The eventual end of Romanticism came with the fragmentation of this basic style, composers joining 'schools' of composition, each with a style that was in vogue for a short period of time. Pictures at an Exhibition piano version Naxos 8. Hungarian Dances Complete Naxos 8.
It is intended as a review-- not a replacement for dedicated courses in music theory, or undergraduate survey courses/seminars in the six historical style periods. Western classical music history is traditionally understood as beginning with plainchant (also called "Gregorian" chant), the vocal religious practice of the Roman.
Slavonic Dances Complete Naxos 8. Symphony; Prelude, Choral and Fugue Naxos 8.
Peer Gynt, Suites Nos. The Planets; Suite de Ballet Naxos 8. Cavalleria Rusticana Naxos 8. Sheherazade; Tsar Saltan Suite Naxos 8. Carnival of the Animals coupled with Prokoviev: Peter and the Wolf; Britten: Young Person's Guide - see below Naxos 8. Piano Works Selection Naxos 8. The Nutcracker Highlights Naxos 8. Orchestral excerpts from the operas Naxos 8. The period since the Great War is undoubtedly the most bewildering of all, as composers have pulled in various apparently contradictory and opposing directions.
Typical of the dilemma during the inter-war years, for example, were the Austrians, Webern and Lehar, the former was experimenting with the highly compressed and advanced form known as 'serial structure', while simultaneously Lehar was still indulging in an operetta style which would not have seemed out of place over half a century beforehand.
So diverse are the styles adopted throughout the greater part of the present century that only by experimentation can listeners discover for themselves whether certain composers are to their particular taste or not. However, the following recordings serve as an excellent introduction and will certainly repay investigation:. Corroboree ; Outback Overture Naxos 8. Peter and the Wolf; Saint-Saens: Carnival of the Animals Naxos 8. Carmina Burana Naxos 8. Romeo and Juliet Highlights Naxos 8. Jeu des cartes; Rite of Spring version Naxos 8.
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The bad blood between Robertson and Levon Helm runs too deep for them to make friends over this project Garth Hudson is credited as an archival producer , but that acrimony is only noticeable within the liner notes to this beautiful hardcover book-styled box set. The five discs captures the Band at their peak as a band, containing their very best music.
Music from Big Pink and The Band remain the essential, definitive albums, the records that not only capture their essence but have a nearly mythical grandeur. This box is for those who already know and love the group, who know their ups and downs, and who want to hear them in all their glory -- and, as this proves, the Band were glorious indeed.
You Don't Come Through. Will the Circle Be Unbroken. Track Listing - Disc 2. Ain't No More Cane on the Brazos. Don't Ya Tell Henry. This Wheel's on Fire. I Shall Be Released. I Ain't Got No Home. Orange Juice Blues Blues for Breakfast. Key to the Highway. Track Listing - Disc 3. Across the Great Divide. Up on Cripple Creek. King Harvest Has Surely Come. Daniel and the Sacred Harp.
Although Vienna was in German-speaking territory, Viennese opera was dominated by Italian style, as was the opera of much of Europe. The Italian operas that Mozart wrote in Vienna were in the traditional Italian buffa comic style, yet they went beyond buffa comedy to engage social and moral issues. Although Don Giovanni is normatively an opera buffa , the title character is not comedic; Don Juan, as he is most often known to us, womanizes with a singular ferocity and a disregard for the social class of his victims.
In the following excerpt, the Don's buffa servant Leporello reads from a book listing the Don's thousands of past romantic conquests. Mozart, Don Giovanni , excerpt from Act 1 [ Text ] The piano concerto movement reproduced here reflects both Mozart's orchestral style and his style of writing for the piano, an instrument quickly gaining in popularity at the expense of the harpsichord.
The concerti of the Classical period were usually for single soloists, as opposed to groups of soloists as in concerti grossi ; the orchestra used was comparable to that used in the Classical symphony. Yet Beethoven was considered a proto-Romantic by his 19th-century successors. Beethoven's image as a scowling, disheveled eccentric is largely undeserved, but it is true that Beethoven fought deafness throughout much of his life, and that some of his music seemed awkward and violent to those who first heard it.
The first movement of Beethoven's Symphony No. Those written near the end of his life, such as the one reproduced here, grew farther and farther from the norms of Classical style. Some scholars divide Beethoven's career, rather artificially, into three periods; the Symphony No. The first period includes works that are considered to be closest to the Viennese Classical style of Mozart and Haydn.
Beethoven, String Quartet op.
What is certain is that many early 19th-century composers were influenced by the literary Romantics, such as Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. Poems by Goethe and other German-speaking authors were set to music, to be performed by solo singer and piano; these brief settings were known as Lieder literally, "songs"; but distinguished from the less weighty Gesangen. Robert Schumann was renowned for his Lieder.
Schumann, " Kennst du das Land? A program, in the musical sense, is a narrative that is to be presented, or at least suggested, by a purely instrumental composition. The French composer Hector Berlioz subtitled his Symphonie fantastique "Episode in the Life of an Artist"; at the symphony's performance, he distributed a program that detailed the travails of an artist suffering unrequited love.
