Pure Monotheism


The exclusion of all but one god and the prohibition of idols was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition, but most scholars see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism, as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from worshiping any but Aten.

It is known that Atenism did not solely attribute divinity to the Aten. Akhenaten continued the cult of the Pharaoh, proclaiming himself the son of Aten and encouraging the Egyptian people to worship him. Under Akhenaten's successors, Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic.

It has features of monotheism in that Heaven is seen as an omnipotent entity, a noncorporeal force with a personality transcending the world. From the writings of Confucius in the Analects , it is known Confucius believed that Heaven cannot be deceived, Heaven guides people's lives and maintains a personal relationship with them, and that Heaven gives tasks for people to fulfill in order to teach them of virtues and morality. Still, later variants such as Mohism BCE—c. Will of Heaven , Chapter 27, Paragraph 6, ca.

Worship of Shangdi and Heaven in ancient China includes the erection of shrines, the last and greatest being the Temple of Heaven in Beijing, and the offering of prayers. The ruler of China in every Chinese dynasty would perform annual sacrificial rituals to Shangdi , usually by slaughtering a completely healthy bull as sacrifice. Although its popularity gradually diminished after the advent of Taoism and Buddhism, among other religions, its concepts remained in use throughout the pre-modern period and have been incorporated in later religions in China, including terminology used by early Christians in China.

Despite the rising of non-theistic and pantheistic spirituality contributed by Taoism and Buddhism, Shangdi was still praised up until the end of the Qing Dynasty as the last ruler of the Qing declared himself son of heaven.

The Himba people of Namibia practice a form of monotheistic panentheism , and worship the god Mukuru. The deceased ancestors of the Himba and Herero are subservient to him, acting as intermediaries. The Igbo people practice a form of monotheism called Odinani. Although a pantheon of spirits exists, these are lesser spirits prevalent in Odinani expressly serving as elements of Chineke or Chukwu , the supreme being or high god. Waaq is the name of a singular God in the traditional religion of many Cushitic people in the Horn of Africa , denoting an early monotheistic religion.

However this religion was mostly replaced with the Abrahamic religions. A number of words derived from the name of this supreme deity are used in various Indo-European languages to denote a monotheistic God. Nonetheless, in spite of this, Proto-Indo-European religion itself was not monotheistic. In western Eurasia, the ancient traditions of the Slavic religion contained elements of monotheism.

In the sixth century AD, the Byzantine chronicler Procopius recorded that the Slavs "acknowledge that one god, creator of lightning, is the only lord of all: As an old religion, Hinduism inherits religious concepts spanning monotheism, polytheism , panentheism , pantheism , monism , and atheism among others; [] [] [] [] and its concept of God is complex and depends upon each individual and the tradition and philosophy followed.

Hindu views are broad and range from monism, through pantheism and panentheism alternatively called monistic theism by some scholars to monotheism and even atheism. Hinduism cannot be said to be purely polytheistic.

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Monotheism has been defined as the belief in the existence of only one god that created the The development of pure (philosophical) monotheism is a product of the Late Antiquity. During the 2nd to 3rd centuries, early Christianity was just. Tawheed The term is derived from the three consonants root w-h-d, which serves as the vehicle for the basic concept of 'oneness,' or 'unity,” along with the.

Hindu religious leaders have repeatedly stressed that while God's forms are many and the ways to communicate with him are many, God is one. The puja of the murti is a way to communicate with the abstract one god Brahman which creates, sustains and dissolves creation.

Traditions of Gaudiya Vaishnavas, the Nimbarka Sampradaya and followers of Swaminarayan and Vallabha consider Krishna to be the source of all avatars , [] and the source of Vishnu himself, or to be the same as Narayana. As such, he is therefore regarded as Svayam Bhagavan. When Krishna is recognized to be Svayam Bhagavan , it can be understood that this is the belief of Gaudiya Vaishnavism , [] the Vallabha Sampradaya , [] and the Nimbarka Sampradaya , where Krishna is accepted to be the source of all other avatars, and the source of Vishnu himself.

This belief is drawn primarily "from the famous statement of the Bhagavatam" [] 1. It should be however noted that although it is usual to speak of Vishnu as the source of the avataras, this is only one of the names of the God of Vaishnavism , who is also known as Narayana, Vasudeva and Krishna and behind each of those names there is a divine figure with attributed supremacy in Vaishnavism. There is no parallel to Him, whose glory, verily, is great.

The number of auspicious qualities of God are countless, with the following six qualities bhaga being the most important:.

Four Basic Rules of Pure Monotheism

The text is important in Vedanta where Shiva is equated to the Universal supreme God. The hymn is an early example of enumerating the names of a deity , [] a tradition developed extensively in the sahasranama literature of Hinduism. The Nyaya school of Hinduism has made several arguments regarding a monotheistic view.

