tobacco shops in these otherworldly landscapes and, if there were, their owners would certainly — frighteningly — not be smiling by the door. The anthology was immediately heralded as a representative sample of the main poems and poets of the twentieth century in Portugal.
The book — due to the ambitious nature of the project — had an unusually important impact beyond the community of critics and academics. A protest over the exclusion of one poet — Manuel Alegre — was made by one parliamentary group; the entire event drew considerable national media coverage and lively debate in differ- ent national venues. In each new edition, major revisions and changes were introduced by the author — to the point of causing dilemmas in the critical community as to which edition should be used when ana- lyzing a particular poem. Nevertheless, ignoring the perceived suggestions of the author, most critics myself included have continued to utilize the previous editions of the book as the scholarship on the author slowly evolves and proliferates.
Among these are, for example: Herberto Helder is, in my opinion, a borderline case. Dal Farra, Maria Lucia. A Alquimia da Linguagem: Leitura da Cosmogonia Poetica de Herberto Helder. Tamesis, ; Ladeira, Antonio. Os Selos de Herberto Helder Braga: Pontificia Universidade Catolica, Helder is known For refusing to grant interviews to any Portuguese publications since the s. He has rejected important literary awards and monetary prizes. In his own writings and on the tew occasions when he has publicly commented on the reception of his works — he has displayed an attitude of general hostility toward the work of the critics, the publishing establishment, and the marketing of literature.
On many occa- sions Helder presents his own translated excerpts of Biblical texts. Quoted from the edition vol. The last verses read as follows: The man has come out of the Tobacco Shop putting change in his pocket? Ah, I know him: The Tobacco Shop Owner has come to the door. As if by divine instinct, Esteves turns around and sees me. A Node do Mundo. Imprensa Nacional — Casa da Moeda, Texto, Metafora, Metdfora do Texto.
Solitude and the Sublime: Romanticism and the Aesthetics of Individuation. Is There a Text in this Class? The Authority of Interpretive Communities. Uma Especie de Crime: O Amor em Visita. Jornal de Letras e Artes [Lisbon] 27 May A Colher na Boca. By Antonio Jose Porte. Os Passos em Volta.
Ou 0 Poema Continuo. Publico [Lisbon] 4 Dec. Osvaldo Manuel Silvestre and Pedro Serra. Ana Harherly e Silvina Rodrigues Lopes. U of California at Santa Barbara, Phe Adarnastor Episode and Eighteenth Century: Aesthetic Theory of the Sublime in England. Estudos sobre Eernando Pessoa. Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda, James Arendt and John M. Macedo, Helder and Ernesto Melo e Castro, eds. Contemporary Portuguese Poetry Manchester: Marinho, Maria de Fatima. A Obra e o Homem. Um Silencio de Bronze. A Regra do Jogo, A dualidade e os misterios. The Perninine in the Poetry of Herberto Helder.
Pinto do Amaral, Fernando. Leishman and Stephen Spender. UP of New England, Silvestre, Osvaldo Manuel e Pedro Serra, ed. Northern Illinois UP, He was a lec- turer in Portuguese and Lusophone literatures at Yale University He holds a Ph. His dissertation is on poetic subjectivity in Herberto Helder. He has published articles on twentieth-century Lusophone literature in Seculo de Ouro: His current research interests include con- temporary Luso-Brazilian poetry and fiction and Portuguese-American literature.
He has also published two books of his own poetry. Os Passos em Volta de Herberto Helder, publicado pela primeira vez em , e o unico volume de contos numa obra predominantemente poetica. O modo discursivo por excelencia destes contos e o ironico. Eu sugiro que estes dois factores inviabilizam as estrategias de leitura monologicas atras mencionadas. Na sua monumental historia pessoal, o fracasso de instituiu-se como inkio em maturidade de uma poetica radicada na inevitabilidade do dizer e do fazer poeticos.
Abandonando progressivamente a escrita em prosa, on relegando-a definitivamente para as colecq: Para exemplificar a sua teoria, o homem ironico alude a historia do medico que Ihe receitou remedios para a loucura, e a do homem velho que, apesar de nao ter ja muito que esperar da vida, nao prescindia do amor, e entao amava as flores. Enfim, nao seria isso mais nobre, digamos, mais conforme ao grande segredo da nossa humanidade? Aplico-o a noite, quando acordo as quatro da madrugada. As vezes uso o processo de esvaziar as palavras Pego numa palavra lundamental: Amor, Doenga, Medo, Morte, Metamorfose.
Digo-a baixo vinte vezes. A ironia aparece intimamente ligada a um conceito tambem composicional em Herberto Helder: O pintor, mais do que o filosofo, e interprete do principio transcendente com o qual o homem comunica atraves da arte. A verticalidade do ponto de vista e entendida como a que mais fielmente representa o real a paisagem por ser a unica capaz de o contemplar atraves de varias perspectivas. Herberto Helder ensaia assim nestes textos uma poetica do realismo que decorre nao so da constante auto-reflexao da pratica artistica, mas que pretende ser igualmente uma tomada de posigao na polemica que desde os anos 40 opunha neo-realistas, presencistas e surrealistas.