It was an open secret that the artist was a fictionalized version of Berlioz himself, struck with love for with the actress Harriet Smithson. The movement reproduced here, the fourth of five, is meant to depict the artist's drug-induced vision of being marched to the gallows to be hung. Berlioz, Symphonie fantastique Fantasy Symphony , fourth movement The 19th century was also the heyday of the piano "miniature," short in length yet often emotionally charged. Fryderyk Chopin was born in Poland, but lived in Paris for most of his working life. He composed solo piano music almost exclusively.
Chopin's piano pieces did not carry poetic titles, as did those of some contemporaries; instead, he assigned them to different types etude, ballade, mazurka--the last a Polish dance. The "Preludes" were not introductory to other musical works, despite their names; they were standalone pieces that did not fit into Chopin's other categories. Chopin's 24 preludes are often played as a set. Like many composers of the middle and late 19th century, Verdi was an ardent nationalist, believing that music written by Italians should exemplify a particularly Italian style.
This style was based on a type of singing called bel canto "beautifully sung" , which involved continuous, flowing melodies, emphasis on vowels, and long, high climaxes at dramatic points. Verdi also made heavy use of onstage choruses, often creating scenes in which the singing of soloists and of the chorus overlapped. Verdi's recitative passages were accompanied by full orchestra, making them more continuous with arias than were 18th-century recitatives, which were accompanied by harpsichord.
In this scene from La Traviata , the spurned Alfredo accuses his ex-lover Violetta of infidelity, infidelity Violetta resorted to so as to protect Alfredo's family name. It's a long story! Also like Verdi, Wagner was a fervid nationalist; he believed that German opera should be free of Italian and French influence, to the point of excluding self-contained arias entirely. In Wagner's ideal German opera, music, poetry, action, staging, and even set design were perfectly fused in the service of a single dramatic idea, as expressed through a story from Teutonic legend.
Wagner's term for the product of such a fusion was Gesamtkunstwerk -- "total art work. To this end, he assigned the orchestra Leitmotiven "leading motives" , brief melodic fragments which were associated with characters, objects, or ideas presented onstage. In this scene from Tristan und Isolde , the title characters drink a magic potion that creates undying and forbidden love between them.
In the long passage without any singing, the potion takes effect as the orchestra presents the "Love-Death" Leitmotiv , which was introduced in a Prelude before the opera's action began. Wagner, Tristan und Isolde , excerpt from Act I, Scene 5 In contrast to Wagner, who wrote operas almost exclusively, Johannes Brahms wrote no operas at all. Many Germans considered Brahms to be Beethoven's first worthy successor in the field of instrumental music.
The last movement of Brahms's Symphony No. The Austrian conductor Gustav Mahler wrote numerous sets of symphonic Lieder , as well as nine symphonies which themselves included symphonic Lieder as some of their movements.
Reproduced here is Mahler's "St. History Debussy through Copland Many 20th-century composers turned away from harmonic methods that had been used in music for the past years. The Frenchman Claude Debussy rejected the rules of 19th-century harmony as they were taught in the Paris Conservatoire, instead infusing his practice with harmonic techniques from East Asia and Russia. Debussy's association with French painters of his time has led some people to label him and his music "Impressionist.
With Debussy, we enter the "Modern" era of Western art music, an era which presumably continues to the present day. Debussy, Trois Nocturnes , "Nuages" Clouds Igor Stravinsky also wrote music that did not use the harmonic methods of the 19th century. Stravinsky incorporated the folk music of his native Russia into his early compositions, while using harmonic techniques that were radically modern at the time.
The subject of Stravinsky's ballet Le Sacre du Printemps "The Rite of Spring" , a pagan ritual of human sacrifice, was meant to recall "primitive" culture. The excerpt here accompanied one of the ballet's many depictions of ritual dances preceding a final virgin sacrifice. Ives blended, overlaid, and contrasted snippets of music from all walks of American life: Military music is most evident in "Putnam's Camp, Redding, Connecticut," a musical representation of the Revolutionary army marching at the winter quarters of General Israel Putnam.
Bartok's music ranged from explicit settings of these folk tunes to abstract works which bore a more subtle folk influence. The fourth movement of Bartok's String Quartet 4 probably falls into the latter category. The movement is set entirely in pizzicato --the two violins, viola, and cello are plucked rather than bowed. Bartok, String Quartet 4, fourth movement The music of the Austrian Arnold Schoenberg grew farther and farther from 19th-century harmonic models, until he was writing music that has been called "atonal," meaning that, in a certain technical respect, no note in it is more central than any other.
Almost no music from Gregorian times through the 19th century had been atonal. In the 's, Schoenberg introduced the "twelve-tone system," a new technique for organizing music without the need for a central note. Schoenberg's Pierrot Lunaire , setting poems of Albert Giraud, dates from before his twelve-tone period.
The poems transport Pierrot, the stock character of the Italian commedia del'arte , into alien, psychologically charged situations.