Tawheed - Pure Monotheism

The Naiyanikas have given an argument that such a god can only be one. In the Nyaya Kusumanjali , this is discussed against the proposition of the Mimamsa school that let us assume there were many demigods devas and sages rishis in the beginning, who wrote the Vedas and created the world. There can be no confidence in a non-eternal and non-omniscient being, and hence it follows that according to the system which rejects God, the tradition of the Veda is simultaneously overthrown; there is no other way open.

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In other words, Nyaya says that the polytheist would have to give elaborate proofs for the existence and origin of his several celestial spirits, none of which would be logical, and that it is more logical to assume one eternal, omniscient god. Sikhi is a monotheistic [] [] and a revealed religion.

God must be seen from "the inward eye", or the "heart". Sikhi devotees must meditate to progress towards enlightenment, as its rigorous application permits the existence of communication between God and human beings.

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Sikhism is a monotheistic faith [] [] that arose in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. Sikhs believe in one, timeless, omnipresent, supreme creator. Together the word means: Although the Sikhs have many names for God, some derived from Islam and Hinduism , they all refer to the same Supreme Being. The Sikh holy scriptures refer to the One God who pervades the whole of space and is the creator of all beings in the universe. The following quotation from the Guru Granth Sahib highlights this point:. God created it, and God spreads through it everywhere.

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Verily, You are the All-Knower of the Unseen. I said that when someone spoke to us in the language of hatred or abuse, we had a choice about what language we might use to reply. The Religion and Culture of Israel Boston: Sikhism is a monotheistic faith [] [] that arose in northern India during the 16th and 17th centuries. The first rule is the knowledge that the unbelieving pagans whom the Prophet Muhammad, the peace and grace of God be upon him, opposed, did acknowledge that Almighty God - May He be glorified - is indeed the Creator, Provider and Maker of this world. Verily Allah will judge between them concerning that which they differ in.

Everywhere I look, I see God. The Perfect Lord is perfectly pervading and permeating the water, the land and the sky; there is no place without Him. However, there is a strong case for arguing that the Guru Granth Sahib teaches monism due to its non-dualistic tendencies:.

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You have no nose, but you have thousands of noses. This Play of Yours entrances me. Sikhs believe that members of other religions such as Islam, Hinduism and Christianity all worship the same God, and the names Allah , Rahim , Karim , Hari , Raam and Paarbrahm are frequently mentioned in the Sikh holy scriptures. Although there is no set reference to God in Sikhism, the most commonly used Sikh reference to God is Akal Purakh which means "the true immortal" or Waheguru , the Primal Being.

Zoroastrianism combines cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism which makes it unique among the religions of the world. Zoroastrianism proclaims an evolution through time from dualism to monotheism. Zoroastrianism is a monotheistic religion, [] although Zoroastrianism is often regarded [] as dualistic , duotheistic or bitheistic, for its belief in the hypostatis of the ultimately good Ahura Mazda creative spirit and the ultimately evil Angra Mainyu destructive spirit.

Zorastrianism was once one of the largest religions on Earth, as the official religion of the Persian Empire. By some scholars, [ who? Gathered statistics shows the number of adherents at as many as 3. The surviving fragments of the poems of the classical Greek philosopher Xenophanes of Colophon suggest that he held views very similar to those of modern monotheists.

Although Plato himself was a polytheist, in his writings, he often presents Socrates as speaking of "the god" in the singular form. He does, however, often speak of the gods in the plural form as well. The Euthyphro dilemma , for example, is formulated as "Is that which is holy loved by the gods because it is holy, or is it holy because it is loved by the gods? The development of pure philosophical monotheism is a product of the Late Antiquity. During the 2nd to 3rd centuries, early Christianity was just one of several competing religious movements advocating monotheism.

A number of oracles of Apollo from Didyma and Clarus , the so-called "theological oracles", dated to the 2nd and 3rd century CE, proclaim that there is only one highest god, of whom the gods of polytheistic religions are mere manifestations or servants. Aristotle's concept of the "Uncaused Cause"—never incorporated into the polytheistic ancient Greek religion—has been used by many exponents of Abrahamic religions to justify their arguments for the existence of the Judeo-Christian-Islamic God of the Abrahamic religions. The Hypsistarians were a religious group who believed in a most high god, according to Greek documents.

Later revisions of this Hellenic religion were adjusted towards Monotheism as it gained consideration among a wider populace. The worship of Zeus as the head-god signaled a trend in the direction of monotheism, with less honour paid to the fragmented powers of the lesser gods. Tengrism or Tangrism sometimes stylized as Tengriism , occasionally referred to as Tengrianism , is a modern term [] for a Central Asian religion characterized by features of shamanism , animism , totemism , both polytheism and monotheism, [] [] [] [] and ancestor worship.