A questao que se Ihe coloca e a de traduzir essa mesma realidade para o quadro respeitando a sua natLireza mutavel. Era a lei da meramorfose. Compreendida esta especie de fidelidade, o artista pinroii um peixe amarelo. Da concep ;ao aristotelica do estilo como instriimento passamos para Lima concep j: Recordo que e nos anos 60 que Lacan, influenciado pelos surrealistas, define o real em termos de trauma. O estilo de Warhol aproxima-se da teoria herbertiana que temos vindo a debater: Nestes casos, o sentido deriva da repeti ;ao.
Essa e a estrategia de salvaq: O poema consegue o vazio que Deus habita Diogo E neste ponto qtie Silvestre situa o drama das neovanguardas: A ironia como metodo tern em Kierkegaard o seu cultor etico por excelencia. Para este filosofo, a ironia nao e apenas um momento de negatividade necessario Hegel , mas representa o inicio da SLibjectividade. E se identificamos em Herberto Helder grande parte da gramatica do Surrealismo, a conHuencia do modernismo tardio com a logica das vanguardas resultou numa Riga a escola contrapondo-se a ela uma solidao auroral oti uma mitologia pessoal Diogo Solidao auroral ou mitologia pessoal indicam uma instancia intra-literaria, formada no texto ou na obra, de maior impacto em textos liricos, isto e, naqtieles textos que exp5em uma experiencia Rmdada ntim Eti.
A poesia encontra-se assim no centro da experiencia literaria como a forma que mais claramente afirma a especificidade do dominio do literario Culler Esta e a problematica de que me ocupo em seguida. A proximidade entre estes textos, stibordinando-os no entanto a matriz lirica, favorece uma coesao textual que passa por uma coesao da instancia enunciativa. No mesmo ano em que Roland Barthes proclamava a morte do Autor , Herberto Helder prometia-se ao silencio.
Parecendo que coincidiam os animos destrutivos, eles encontravam-se na verdade em campos bastantes distantes. No entanto, o decreto de Barthes abalou estruturas que nao podem ser destruidas, como provam os discursos de minorias que sempre se aprestam a recuperar a figura do Autor, ainda que recusem um modo autoritario de garante do sentido. A razao para este aparente paradoxo reside na impossibilidade de fazer desaparecer as posigoes de sujeito: Pretendo agora articular estas questoes com a obra de Herberto Helder.
Impotencia e impostura, qualidades tragicas da linguagem poetica, passam a significar uma vivencia em crise e a falencia do sujeito. E assim que autores como Baudelaire resolvem triunhmtemente a vida na obra, e analogamente, outros como Rimbaud abandonam a literatura. Ao evidente fracasso do decreto vivido como uma descoberta corresponde a necessidade de o narrar, a expressao da aporia so podendo ser feita pelo poeta capaz de expressar a ambiguidade da sua condi ;ao. The Rhetoric of Romanticism Para De Man, um texto no qual o autor declara ser o sujeito do seu proprio entendimento autobiografia nao difere funcionalmente de quando um sujeito reclama a autoria de determinada obra; nos dois casos estamos perante uma serie de substitui 9 oes especulares de autoria.
Em nenhum texto de Herberto Helder esta especularidade e explicitada por via do nome: Neste momento recorro ao trabalho de Helena Biiescii na sua analise da instancia do autor na obra The Alexandria Quartet Lawrence Dtirrell. A segLinda prende-se com o facto de o efeito do autor textual da obra herbertiana se potencializar virtualmente em todos os seus narradores.
Nao pretendendo debater a questao do efeito de autor na obra-prima de Durell, transfiro esta problematica para Herberto Helder em cuja obra esta questao e certamente mais complexa. Se o papel do leitor consiste em validar a aiitoria destes textos, Lima tarefa que Ihe cabe e de verificar os dados biograficos. Assim fez, por exemplo, Fatima Marinho ao comprovar os testes psicofisiologicos no Servigo de Psiquiatria do Hospital de Santa Maria em Lisboa em a que o autor faz referencia ntim texto de Photomaton: Vemos que, ao contrario do que foi dito acerca dos quatro romances de Lawrence Durell, o efeito autoral n Os Passos em Volta confunde-se com e implica-se em cada um dos narradores sem, ao mesmo tempo, o fazer explicitamente.
Dever-se-a talvez falar de efeitos de autor sem abandonar a possibilidade da sua confluencia num fmico — isto e, nao submetendo a priori o texto a tirania do fmico. Seguindo esta leitura, Os Passos em Volta nao obedece a uma logica temporal que o estabelece como variance em prosa de Poesia Toda mas como unidade- com unidade em equidistancia descentralizada desta. Leia-se a este respeito a comovente e angustiada carta aberta de Joaquim Manuel Magalhaes a Herberto Helder: Obras Citadas Barthes, Roland.