Historically, it was the prevailing religion of the Bulgarians , Turks , Mongols , and Hungarians , as well as the Xiongnu and the Huns. In Sino-Tibetan and Turco-Mongol traditions, the Supreme God is commonly referred to as the ruler of Heaven, or the Sky Lord granted with omnipotent powers, but it has largely diminished in those regions due to ancestor worship , Taoism 's pantheistic views and Buddhism's rejection of a creator God, although Mahayana Buddhism does seem to keep a sense of divinity.

On some occasions in the mythology, the Sky Lord as identified as a male has been associated to mate with an Earth Mother, while some traditions kept the omnipotence of the Sky Lord unshared. Native American theology may be monotheistic, polytheistic, henotheistic, animistic, or some combination thereof.

The Great Spirit , called Wakan Tanka among the Sioux , [] and Gitche Manitou in Algonquian , is a conception of universal spiritual force, or supreme being prevalent among some Native American and First Nation cultures. Some researchers have interpreted Aztec philosophy as fundamentally monotheistic or panentheistic. While the populace at large believed in a polytheistic pantheon, Aztec priests and nobles might have come to an interpretation of Teotl as a single universal force with many facets.

Hence all the power of magic became dissolved; and every bond of wickedness was destroyed, men's ignorance was taken away, and the old kingdom abolished God Himself appearing in the form of a man, for the renewal of eternal life. We have also as a Physician the Lord our God Jesus the Christ the only-begotten Son and Word, before time began, but who afterwards became also man, of Mary the virgin.

For 'the Word was made flesh. The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Savior Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit, they then receive the washing with water. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 18 September Part of a series on God General conceptions.

This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary sources. July Learn how and when to remove this template message. Yahweh , Elohim , and Baal. God in Christianity and Trinity. God in Islam , Tawhid , and Hanif. Shangdi , Tian , and Mohism. Heaven ordered the sun, the moon, and the stars to enlighten and guide them.

Heaven ordained the four seasons, Spring, Autumn, Winter, and Summer, to regulate them. Heaven sent down snow, frost, rain, and dew to grow the five grains and flax and silk that so the people could use and enjoy them. Heaven established the hills and rivers, ravines and valleys, and arranged many things to minister to man's good or bring him evil. He appointed the dukes and lords to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked, and to gather metal and wood, birds and beasts, and to engage in cultivating the five grains and flax and silk to provide for the people's food and clothing.

This has been so from antiquity to the present. Proto-Indo-Iranian religion , Indian religions , and Iranian religions. Hindu views on monotheism and God in Hinduism. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Hutchinson Encyclopedia 12th edition. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church 2 ed.

Four Basic Rules of Pure Monotheism

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Religion and Culture of Israel Boston: Allyn and Bacon, , Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics.

Retrieved Jan 21, A Modern Hindu Monotheism: Retrieved 12 January , from http: Acconcia Longo and G. Istituto di Studi Bizantini e Neoellenici. An Explanation of the Grand Mystery of Godliness. Retrieved 16 July Emergent Monotheism in Israel".

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Retrieved 25 December The University of Vermont Blogs. A History of God: It is torn up by the root from the surface of the earth. It has no stability. Allah will establish in strength those who believe, with the word that stands firm, in this world and in the Hereafter; but Allah will leave to stray those who do wrong. It is a foundation that continues to give and give, with its proceeds reaching the highest limits.

Such is the way with the true faith; it continually and perpetually benefits the person in this life and eternally in the Hereafter. It also follows that the stronger and better supported the foundation or roots, the greater will be the fruits. On the other hand, the false beliefs, such as associating partners with God, have no solid ground to them. Indeed, they are not much more than an illusion in the sense that they can never bear the produce that its followers claim or believe in. Allah has beautifully described the similitude of those who fail to see that their soul can only recognize one true object of worship: Are those two equal in comparison?

All the praises are to Allah. Actually, when a person realizes that he has only one, clear goal, the effects upon his soul are profound. He need not chase after an endless array of goals, never being able to satisfy or achieve any of them completely. His energies need not be exhausted trying to serve a myriad of goals. When he has one goal and one goal alone, he can easily gauge whether he is moving towards achieving that goal or not. He can put all of his energy and thought into working towards that one ultimate goal.

He can be certain about his goal and his path will be clear. Hence, he has no reason to be filled with doubt or confusion. Then, as he moves closer and closer to that one ultimate goal, he can experience true joy and contentment. All of this is part of the beauty and the bounty when humans recognize, receive and accept true monotheism, the only faith system consistent with their own creation and nature.