Los trazos del silencio. Departamento de Linguistica General e Hispanica, Em Busca do Autor Perdido. The Concept of Irony. With Constant Reference to Socrates. Structuralism, Linguistics and The Study of Literature. A alquimia da linguagem. Leitura da cosmogonia poetica de Herberto Helder. U of Minnesota P, Diogo, Americo Anonio Lindeza. The Return of the Real: Sohre poesia portuguesa actual e oiitras cronicas.
Marinho, Maria de ILitima. A ohra e o homern. Revenge of the Aesthetic. The Place of Literature in Theory Today. Revista de teoria e critica. Tendmcias do corito portugues nos anos E actualmente professora assistente de literatura portuguesa e espanhola na Universidade de Purdue, Indiana. De momento os sens estudos centram-se na poesia portuguesa e espanhola de mulheres, com particular enfoque na poesia galega contemporanea.
Revista del Centre Dona I Literatura. Universitat de Barcelona I he rigorously inventive lyric of Luiza Neto Jorge , one of the most distinctive voices in Portuguese poetry since the s, cultivates as its substantive and instrumental lulcrum a consistent emphasis on gendered corporeality. One of the most distinctive voices in Portuguese poetry since the s, at the time of her death in Luiza Neto Jorge left behind a body of work as compact as it is intensely and rigorously inventive.
Bern, eti acho que, acima de tudo, ha entre nos afinidades que so indirectamente tern a ver com a poesia! Depois sera talvez mais facil, mais possiVel, a total reconstriigao, formas e ideias novas. Concomitantly, her inaugural volume of poetry, A Noite Vertebrada, adopted as its leading motif the rhetoric of spatial and temporal immobility destabilized by breaking loose into a freer, more fluid and unpredictable time and space. Sai de casa ontem. Voii correr mundo, vou matar-me. Emancipada da noite, livre indoloridamente, minha angustia despediu-se, lambeu-me as maos.
Pode pode sentar-se senhora Eu nao sou senhora eu nao sou menina sem olhos sem ouvidos lala Sento-me evidentemente circunspectamente ANNA M. This predilection may help explain her success both in assimilating the surrealist legacy and in escaping the peril of perpetuating some of its more cliched formulas and facile venues of expression.
For Neto Jorge, as for Mallarmcs poems are made of words, and illumination lies in grammar: Nao desces aquela cave onde estao os oceanos c os jLiramentos Hquidos. A mulher divide-se em gestos particulares o homem divide-se tambem. Se o atomo e divisiVel so o poeta o diz. A divisibilidade da luz aclara os misterios. A mulher tern filhos. Dois homens sao duas divisoes de uma casa que ja foi urn animal de costas para o sen polo magico. Diferente me concebo e so do avesso O formato mulher se me acomoda. As Grosz comments, [Body fluids] affront a subjects aspiration toward autonomy and self-identity.
Body fluids flow, they seep, they infiltrate; their control is a matter of vigilance, never guaranteed. I quote the poem in its entirety: Whether by the force of a religious exorcism or by the magic of a love philter, tears and pus become distinct substances, but, as the poem has already implied, both religion and love also provide ample ground for the confusion of these and other efflu- ences of bodily matter.
The metonymic continuum does extend beyond the house, embracing not only the neighborhood street but also the political organism of the city, as demonstrated in particular by the somber monologue of the woman-house whose function is that of a political prison Nos deux coeurs seront deux vastes flambeaux, Qui reflechiront leurs doubles lumieres Dans nos deux esprits, ces miroirs jumeaux. Um poema deixo, ao retardador: Meia palavra a bom entendedor. Identidades no fem- inino , Taken jointly, how- ever, they do seem to indicate a more comprehensive change of perspective in Portuguese cul- tural discourse, from a generalized denial ol any meaningful symbiosis between feminist com- mitment and literary value to an at least partial recognition that a specifically female perspective and identifiably feminist concerns occupy an important place not only in Western literary tra- dition at large, but also — and particularly — in the twentieth- and twenty-first-century Portuguese modernity.
It is significant that such remarks have tended to appear in reviews of new collections published by women poets writing in Portugal today, most notably those, such as Ana Luiza Amaral, who openly signal their aesthetic and ideological indebtedness to femi- nism.
IN-CM, ; E. An International Anthology the other is Isabel Meyrelles. To play with mimesis is thus, for a woman, to try to recover the place of her exploita- tion by discourse, without allowing herself to be simply reduced to it. Works Cited Bachelard, Gaston. Towards a Feminist Aesthetics. An Analysis of the Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. Routledge and Kegan Paul, Perspectives on Dijference and Equality.
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Filipponio, Lorenzo ; Cazzorla, Sonia The vowels of Bari. A comparison between local dialect and regional Italian. Il farsi e disfarsi del linguaggio. Acquisition, change and disorders of the language sound structure. Verleugnung der Wortkunst als Bekenntnis. Gegen Paradigmatitis und die unternehmerische Hochschule. A brief lexicon of stemmatology.
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